Patrick M. Schlievert, PhD

Portrait
Professor of Microbiology and Immunology
Professor of Internal Medicine
Chair and Department Executive Officer

Contact Information

Office
3-403B Bowen Science Building
51 Newton Rd
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-335-7807

Lab
3-401 Bowen Science Building
51 Newton Rd
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-335-7817

Education

BA, General Science - Geology, University of Iowa
PhD, Microbiology, University of Iowa
Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Minnesota

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Biomedical Science Program, Department of Microbiology Graduate Program, Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Translational Biomedicine, Medical Scientist Training Program

Center, Program and Institute Affiliations

Center for Immunology and Immune-based Diseases, NIH Vaccine Treatment and Evaluation Unit

Research Summary

Research in my laboratory studies superantigen and cytolysin exotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus and group A streptococci, as immune system modulators, evaluating their roles in serious human illnesses, including pneumonia and infective endocarditis, atopic dermatitis, and diabetes mellitus. Included in the larger family of superantigens are toxic-shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), the major cause of TSS; staphylococcal enterotoxins, causes of food poisoning and TSS; and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins, causes of scarlet fever and a TSS-like illness. Additionally, my laboratory identifies novel strategies to prevent and manage serious human infectious diseases. Specific areas of ongoing research include: 1) elucidation of the mechanisms of cytolysin and superantigen subversion of the immune system at mucosal surfaces; 2) structure-function studies of novel superantigens; 3) development of novel therapeutic agents to prevent infections and treat serious human diseases; 4) characterization of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and enterococcal factors required for development of TSS, pneumonia, infective endocarditis, atopic dermatitis, diabetes mellitus, and selected other illnesses; 5) characterization of the pathogenesis of novel human illnesses associated with gram-positive bacteria.

Publications

Tuffs, S. W., James, D. B., Bestebroer, J., Richards, A. C., Goncheva, M. I., O'Shea, M., Wee, B. A., Seo, K. S., Schlievert, P. M., Lengeling, A., van Strijp, J. A., Torres, V. J. & Fitzgerald, J. R. (2017). The Staphylococcus aureus superantigen SElX is a bifunctional toxin that inhibits neutrophil function. PLoS Pathog, 13(9), e1006461. PMID: 28880920.

Kirtane, A. R., Rothenberger, M. K., Frieberg, A., Nephew, K., Schultz-Darken, N., Schmidt, T., Reimann, T., Schlievert, P. M., Haase, A. T. & Panyam, J. (2017). Evaluation of Vaginal Drug Levels and Safety of a Locally Administered Glycerol Monolaurate Cream in Rhesus Macaques. J Pharm Sci, 106(7), 1821-1827. PMID: 28389267.

Gillman, A. N., Breshears, L. M., Kistler, C. K., Finnegan, P. M., Torres, V. J., Schlievert, P. M. & Peterson, M. L. (2017). Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Enhances the Proinflammatory Effects of Staphylococcus aureus Gamma-Toxin on the Mucosa. Toxins (Basel), 9(7), E202. PMID: 28657583.

White, J. R., Gong, H., Pope, B., Schlievert, P. M. & McElroy, S. J. (2017). Paneth-cell-disruption-induced necrotizing enterocolitis in mice requires live bacteria and occurs independently of TLR4 signaling. Dis Model Mech, 10(6), 727-736. PMID: 28450472.

Loza-Correa, M., Kou, Y., Taha, M., Kalab, M., Ronholm, J., Schlievert, P. M., Cahill, M. P., Skeate, R., Cserti-Gazdewich, C. & Ramirez-Arcos, S. (2017). Septic transfusion case caused by a platelet pool with visible clotting due to contamination with Staphylococcus aureus. Transfusion, 57(5), 1299-1303. PMID: 28205241.

Herrera, A., Kulhankova, K., Sonkar, V. K., Dayal, S., Klingelhutz, A. J., Salgado-Pabón, W. & Schlievert, P. M. (2017). Staphylococcal ß-Toxin Modulates Human Aortic Endothelial Cell and Platelet Function through Sphingomyelinase and Biofilm Ligase Activities. MBio, 8(2), e00273-17. PMID: 28325766.

Merriman, J. A., Mueller, E. A., Cahill, M. P., Beck, L. A., Paller, A. S., Hanifin, J. M., Ong, P. Y., Schneider, L., Babineau, D. C., David, G., Lockhart, A., Artis, K., Leung, D. Y. & Schlievert, P. M. (2016). Temporal and Racial Differences Associated with Atopic Dermatitis Staphylococcus aureus and Encoded Virulence Factors. mSphere, 1(6), e00295-16. PMID: 27981233.

Paharik, A. E., Salgado-Pabon, W., Meyerholz, D. K., White, M. J., Schlievert, P. M. & Horswill, A. R. (2016). The Spl Serine Proteases Modulate Staphylococcus aureus Protein Production and Virulence in a Rabbit Model of Pneumonia. mSphere, 1(5), pii: e00208-16. PMID: 27747296.

Breshears, L. M., Gillman, A. N., Stach, C. S., Schlievert, P. M. & Peterson, M. L. (2016). Local Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Mediates the Systemic Pathogenic Effects of Staphylococcus aureus Toxic Shock Syndrome. PLoS One, 11(7), e0158969. PMID: 27414801.

Crosby, H. A., Schlievert, P. M., Merriman, J. A., King, J. M., Salgado-Pabón, W. & Horswill, A. R. (2016). The Staphylococcus aureus Global Regulator MgrA Modulates Clumping and Virulence by Controlling Surface Protein Expression. PLoS Pathog, 12(5), e1005604. PMID: 27144398.

Herrera, A., Vu, B. G., Stach, C. S., Merriman, J. A., Horswill, A. R., Salgado-Pabón, W. & Schlievert, P. M. (2016). Staphylococcus aureus ß-Toxin Mutants Are Defective in Biofilm Ligase and Sphingomyelinase Activity, and Causation of Infective Endocarditis and Sepsis. Biochemistry, 55(17), 2510-7. PMID: 27015018.

Stach, C. S., Vu, B. G., Merriman, J. A., Herrera, A., Cahill, M. P., Schlievert, P. M. & Salgado-Pabón, W. (2016). Novel Tissue Level Effects of the Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin Gene Cluster Are Essential for Infective Endocarditis. PLoS One, 11(4), e0154762. PMID: 27124393.

Salgado-Pabón, W., Schlievert, P. M. (2016). Aortic Valve Damage for the Study of Left-Sided, Native Valve Infective Endocarditis in Rabbits. Methods Mol Biol, 1396, 73-80. PMID: 26676038.

Merriman, J. A., Schlievert, P. M. (2016). Identification, Purification, and Characterization of Staphylococcal Superantigens. Methods Mol Biol, 1396, 19-33. PMID: 26676034.

Stach, C. S., Schlievert, P. M. (2016). Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Toxic Shock Syndrome in Rabbits. Methods Mol Biol, 1396, 67-71. PMID: 26676037.

Strandberg, K. L., Rotschafer, J. H. & Schlievert, P. M. (2016). Rabbit Model for Superantigen-Mediated Lethal Pulmonary Disease. Methods Mol Biol, 1396, 81-93. PMID: 26676039.

Schlievert, P. M. (2016). Staphylococcal Virulence Factors. In G. A. Somerville (Eds.) Staphylococcus: Genetics and Physiology. pp. 81-106. Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press.

Mueller, E. A., Merriman, J. A. & Schlievert, P. M. (2015). Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, not a-toxin, mediated Bundaberg fatalities. Microbiology, 161(12), 2361-8. PMID: 26432699.

Stach, C. S., Vu, B. G. & Schlievert, P. M. (2015). Determining the Presence of Superantigens in Coagulase Negative Staphylococci from Humans. PLoS One, 10(11), e0143341. PMID: 26599862.

Schlievert, P. M., Salgado-Pabón, W. & Klingelhutz, A. J. (2015). Does Staphylococcus aureus have a role in the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus?. Future Microbiol, 10, 1549-52. PMID: 26439811.

Merriman, J. A., Klingelhutz, A. J., Diekema, D. J., Leung, D. Y. & Schlievert, P. M. (2015). Novel Staphylococcus aureus Secreted Protein Alters Keratinocyte Proliferation and Elicits a Proinflammatory Response In Vitro and In Vivo. Biochemistry, 54(31), 4855-62. PMID: 26177220.

Frank, K. L., Vergidis, P., Brinkman, C. L., Greenwood Quaintance, K. E., Barnes, A. M., Mandrekar, J. N., Schlievert, P. M., Dunny, G. M. & Patel, R. (2015). Evaluation of the Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm-Associated Virulence Factors AhrC and Eep in Rat Foreign Body Osteomyelitis and In Vitro Biofilm-Associated Antimicrobial Resistance. PLoS One, 10(6), e130187. PMID: 26076451.

Haase, A. T., Rakasz, E., Schultz-Darken, N., Nephew, K., Weisgrau, K. L., Reilly, C. S., Li, Q., Southern, P. J., Rothenberger, M., Peterson, M. L. & Schlievert, P. M. (2015). Glycerol Monolaurate Microbicide Protection against Repeat High-Dose SIV Vaginal Challenge. PLoS One, 10(6), e0129465. PMID: 26057743.

Mueller, E. A., Schlievert, P. M. (2015). Non-aqueous glycerol monolaurate gel exhibits antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. PLoS One, 10(3), e0120280. PMID: 25799455.

Schlievert, P. M., Salgado-Pabón, W., Herrera, A., Vu, B. G., Stach, C. S. & Merriman, J. A. (2015). Reply to Dupieux et al. J Infect Dis, 211(5), 847-8. PMID: 25180237.

Vu, B. G., Stach, C. S., Kulhankova, K., Salgado-Pabón, W., Klingelhutz, A. J. & Schlievert, P. M. (2015). Chronic superantigen exposure induces systemic inflammation, elevated bloodstream endotoxin, and abnormal glucose tolerance in rabbits: possible role in diabetes. MBio, 6(2), e2554. PMID: 25714716.

Frank, K. L., Colomer-Winter, C., Grindle, S. M., Lemos, J. A., Schlievert, P. M. & Dunny, G. M. (2014). Transcriptome analysis of Enterococcus faecalis during mammalian infection shows cells undergo adaptation and exist in a stringent response state. PLoS One, 9(12), e115839. PMID: 25545155.

Vu, B. G., Stach, C. S., Salgado-Pabón, W., Diekema, D. J., Gardner, S. E. & Schlievert, P. M. (2014). Superantigens of Staphylococcus aureus from patients with diabetic foot ulcers. J Infect Dis, 210(12), 1920-7. PMID: 24951827.

Schlievert, P. M. (2014). The dream of Staphylococcal vaccination. J Exp Med, 211(12), 2326. PMID: 25403803.

Salgado-Pabón, W., Herrera, A., Vu, B. G., Stach, C. S., Merriman, J. A., Spaulding, A. R. & Schlievert, P. M. (2014). Staphylococcus aureus ß-toxin Production is Common in Strains with the ß-toxin Gene Inactivated by Bacteriophage. J Infect Dis, 210(5), 784-92. PMID: 24620023.

Salgado-Pabón, W., Schlievert, P. M. (2014). Models matter: the search for an effective Staphylococcus aureus vaccine. Nat Rev Microbiol, 12(8), 858-91. PMID: 24998740.

Stach, C. S., Herrera, A. & Schlievert, P. M. (2014). Staphylococcal superantigens interact with multiple host receptors to cause serious diseases. Immunol Res, 59(1-3), 177-81. PMID: 24838262.

Spaulding, A. R., Salgado-Pabón, W., Merriman, J. A., Stach, C. S., Ji, Y., Gillman, A. N., Peterson, M. L. & Schlievert, P. M. (2014). Vaccination against Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. J Infect Dis, 209(12), 1955-62. PMID: 24357631.

van Sorge, N. M., Cole, J. N., Kuipers, K., Henningham, A., Aziz, R. K., Kasirer-Friede, A., Lin, L., Berends, E. T., Davies, M. R., Dougan, G., Zhang, F., Dahesh, S., Shaw, L., Gin, J., Cunningham, M., Merriman, J. A., Hütter, J., Lepenies, B., Rooijakkers, S. H., Malley, R., Walker, M. J., Shattil, S. J., Schlievert, P. M., Choudhury, B. & Nizet, V. (2014). The classical lancefield antigen of group a streptococcus is a virulence determinant with implications for vaccine design. Cell Host Microbe, 15(6), 729-40. PMID: 24922575.

Merriman, J. A., Schlievert, P. M. (2014). Are we close to a vaccination against Staphylococcus aureus?. Future Microbiol, 9(6), 717-20. PMID: 25046518.

Merriman, J. A., Nemeth, K. A. & Schlievert, P. M. (2014). Novel antimicrobial peptides that inhibit gram positive bacterial exotoxin synthesis. PLoS One, 9(4), e95661. PMID: 24748386.

Salgado-Pabón, W., Case-Cook, L. C. & Schlievert, P. M. (2014). Molecular analysis of staphylococcal superantigens. Methods Mol Biol, 1085, 169-85. PMID: 24085696.

Walker, J. N., Crosby, H. A., Spaulding, A. R., Salgado-Pabón, W., Malone, C. L., Rosenthal, C. B., Schlievert, P. M., Boyd, J. M. & Horswill, A. R. (2013). The Staphylococcus aureus ArlRS two-component system is a novel regulator of agglutination and pathogenesis. PLoS Pathog, 9(12), e1003819. PMID: 24367264.

Schlievert, P. M., Merriman, J. A., Salgado-Pabón, W., Mueller, E. A., Spaulding, A. R., Vu, B. G., Chuang-Smith, O. N., Kohler, P. L. & Kirby, J. R. (2013). Menaquinone analogs inhibit growth of bacterial pathogens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 57(11), 5432-7. PMID: 23959313.

Vu, B. G., Gourronc, F. A., Bernlohr, D. A., Schlievert, P. M. & Klingelhutz, A. J. (2013). Staphylococcal superantigens stimulate immortalized human adipocytes to produce chemokines. PLoS One, 8(10), e77988. PMID: 24205055.

Salgado-Pabón, W., Breshears, L., Spaulding, A. R., Merriman, J. A., Stach, C. S., Horswill, A. R., Peterson, M. L. & Schlievert, P. M. (2013). Superantigens are critical for Staphylococcus aureus Infective endocarditis, sepsis, and acute kidney injury. MBio, 4(4), e00494-13. PMID: 23963178.

Spaulding, A. R., Salgado-Pabón, W., Kohler, P. L., Horswill, A. R., Leung, D. Y. & Schlievert, P. M. (2013). Staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigen exotoxins. Clin Microbiol Rev, 26(3), 422-47. PMID: 23824366.

Frank, K. L., Guiton, P. S., Barnes, A. M., Manias, D. A., Chuang-Smith, O. N., Kohler, P. L., Spaulding, A. R., Hultgren, S. J., Schlievert, P. M. & Dunny, G. M. (2013). AhrC and Eep Are Biofilm Infection-Associated Virulence Factors in Enterococcus faecalis. Infect Immun, 81(5), 1696-708. PMID: 23460519.

Brosnahan, A. J., Merriman, J. A., Salgado-Pabón, W., Ford, B. & Schlievert, P. M. (2013). Enterococcus faecalis inhibits superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1-induced interleukin-8 from human vaginal epithelial cells through tetramic acids. PLoS One, 8(4), e61255. PMID: 23613823.

Chen, L., Chavda, K. D., Solanki, M., Mediavilla, J. R., Mathema, B., Schlievert, P. M. & Kreiswirth, B. N. (2013). Genetic variation among Panton-Valentine leukocidin-encoding bacteriophages in Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 30 strains. J Clin Microbiol, 51(3), 914-9. PMID: 23284024.

Mattis, D. M., Spaulding, A. R., Chuang-Smith, O. N., Sundberg, E. J., Schlievert, P. M. & Kranz, D. M. (2013). Engineering a soluble high-affinity receptor domain that neutralizes staphylococcal enterotoxin C in rabbit models of disease. Protein Eng Des Sel, 26(2), 133-42. PMID: 23161916.

Al Akhrass, F., Abdallah, L., Berger, S., Hanna, R., Reynolds, N., Thompson, S., Hallit, R. & Schlievert, P. M. (2013). Streptococcus agalactiae toxic shock-like syndrome: two case reports and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore), 92(1), 10-4. PMID: 23263717.

Pereira, N., Edlind, T. D., Schlievert, P. M. & Nyirjesy, P. (2013). Vaginal toxic shock reaction triggering desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. J Low Genit Tract Dis, 17(1), 88-91. PMID: 23222054.

Breshears, L. M., Schlievert, P. M. & Peterson, M. L. (2012). A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling drive the epithelial response to Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). J Biol Chem, 287(39), 32578-87. PMID: 22833676.

Bin, L., Kim, B. E., Brauweiler, A., Goleva, E., Streib, J., Ji, Y., Schlievert, P. M. & Leung, D. Y. (2012). Staphylococcus aureus a-toxin modulates skin host response to viral infection. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 130(3), 683-91. PMID: 22840852.

Spaulding, A. R., Lin, Y. C., Merriman, J. A., Brosnahan, A. J., Peterson, M. L. & Schlievert, P. M. (2012). Immunity to Staphylococcus aureus secreted proteins protects rabbits from serious illnesses. Vaccine, 30(34), 5099-109. PMID: 22691432.

Anderson, M. J., Lin, Y. C., Gillman, A. N., Parks, P. J., Schlievert, P. M. & Peterson, M. L. (2012). Alpha-toxin promotes Staphylococcus aureus mucosal biofilm formation. Front Cell Infect Microbiol, 2, 64. PMID: 22919655.

Frank, K. L., Barnes, A. M., Grindle, S. M., Manias, D. A., Schlievert, P. M. & Dunny, G. M. (2012). Use of recombinase-based in vivo expression technology to characterize Enterococcus faecalis gene expression during infection identifies in vivo-expressed antisense RNAs and implicates the protease Eep in pathogenesis. Infect Immun, 80(2), 539-49. PMID: 22144481.

Spaulding, A. R., Satterwhite, E. A., Lin, Y. C., Chuang-Smith, O. N., Frank, K. L., Merriman, J. A., Schaefers, M. M., Yarwood, J. M., Peterson, M. L. & Schlievert, P. M. (2012). Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus strains for ability to cause infective endocarditis and lethal sepsis in rabbits. Front Cell Infect Microbiol, 2, 18. PMID: 22919610.

Fan, J., Zhang, Y., Chuang-Smith, O. N., Frank, K. L., Guenther, B. D., Kern, M., Schlievert, P. M. & Herzberg, M. C. (2012). Ecto-5'-nucleotidase: a candidate virulence factor in Streptococcus sanguinis experimental endocarditis. PLoS One, 7(6), e38059. PMID: 22685551.

Schaefers, M. M., Breshears, L. M., Anderson, M. J., Lin, Y. C., Grill, A. E., Panyam, J., Southern, P. J., Schlievert, P. M. & Peterson, M. L. (2012). Epithelial proinflammatory response and curcumin-mediated protection from staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. PLoS One, 7(3), e32813. PMID: 22431984.

Schlievert, P. M., Peterson, M. L. (2012). Glycerol monolaurate antibacterial activity in broth and biofilm cultures. PLoS One, 7(7), e40350. PMID: 22808139.

Kohler, P. L., Greenwood, S. D., Nookala, S., Kotb, M., Kranz, D. M. & Schlievert, P. M. (2012). Staphylococcus aureus isolates encode variant staphylococcal enterotoxin B proteins that are diverse in superantigenicity and lethality. PLoS One, 7(7), e41157. PMID: 22815951.

Brosnahan, A. J., Schlievert, P. M. (2011). Gram-positive bacterial superantigen outside-in signaling causes toxic shock syndrome. FEBS J, 278(23), 4649-67. PMID: 21535475.

Wilson, G. J., Seo, K. S., Cartwright, R. A., Connelley, T., Chuang-Smith, O. N., Merriman, J. A., Guinane, C. M., Park, J. Y., Bohach, G. A., Schlievert, P. M., Morrison, W. I. & Fitzgerald, J. R. (2011). A novel core genome-encoded superantigen contributes to lethality of community-associated MRSA necrotizing pneumonia. PLoS Pathog, 7(10), e1002271. PMID: 22022262.

Tyner, H. L., Schlievert, P. M. & Baddour, L. M. (2011). Beta-hemolytic streptococcal erythroderma syndrome: a clinical and pathogenic analysis. Am J Med Sci, 342(4), 343-4. PMID: 21841465.

Lin, Y. C., Anderson, M. J., Kohler, P. L., Strandberg, K. L., Olson, M. E., Horswill, A. R., Schlievert, P. M. & Peterson, M. L. (2011). Proinflammatory exoprotein characterization of toxic shock syndrome Staphylococcus aureus. Biochemistry, 50(33), 7157-67. PMID: 21749039.

Goertz, C. E., Frasca, S., Bohach, G. A., Cowan, D. F., Buck, J. D., French, R. A., De Guise, S., Maratea, J., Hinckley, L., Ewalt, D., Schlievert, P. M., Karst, S. M., Deobald, C. F., St Aubin, D. J. & Dunn, J. L. (2011). Brucella sp. vertebral osteomyelitis with intercurrent fatal Staphylococcus aureus toxigenic enteritis in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). J Vet Diagn Invest, 23(4), 845-51. PMID: 21908337.

Malachowa, N., Kohler, P. L., Schlievert, P. M., Chuang, O. N., Dunny, G. M., Kobayashi, S. D., Miedzobrodzki, J., Bohach, G. A. & Seo, K. S. (2011). Characterization of a Staphylococcus aureus surface virulence factor that promotes resistance to oxidative killing and infectious endocarditis. Infect Immun, 79(1), 342-52. PMID: 20937760.

Broccardo, C. J., Mahaffey, S., Schwarz, J., Wruck, L., David, G., Schlievert, P. M., Reisdorph, N. A. & Leung, D. Y. (2011). Comparative proteomic profiling of patients with atopic dermatitis based on history of eczema herpeticum infection and Staphylococcus aureus colonization. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 127(1), 186-93, 193.e1-11. PMID: 21211653.

DeVries, A. S., Lesher, L., Schlievert, P. M., Rogers, T., Villaume, L. G., Danila, R. & Lynfield, R. (2011). Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome 2000-2006: epidemiology, clinical features, and molecular characteristics. PLoS One, 6(8), e22997. PMID: 21860665.

Strandberg, K. L., Rotschafer, J. H., Vetter, S. M., Buonpane, R. A., Kranz, D. M. & Schlievert, P. M. (2010). Staphylococcal superantigens cause lethal pulmonary disease in rabbits. J Infect Dis, 202(11), 1690-7. PMID: 20979456.

Wang, N., Mattis, D. M., Sundberg, E. J., Schlievert, P. M. & Kranz, D. M. (2010). A single, engineered protein therapeutic agent neutralizes exotoxins from both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Clin Vaccine Immunol, 17(11), 1781-9. PMID: 20861327.

Schlievert, P. M., Chuang-Smith, O. N., Peterson, M. L., Cook, L. C. & Dunny, G. M. (2010). Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis severity in rabbits is reduced by IgG Fabs interfering with aggregation substance. PLoS One, 5(10), e13194. PMID: 20957231.

Huseby, M. J., Kruse, A. C., Digre, J., Kohler, P. L., Vocke, J. A., Mann, E. E., Bayles, K. W., Bohach, G. A., Schlievert, P. M., Ohlendorf, D. H. & Earhart, C. A. (2010). Beta toxin catalyzes formation of nucleoprotein matrix in staphylococcal biofilms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107(32), 14407-12. PMID: 20660751.

Lin, Z., Kotler, D. P., Schlievert, P. M. & Sordillo, E. M. (2010). Staphylococcal enterocolitis: forgotten but not gone?. Dig Dis Sci, 55(5), 1200-7. PMID: 19609675.

Schlievert, P. M., Nemeth, K. A., Davis, C. C., Peterson, M. L. & Jones, B. E. (2010). Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins are present in vivo in tampons. Clin Vaccine Immunol, 17(5), 722-7. PMID: 20335433.

Strandberg, K. L., Peterson, M. L., Lin, Y. C., Pack, M. C., Chase, D. J. & Schlievert, P. M. (2010). Glycerol monolaurate inhibits Candida and Gardnerella vaginalis in vitro and in vivo but not Lactobacillus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 54(2), 597-601. PMID: 20008774.

Bernstein, J. M., Allen, C., Rich, G., Dryja, D., Bina, P., Reiser, R., Schlievert, P. M., Ballow, D. M., Cavanaugh, D. M. & Wilding, G. E. (2010). Further observations of the role of Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins and IgE in the pathogenesis of massive nasal polyposis. Liber Amicorum, 15-29.

Schlievert, P. M., Strandberg, K. L., Lin, Y. C., Peterson, M. L. & Leung, D. Y. (2010). Secreted virulence factor comparison between methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, and its relevance to atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 125(1), 39-49. PMID: 20109735.

John, C. C., Niermann, M., Sharon, B., Peterson, M. L., Kranz, D. M. & Schlievert, P. M. (2009). Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome erythroderma is associated with superantigenicity and hypersensitivity. Clin Infect Dis, 49(12), 1893-6. PMID: 19911998.

Strandberg, K. L., Peterson, M. L., Schaefers, M. M., Case, L. C., Pack, M. C., Chase, D. J. & Schlievert, P. M. (2009). Reduction in Staphylococcus aureus growth and exotoxin production and in vaginal interleukin 8 levels due to glycerol monolaurate in tampons. Clin Infect Dis, 49(11), 1711-7. PMID: 19863450.

Lin, Y. C., Schlievert, P. M., Anderson, M. J., Fair, C. L., Schaefers, M. M., Muthyala, R. & Peterson, M. L. (2009). Glycerol monolaurate and dodecylglycerol effects on Staphylococcus aureus and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in vitro and in vivo. PLoS One, 4(10), e7499. PMID: 19838303.

Schlievert, P. M. (2009). Cytolysins, superantigens, and pneumonia due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Infect Dis, 200(5), 676-8. PMID: 19653828.

Leung, D. Y., Hanifin, J. M., Pariser, D. M., Barber, K. A., Langley, R. G., Schlievert, P. M., Abrams, B. & Hultsch, T. (2009). Effects of pimecrolimus cream 1% in the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis who demonstrate a clinical insensitivity to topical corticosteroids: a randomized, multicentre vehicle-controlled trial. Br J Dermatol, 161(2), 435-43. PMID: 19416245.

Li, Q., Estes, J. D., Schlievert, P. M., Duan, L., Brosnahan, A. J., Southern, P. J., Reilly, C. S., Peterson, M. L., Schultz-Darken, N., Brunner, K. G., Nephew, K. R., Pambuccian, S., Lifson, J. D., Carlis, J. V. & Haase, A. T. (2009). Glycerol monolaurate prevents mucosal SIV transmission. Nature, 458(7241), 1034-8. PMID: 19262509.

Assimacopoulos, A. P., Strandberg, K. L., Rotschafer, J. H. & Schlievert, P. M. (2009). Extreme pyrexia and rapid death due to Staphylococcus aureus infection: analysis of 2 cases. Clin Infect Dis, 48(5), 612-4. PMID: 19191649.

Brosnahan, A. J., Mantz, M. J., Squier, C. A., Peterson, M. L. & Schlievert, P. M. (2009). Cytolysins augment superantigen penetration of stratified mucosa. J Immunol, 182(4), 2364-73. PMID: 19201891.

Schlievert, P. M., McCormick, J. K., Bohach, G. A. & Ohlendorf, D. H. (2009). Exotoxins. In K. B. Crossley , K. K. Jefferson , G. Archer & V. G. Fowler Jr (Eds.) The Staphylococci in Human Disease, 2nd edition. Wiley-Blackwell, New York.

Chuang, O. N., Schlievert, P. M., Wells, C. L., Manias, D. A., Tripp, T. J. & Dunny, G. M. (2009). Multiple functional domains of Enterococcus faecalis aggregation substance Asc10 contribute to endocarditis virulence. Infect Immun, 77(1), 539-48. PMID: 18955479.

Brosnahan, A. J., Schaefers, M. M., Amundson, W. H., Mantz, M. J., Squier, C. A., Peterson, M. L. & Schlievert, P. M. (2008). Novel toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 amino acids required for biological activity. Biochemistry, 47(49), 12995-3003. PMID: 19012411.

Schlievert, P. M., Strandberg, K. L., Brosnahan, A. J., Peterson, M. L., Pambuccian, S. E., Nephew, K. R., Brunner, K. G., Schultz-Darken, N. J. & Haase, A. T. (2008). Glycerol monolaurate does not alter rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) vaginal lactobacilli and is safe for chronic use. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 52(12), 4448-54. PMID: 18838587.

Yang, X., Buonpane, R. A., Moza, B., Rahman, A. K., Wang, N., Schlievert, P. M., McCormick, J. K., Sundberg, E. J. & Kranz, D. M. (2008). Neutralization of multiple staphylococcal superantigens by a single-chain protein consisting of affinity-matured, variable domain repeats. J Infect Dis, 198(3), 344-8. PMID: 18522504.

Weivoda, S., Andersen, J. D., Skogen, A., Schlievert, P. M., Fontana, D., Schacker, T., Tuite, P., Dubinsky, J. M. & Jemmerson, R. (2008). ELISA for human serum leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1 employing cytochrome c as the capturing ligand. J Immunol Methods, 336(1), 22-9. PMID: 18436231.

Schlievert, P. M., Case, L. C., Strandberg, K. L., Abrams, B. B. & Leung, D. Y. (2008). Superantigen profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with steroid-resistant atopic dermatitis. Clin Infect Dis, 46(10), 1562-7. PMID: 18419342.

Squier, C. A., Mantz, M. J., Schlievert, P. M. & Davis, C. C. (2008). Porcine vagina ex vivo as a model for studying permeability and pathogenesis in mucosa. J Pharm Sci, 97(1), 9-21. PMID: 17721937.

Schlievert, P. M., Case, L. C., Nemeth, K. A., Davis, C. C., Sun, Y., Qin, W., Wang, F., Brosnahan, A. J., Mleziva, J. A., Peterson, M. L. & Jones, B. E. (2007). Alpha and beta chains of hemoglobin inhibit production of Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins. Biochemistry, 46(50), 14349-58. PMID: 18020451.

Huseby, M., Shi, K., Brown, C. K., Digre, J., Mengistu, F., Seo, K. S., Bohach, G. A., Schlievert, P. M., Ohlendorf, D. H. & Earhart, C. A. (2007). Structure and biological activities of beta toxin from Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol, 189(23), 8719-26. PMID: 17873030.

Pragman, A. A., Herron-Olson, L., Case, L. C., Vetter, S. M., Henke, E. E., Kapur, V. & Schlievert, P. M. (2007). Sequence analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus srrAB loci reveals that truncation of srrA affects growth and virulence factor expression. J Bacteriol, 189(20), 7515-9. PMID: 17693503.

Schlievert, P. M. (2007). Chitosan malate inhibits growth and exotoxin production of toxic shock syndrome-inducing Staphylococcus aureus strains and group A streptococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 51(9), 3056-62. PMID: 17576832.

Ulrich, M., Bastian, M., Cramton, S. E., Ziegler, K., Pragman, A. A., Bragonzi, A., Memmi, G., Wolz, C., Schlievert, P. M., Cheung, A. & Döring, G. (2007). The staphylococcal respiratory response regulator SrrAB induces ica gene transcription and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin expression, protecting Staphylococcus aureus from neutrophil killing under anaerobic growth conditions. Mol Microbiol, 65(5), 1276-87. PMID: 17697253.

Schlievert, P. M., Case, L. C., Strandberg, K. L., Tripp, T. J., Lin, Y. C. & Peterson, M. L. (2007). Vaginal Staphylococcus aureus superantigen profile shift from 1980 and 1981 to 2003, 2004, and 2005. J Clin Microbiol, 45(8), 2704-7. PMID: 17537948.

Vetter, S. M., Schlievert, P. M. (2007). The two-component system Bacillus respiratory response A and B (BrrA-BrrB) is a virulence factor regulator in Bacillus anthracis. Biochemistry, 46(25), 7343-52. PMID: 17536838.

Kotler, D. P., Sandkovsky, U., Schlievert, P. M. & Sordillo, E. M. (2007). Toxic shock-like syndrome associated with staphylococcal enterocolitis in an HIV-infected man. Clin Infect Dis, 44(12), e121-3. PMID: 17516392.

Buonpane, R. A., Churchill, H. R., Moza, B., Sundberg, E. J., Peterson, M. L., Schlievert, P. M. & Kranz, D. M. (2007). Neutralization of staphylococcal enterotoxin B by soluble, high-affinity receptor antagonists. Nat Med, 13(6), 725-9. PMID: 17515896.

Brouillard, J. N., Günther, S., Varma, A. K., Gryski, I., Herfst, C. A., Rahman, A. K., Leung, D. Y., Schlievert, P. M., Madrenas, J., Sundberg, E. J. & McCormick, J. K. (2007). Crystal structure of the streptococcal superantigen SpeI and functional role of a novel loop domain in T cell activation by group V superantigens. J Mol Biol, 367(4), 925-34. PMID: 17303163.

Pragman, A. A., Ji, Y. & Schlievert, P. M. (2007). Repression of Staphylococcus aureus SrrAB using inducible antisense srrA alters growth and virulence factor transcript levels. Biochemistry, 46(1), 314-21. PMID: 17198402.

Schlievert, P. M., Case, L. C. (2007). Molecular analysis of staphylococcal superantigens. Methods Mol Biol, 391, 113-26. PMID: 18025673.

Schlievert, P. M., Bohach, G. A. (2007). Staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens: an update. In M. Kotb , J. D. Fraser (Eds.) Superantigens: Molecular Basis for Their Role in Human Diseases. pp. 21-36. ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Assimacopoulos, A. P., Schlievert, P. M. (2007). Staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock and Kawasaki syndrome. In D. Schlossberg (Eds.) Current therapy of infectious disease. Mosby, St Louis.

Phillips, J. R., Tripp, T. J., Regelmann, W. E., Schlievert, P. M. & Wangensteen, O. D. (2006). Staphylococcal alpha-toxin causes increased tracheal epithelial permeability. Pediatr Pulmonol, 41(12), 1146-52. PMID: 16998922.

Peterson, M. L., Schlievert, P. M. (2006). Glycerol monolaurate inhibits the effects of Gram-positive select agents on eukaryotic cells. Biochemistry, 45(7), 2387-97. PMID: 16475828.

Cone, L. A., Stone, R. A., Schlievert, P. M., Sneider, R. A., Rubin, A. M., Jesser, K. & Renker, S. W. (2006). An early favorable outcome of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome may require a combination of antimicrobial and intravenous gamma globulin therapy together with activated protein C. Scand J Infect Dis, 38(11-12), 960-3. PMID: 17148061.

Schlievert, P. M., Peterson, M. L. (2006). Staphylococci: Abscesses and Other Diseases. In Engleberg , DiRita , Dermody (Eds.) Schaechter's Mechanisms of Microbial Disease, 4th edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

McCormick, J. K., Peterson, M. L. & Schlievert, P. M. (2006). Toxins and superantigens of group A streptococci. In V. A. Fischetti , R. P. Novick & J. J. Ferretti , D. A. Portnoy , J. I. Rood (Eds.) Gram Positive Pathogens, 2nd edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Hill, D. R., Brunner, M. E., Schmitz, D. C., Davis, C. C., Flood, J. A., Schlievert, P. M., Wang-Weigand, S. Z. & Osborn, T. W. (2005). In vivo assessment of human vaginal oxygen and carbon dioxide levels during and post menses. J Appl Physiol, 99(4), 1582-91. PMID: 15932958.

Schlievert, P. M. (2005). Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome: still a problem. Med J Aust, 182(12), 651-2. PMID: 16116687.

Vetter, S. M., Schlievert, P. M. (2005). Glycerol monolaurate inhibits virulence factor production in Bacillus anthracis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 49(4), 1302-5. PMID: 15793101.

Kravitz, G. R., Dries, D. J., Peterson, M. L. & Schlievert, P. M. (2005). Purpura fulminans due to Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis, 40(7), 941-7. PMID: 15824983.

Schlievert, P. M., Tripp, T. J. & Peterson, M. L. (2005). Reemergence of Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome in the United States since 2000. (Vols. 43). (4), pp. 2032-3. J Clin Microbiol. PMID: 15815055.

Peterson, M. L., Ault, K., Kremer, M. J., Klingelhutz, A. J., Davis, C. C., Squier, C. A. & Schlievert, P. M. (2005). The innate immune system is activated by stimulation of vaginal epithelial cells with Staphylococcus aureus and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Infect Immun, 73(4), 2164-74. PMID: 15784559.

Perkins, S. L., Han, D. P., Burke, J. M., Schlievert, P. M., Wirostko, W. J., Tarasewicz, D. G. & Skumatz, C. M. (2004). Intravitreally injected human immunoglobulin attenuates the effects of Staphylococcus aureus culture supernatant in a rabbit model of toxin-mediated endophthalmitis. Arch Ophthalmol, 122(10), 1499-506. PMID: 15477462.

Pragman, A. A., Schlievert, P. M. (2004). Virulence regulation in Staphylococcus aureus: the need for in vivo analysis of virulence factor regulation. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol, 42(2), 147-54. PMID: 15364098.

Schlievert, P. M., Tripp, T. J. & Peterson, M. L. (2004). Reemergence of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, during the 2000-2003 surveillance period. J Clin Microbiol, 42(6), 2875-6. PMID: 15184497.

Kim, S. W., Grant, J. E., Kim, S. I., Swanson, T. A., Bernstein, G. A., Jaszcz, W. B., Williams, K. A. & Schlievert, P. M. (2004). A possible association of recurrent streptococcal infections and acute onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci, 16(3), 252-60. PMID: 15377732.

Flood, J. A., Tripp, T. J., Davis, C. C., Hill, D. R. & Schlievert, P. M. (2004). A toroid model for in vitro investigations of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 production. J Microbiol Methods, 57(2), 283-8. PMID: 15063069.

Waters, C. M., Hirt, H., McCormick, J. K., Schlievert, P. M., Wells, C. L. & Dunny, G. M. (2004). An amino-terminal domain of Enterococcus faecalis aggregation substance is required for aggregation, bacterial internalization by epithelial cells and binding to lipoteichoic acid. Mol Microbiol, 52(4), 1159-71. PMID: 15130132.

Pragman, A. A., Yarwood, J. M., Tripp, T. J. & Schlievert, P. M. (2004). Characterization of virulence factor regulation by SrrAB, a two-component system in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol, 186(8), 2430-8. PMID: 15060046.

Dahl, M. V., Ross, A. J. & Schlievert, P. M. (2004). Temperature regulates bacterial protein production: possible role in rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol, 50(2), 266-72. PMID: 14726884.

Schlievert, P. M., Assimacopoulos, A. P. (2004). Toxic shock syndrome. In S. L. Gorbach , J. G. Bartlett , N. R. Blacklow (Eds.) Infectious Diseases, 3rd Edition. pp. 1578-84. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.

Davis, C. C., Kremer, M. J., Schlievert, P. M. & Squier, C. A. (2003). Penetration of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 across porcine vaginal mucosa ex vivo: permeability characteristics, toxin distribution, and tissue damage. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 189(6), 1785-91. PMID: 14710116.

Yarwood, J. M., Schlievert, P. M. (2003). Quorum sensing in Staphylococcus infections. J Clin Invest, 112(11), 1620-5. PMID: 14660735.

Saiman, L., O'Keefe, M., Graham 3rd, P. L., Wu, F., Saïd-Salim, B., Kreiswirth, B., LaSala, A., Schlievert, P. M. & Della-Latta, P. (2003). Hospital transmission of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among postpartum women. Clin Infect Dis, 37(10), 1313-9. PMID: 14583864.

Dinges, M. M., Gregerson, D. S., Tripp, T. J., McCormick, J. K. & Schlievert, P. M. (2003). Effects of total body irradiation and cyclosporin a on the lethality of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in a rabbit model of toxic shock syndrome. J Infect Dis, 188(8), 1142-5. PMID: 14551884.

Sundberg, E. J., Andersen, P. S., Schlievert, P. M., Karjalainen, K. & Mariuzza, R. A. (2003). Structural, energetic, and functional analysis of a protein-protein interface at distinct stages of affinity maturation. Structure, 11(9), 1151-61. PMID: 12962633.

McCormick, J. K., Tripp, T. J., Llera, A. S., Sundberg, E. J., Dinges, M. M., Mariuzza, R. A. & Schlievert, P. M. (2003). Functional analysis of the TCR binding domain of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 predicts further diversity in MHC class II/superantigen/TCR ternary complexes. J Immunol, 171(3), 1385-92. PMID: 12874229.

Langley, J. M., Soder, C. M., Schlievert, P. M. & Murray, S. (2003). Case report: Molluscum contagiosum. Toxic shock syndrome following cantharidin treatment. Can Fam Physician, 49, 887-9. PMID: 12901485.

Travers, J. B., Leung, D. Y., Johnson, C., Schlievert, P. M., Marques, M., Cosgrove, J. & Clay, K. L. (2003). Augmentation of staphylococcal alpha-toxin signaling by the epidermal platelet-activating factor receptor. J Invest Dermatol, 120(5), 789-94. PMID: 12713583.

Orwin, P. M., Fitzgerald, J. R., Leung, D. Y., Gutierrez, J. A., Bohach, G. A. & Schlievert, P. M. (2003). Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin L. Infect Immun, 71(5), 2916-9. PMID: 12704169.

Fitzgerald, J. R., Reid, S. D., Ruotsalainen, E., Tripp, T. J., Liu, M., Cole, R., Kuusela, P., Schlievert, P. M., Järvinen, A. & Musser, J. M. (2003). Genome diversification in Staphylococcus aureus: Molecular evolution of a highly variable chromosomal region encoding the Staphylococcal exotoxin-like family of proteins. Infect Immun, 71(5), 2827-38. PMID: 12704157.

Tripp, T. J., McCormick, J. K., Webb, J. M. & Schlievert, P. M. (2003). The zinc-dependent major histocompatibility complex class II binding site of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C is critical for maximal superantigen function and toxic activity. Infect Immun, 71(3), 1548-50. PMID: 12595474.

Holbrook, T. C., Munday, J. S., Brown, C. A., Glover, B., Schlievert, P. M. & Sanchez, S. (2003). Toxic shock syndrome in a horse with Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 222(5), 620-3, 601-2. PMID: 12619842.

Bernstein, J. M., Ballow, M., Schlievert, P. M., Rich, G., Allen, C. & Dryja, D. (2003). A superantigen hypothesis for the pathogenesis of chronic hyperplastic sinusitis with massive nasal polyposis. Am J Rhinol, 17(6), 321-6. PMID: 14750606.

Fey, P. D., Saïd-Salim, B., Rupp, M. E., Hinrichs, S. H., Boxrud, D. J., Davis, C. C., Kreiswirth, B. N. & Schlievert, P. M. (2003). Comparative molecular analysis of community- or hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 47(1), 196-203. PMID: 12499191.

McCormick, J. K., Schlievert, P. M. (2003). Expression, purification, and detection of novel streptococcal superantigens. Methods Mol Biol, 214, 33-43. PMID: 12489452.

McCormick, J. K., Bohach, G. A. & Schlievert, P. M. (2003). Pyrogenic, lethal, and emetic properties of superantigens in rabbits and primates. Methods Mol Biol, 214, 245-53. PMID: 12489465.

Smoot, L. M., McCormick, J. K., Smoot, J. C., Hoe, N. P., Strickland, I., Cole, R. L., Barbian, K. D., Earhart, C. A., Ohlendorf, D. H., Veasy, L. G., Hill, H. R., Leung, D. Y., Schlievert, P. M. & Musser, J. M. (2002). Characterization of two novel pyrogenic toxin superantigens made by an acute rheumatic fever clone of Streptococcus pyogenes associated with multiple disease outbreaks. Infect Immun, 70(12), 7095-104. PMID: 12438391.

Orwin, P. M., Leung, D. Y., Tripp, T. J., Bohach, G. A., Earhart, C. A., Ohlendorf, D. H. & Schlievert, P. M. (2002). Characterization of a novel staphylococcal enterotoxin-like superantigen, a member of the group V subfamily of pyrogenic toxins. Biochemistry, 41(47), 1033-40. PMID: 12437361.

Beres, S. B., Sylva, G. L., Barbian, K. D., Lei, B., Hoff, J. S., Mammarella, N. D., Liu, M. Y., Smoot, J. C., Porcella, S. F., Parkins, L. D., Campbell, D. S., Smith, T. M., McCormick, J. K., Leung, D. Y., Schlievert, P. M. & Musser, J. M. (2002). Genome sequence of a serotype M3 strain of group A Streptococcus: phage-encoded toxins, the high-virulence phenotype, and clone emergence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99(15), 10078-83. PMID: 12122206.

Leung, D. Y., Meissner, H. C., Schulman, S. T., Mason, W. H., Gerber, M. A., Glode, M. P., Myones, B. L., Wheeler, J. G., Ruthazer, R. & Schlievert, P. M. (2002). Prevalence of superantigen-secreting bacteria in patients with Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr, 140(6), 742-6. PMID: 12072880.

Sundberg, E. J., Li, H., Llera, A. S., McCormick, J. K., Tormo, J., Schlievert, P. M., Karjalainen, K. & Mariuzza, R. A. (2002). Structures of two streptococcal superantigens bound to TCR beta chains reveal diversity in the architecture of T cell signaling complexes. Structure, 10(5), 687-99. PMID: 12015151.

Yarwood, J. M., McCormick, J. K., Paustian, M. L., Orwin, P. M., Kapur, V. & Schlievert, P. M. (2002). Characterization and expression analysis of Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island 3. Implications for the evolution of staphylococcal pathogenicity islands. J Biol Chem, 277(15), 13138-47. PMID: 11821418.

McCormick, J. K., Tripp, T. J., Dunny, G. M. & Schlievert, P. M. (2002). Formation of vegetations during infective endocarditis excludes binding of bacterial-specific host antibodies to Enterococcus faecalis. J Infect Dis, 185(7), 994-7. PMID: 11920326.

Hirt, H., Schlievert, P. M. & Dunny, G. M. (2002). In vivo induction of virulence and antibiotic resistance transfer in Enterococcus faecalis mediated by the sex pheromone-sensing system of pCF10. Infect Immun, 70(2), 716-23. PMID: 11796604.

Yarwood, J. M., McCormick, J. K., Paustian, M. L., Kapur, V. & Schlievert, P. M. (2002). Repression of the Staphylococcus aureus accessory gene regulator in serum and in vivo. J Bacteriol, 184(4), 1095-101. PMID: 11807070.

Cone, L. A., Byrd, R. G., Schulz, K. & Schlievert, P. M. (2002). Recurrent nonmenstrual toxic shock. Clin Infect Dis, 34(2), 289. PMID: 11740721.

Schlievert, P. M. (2002). Staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens. In J. Barbieri , R. Rappuoli , B. Iglewski , D. Burns (Eds.) Bacterial Protein Toxins. ASM Publications, Washington, DC.

Perkins, S. L., Han, D. P., Schlievert, P. M. & et al, (2002). The ability of human immune globulin to attenuate the toxic effects of pooled Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 43, 4439.

Dinges, M. M., Schlievert, P. M. (2001). Comparative analysis of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha activity in serum and lethality in mice and rabbits pretreated with the staphylococcal superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Infect Immun, 69(11), 7169-72. PMID: 11598096.

Sutkin, G., Capelle, S. D., Schlievert, P. M. & Creinin, M. D. (2001). Toxic shock syndrome after laminaria insertion. Obstet Gynecol, 98(5 Pt 2), 959-61. PMID: 11704221.

Schlievert, P. M. (2001). Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndromes and related illnesses. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 108(4 Suppl), S107-10. PMID: 11586276.

Novick, R. P., Schlievert, P. M. & Ruzin, A. (2001). Pathogenicity and resistance islands of staphylococci. Microbes Infect, 3(7), 585-94. PMID: 11418332.

McCormick, J. K., Hirt, H., Waters, C. M., Tripp, T. J., Dunny, G. M. & Schlievert, P. M. (2001). Antibodies to a surface-exposed, N-terminal domain of aggregation substance are not protective in the rabbit model of Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis. Infect Immun, 69(5), 3305-14. PMID: 11292753.

McCormick, J. K., Pragman, A. A., Stolpa, J. C., Leung, D. Y. & Schlievert, P. M. (2001). Functional characterization of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin J, a novel superantigen. Infect Immun, 69(3), 1381-8. PMID: 11179302.

Reed, S. B., Wesson, C. A., Liou, L. E., Trumble, W. R., Schlievert, P. M., Bohach, G. A. & Bayles, K. W. (2001). Molecular characterization of a novel Staphylococcus aureus serine protease operon. Infect Immun, 69(3), 1521-7. PMID: 11179322.

Dinges, M. M., Schlievert, P. M. (2001). Role of T cells and gamma interferon during induction of hypersensitivity to lipopolysaccharide by toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in mice. Infect Immun, 69(3), 1256-64. PMID: 11179286.

Yarwood, J. M., McCormick, J. K. & Schlievert, P. M. (2001). Identification of a novel two-component regulatory system that acts in global regulation of virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol, 183(4), 1113-23. PMID: 11157922.

Orwin, P. M., Leung, D. Y., Donahue, H. L., Novick, R. P. & Schlievert, P. M. (2001). Biochemical and biological properties of Staphylococcal enterotoxin K. Infect Immun, 69(1), 360-6. PMID: 11119525.

Li, Y., Li, H., Dimasi, N., McCormick, J. K., Martin, R., Schuck, P., Schlievert, P. M. & Mariuzza, R. A. (2001). Crystal structure of a superantigen bound to the high-affinity, zinc-dependent site on MHC class II. Immunity, 14(1), 93-104. PMID: 11163233.

Meyer, R. D., Monday, S. R., Bohach, G. A. & Schlievert, P. M. (2001). Prolonged course of toxic shock syndrome associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins G and I. Int J Infect Dis, 5(3), 163-6. PMID: 11724675.

McCormick, J. K., Yarwood, J. M. & Schlievert, P. M. (2001). Toxic shock syndrome and bacterial superantigens: an update. Annu Rev Microbiol, 55, 77-104. PMID: 11544350.

Mitchell, D. T., Levitt, D. G., Schlievert, P. M. & Ohlendorf, D. H. (2000). Structural evidence for the evolution of pyrogenic toxin superantigens. J Mol Evol, 51(6), 520-31. PMID: 11116326.

Yarwood, J. M., Leung, D. Y. & Schlievert, P. M. (2000). Evidence for the involvement of bacterial superantigens in psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and Kawasaki syndrome. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 192(1), 1-7. PMID: 11040420.

Earhart, C. A., Vath, G. M., Roggiani, M., Schlievert, P. M. & Ohlendorf, D. H. (2000). Structure of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A reveals a novel metal cluster. Protein Sci, 9(9), 1847-51. PMID: 11045630.

Roggiani, M., Stoehr, J. A., Olmsted, S. B., Matsuka, Y. V., Pillai, S., Ohlendorf, D. H. & Schlievert, P. M. (2000). Toxoids of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A are protective in rabbit models of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Infect Immun, 68(9), 5011-7. PMID: 10948118.

McCormick, J. K., Tripp, T. J., Olmsted, S. B., Matsuka, Y. V., Gahr, P. J., Ohlendorf, D. H. & Schlievert, P. M. (2000). Development of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C vaccine toxoids that are protective in the rabbit model of toxic shock syndrome. J Immunol, 165(4), 2306-12. PMID: 10925320.

McCormick, J. K., Hirt, H., Dunny, G. M. & Schlievert, P. M. (2000). Pathogenic Mechanisms of Enterococcal Endocarditis. Curr Infect Dis Rep, 2(4), 315-21. PMID: 11095871.

Schlievert, P. M., Jablonski, L. M., Roggiani, M., Sadler, I., Callentine, S., Mitchell, D. T., Ohlendorf, D. H. & Bohach, G. A. (2000). Pyrogenic toxin superantigen site specificity in toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning in animals. Infect Immun, 68(6), 3630-4. PMID: 10816521.

Yarwood, J. M., Schlievert, P. M. (2000). Oxygen and carbon dioxide regulation of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 production by Staphylococcus aureus MN8. J Clin Microbiol, 38(5), 1797-803. PMID: 10790102.

Skov, L., Olsen, J. V., Giorno, R., Schlievert, P. M., Baadsgaard, O. & Leung, D. Y. (2000). Application of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B on normal and atopic skin induces up-regulation of T cells by a superantigen-mediated mechanism. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 105(4), 820-6. PMID: 10756235.

Rago, J. V., Vath, G. M., Tripp, T. J., Bohach, G. A., Ohlendorf, D. H. & Schlievert, P. M. (2000). Staphylococcal exfoliative toxins cleave alpha- and beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormones. Infect Immun, 68(4), 2366-8. PMID: 10722646.

Schlievert, P. M. (2000). Will therapeutic peptides be kryptonite for superantigens?. Nat Med, 6(4), 378-9. PMID: 10742138.

Rago, J. V., Vath, G. M., Bohach, G. A., Ohlendorf, D. H. & Schlievert, P. M. (2000). Mutational analysis of the superantigen staphylococcal exfoliative toxin A (ETA). J Immunol, 164(4), 2207-13. PMID: 10657676.

Dinges, M. M., Orwin, P. M. & Schlievert, P. M. (2000). Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Microbiol Rev, 13(1), 16-34. PMID: 10627489.

Roggiani, M., Assimacopoulos, A. P. & Schlievert, P. M. (2000). Exotoxins of Streptococcus pyogenes. In D. L. Stevens , E. L. Kaplan (Eds.) Streptococcal Infections: Clinical Aspects, Microbiology, and Molecular Pathogenesis. pp. 57-75. Oxford University Press, New York.

Roggiani, M., Schlievert, P. M. (2000). Purification of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin a. Methods Mol Med, 36, 59-66. PMID: 21340964.

Schlievert, P. M., Kotb, M. Y. & Stevens, D. L. (2000). Streptococcal superantigens: Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. In M. W. Cunningham , R. S. Fujinami (Eds.) Effects of Microbes on the Immune System. pp. 25-39. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.

McCormick, J. K., Schlievert, P. M. (2000). Toxins and superantigens of group A streptococci. In V. A. Fischetti , R. P. Novick , J. J. Ferretti , D. A. Portnoy , J. I. Rood (Eds.) Gram Positive Pathogens. pp. 43-52. ASM Publications, Washington, DC.

Hunt, C., Dionne, M., Delorme, M., Murdock, D., Erdrich, A., Wolsey, D., Groom, A., Cheek, J., Jacobson, J., Cunningham, B., Shireley, L., Belani, K., Kurachek, S., Ackerman, P., Cameron, S., Schlievert, P. M., Pfeiffer, J., Johnson, S., Boxrud, D., Bartkus, J., Besser, J., Smith, K., LeDell, K., O'Boyle, C., Lynfield, R., White, K., Osterholm, M., Moore, K. & Danila, R. (1999). Four Pediatric Deaths from Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus — Minnesota and North Dakota, 1997–1999. Arch Dermatol, 135, 1566-8. DOI: doi:10-1001/pubs.Arch Dermatol.

Travers, J. B., Hamid, Q. A., Norris, D. A., Kuhn, C., Giorno, R. C., Schlievert, P. M., Farmer, E. R. & Leung, D. Y. (1999). Epidermal HLA-DR and the enhancement of cutaneous reactivity to superantigenic toxins in psoriasis. J Clin Invest, 104(9), 1181-9. PMID: 10545517.

Hunt, C., Dionne, M., Delorme, M., Murdock, D., Erdrich, A., Wolsey, D., Groom, A., Cheek, J., Jacobson, J., Cunningham, B., Shireley, L., Belani, K., Kurachek, S., Ackerman, P., Cameron, S., Schlievert, P. M., Pfeiffer, J., Johnson, S., Boxrud, D., Bartkus, J., Besser, J., Smith, K., LeDell, K., O'Boyle, C., Lynfield, R., White, K., Osterholm, M., Moore, K. & Danila, R. (1999). Four Pediatric Deaths from Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus — Minnesota and North Dakota, 1997–1999. JAMA, 282(12), 1123-5. PMID: 10501104.

Hall, M., Hoyt, L., Ferrieri, P., Schlievert, P. M. & Jenson, H. B. (1999). Kawasaki syndrome-like illness associated with infection caused by enterotoxin B-secreting Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis, 29(3), 586-9. PMID: 10530452.

Wann, E. R., Fehringer, A. P., Ezepchuk, Y. V., Schlievert, P. M., Bina, P., Reiser, R. F., Höök, M. M. & Leung, D. Y. (1999). Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with Kawasaki disease express high levels of protein A. Infect Immun, 67(9), 4737-43. PMID: 10456925.

Hunt, C., Dionne, M., Delorme, M., Murdock, D., Erdrich, A., Wolsey, D., Groom, A., Cheek, J., Jacobson, J., Cunningham, B., Shireley, L., Belani, K., Kurachek, S., Ackerman, P., Cameron, S., Schlievert, P. M., Pfeiffer, J., Johnson, S., Boxrud, D., Bartkus, J., Besser, J., Smith, K., LeDell, K., O'Boyle, C., Lynfield, R., White, K., Osterholm, M., Moore, K. & Danila, R. (1999). Four Pediatric Deaths from Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus — Minnesota and North Dakota, 1997–1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 48(32), 707-10. PMID: 21033181.

Vath, G. M., Earhart, C. A., Monie, D. D., Iandolo, J. J., Schlievert, P. M. & Ohlendorf, D. H. (1999). The crystal structure of exfoliative toxin B: a superantigen with enzymatic activity. Biochemistry, 38(32), 10239-46. PMID: 10441117.

Monday, S. R., Vath, G. M., Ferens, W. A., Deobald, C., Rago, J. V., Gahr, P. J., Monie, D. D., Iandolo, J. J., Chapes, S. K., Davis, W. C., Ohlendorf, D. H., Schlievert, P. M. & Bohach, G. A. (1999). Unique superantigen activity of staphylococcal exfoliative toxins. J Immunol, 162(8), 4550-9. PMID: 10201994.

Andersen, P. S., Lavoie, P. M., Sékaly, R. P., Churchill, H., Kranz, D. M., Schlievert, P. M., Karjalainen, K. & Mariuzza, R. A. (1999). Role of the T cell receptor alpha chain in stabilizing TCR-superantigen-MHC class II complexes. Immunity, 10(4), 473-83. PMID: 10229190.

Hofer, M. F., Harbeck, R. J., Schlievert, P. M. & Leung, D. Y. (1999). Staphylococcal toxins augment specific IgE responses by atopic patients exposed to allergen. J Invest Dermatol, 112(2), 171-6. PMID: 9989792.

Schlievert, P. M. (1998). My Experiences with Toxic Shock Syndrome Research. Infect Dis Clin Pract, 7(9), 459-62.

Li, H., Llera, A., Tsuchiya, D., Leder, L., Ysern, X., Schlievert, P. M., Karjalainen, K. & Mariuzza, R. A. (1998). Three-dimensional structure of the complex between a T cell receptor beta chain and the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Immunity, 9(6), 807-16. PMID: 9881971.

Leung, D. Y., Schlievert, P. M. & Meissner, H. C. (1998). The immunopathogenesis and management of Kawasaki syndrome. Arthritis Rheum, 41(9), 1538-47. PMID: 9751085.

Cockerill 3rd, F. R., Schlievert, P. M. & Musser, J. M. (1998). Epidemiology of invasive streptococcal infections. J Infect Dis, 177(6), 1773-4. PMID: 9607873.

Cockerill 3rd, F. R., Thompson, R. L., Musser, J. M., Schlievert, P. M., Talbot, J., Holley, K. E., Harmsen, W. S., Ilstrup, D. M., Kohner, P. C., Kim, M. H., Frankfort, B., Manahan, J. M., Steckelberg, J. M., Roberson, F. & Wilson, W. R. (1998). Molecular, serological, and clinical features of 16 consecutive cases of invasive streptococcal disease. Southeastern Minnesota Streptococcal Working Group. Clin Infect Dis, 26(6), 1448-58. PMID: 9636878.

Earhart, C. A., Mitchell, D. T., Murray, D. L., Pinheiro, D. M., Matsumura, M., Schlievert, P. M. & Ohlendorf, D. H. (1998). Structures of five mutants of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 with reduced biological activity. Biochemistry, 37(20), 7194-202. PMID: 9585531.

Saiman, L., Jakob, K., Holmes, K. W., Whittier, S., Garzon, M. C., Rago, J. V., Schlievert, P. M. & Della-Latta, P. (1998). Molecular epidemiology of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in premature infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 17(4), 329-34. PMID: 9576389.

Leder, L., Llera, A., Lavoie, P. M., Lebedeva, M. I., Li, H., Sékaly, R. P., Bohach, G. A., Gahr, P. J., Schlievert, P. M., Karjalainen, K. & Mariuzza, R. A. (1998). A mutational analysis of the binding of staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C3 to the T cell receptor beta chain and major histocompatibility complex class II. J Exp Med, 187(6), 823-33. PMID: 9500785.

Schlievert, P. M., Gahr, P. J., Assimacopoulos, A. P., Dinges, M. M., Stoehr, J. A., Harmala, J. W., Hirt, H. & Dunny, G. M. (1998). Aggregation and binding substances enhance pathogenicity in rabbit models of Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis. Infect Immun, 66(1), 218-23. PMID: 9423861.

Bohach, G., Jablonski, J., Roggiani, M., Sadler, I., Schlievert, P. M., Mitchell, D. & Ohlendorf, D. (1998). Biological activity of pyrogenic toxins delivered to the mucosal surface. International Congress and Symposium Series, 229, 170-2.

Dinges, M., Jessurun, J. & Schlievert, P. M. (1998). Comparisons of mouse and rabbit models of toxic shock syndrome. International Congress and Symposium Series, 229, 167-8.

Schlievert, P. M. (1998). Effect of contraceptive diaphragms on production of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). International Congress and Symposium Series, 229, 128-30.

Schlievert, P. M. (1998). Incidence studies of toxic shock syndrome. International Congress and Symposium Series, 229, 34-6.

Rago, J. V., Schlievert, P. M. (1998). Mechanisms of pathogenesis of staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 225, 81-97. PMID: 9386329.

Olmsted, S., Matsuka, Y., Roggiani, M., Pillai, S., Ohlendorf, D. & Schlievert, P. M. (1998). Structural and biological analysis of genetic mutants of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SPE A). International Congress and Symposium Series, 229, 93-5.

Ohlendorf, D. H., Earhart, C. A., Mitchell, D. T., Vath, G. M., Roggiani, M., Rago, J. V., Kim, M. H., Bohach, G. A. & Schlievert, P. M. (1998). Structural biology of toxins associated with TSS. International Congress and Symposium Series, 229, 89-91.

Schlievert, P. M. (1998). Keynote address: Trends within the pyrogenic toxin superantigen family. International Congress and Symposium Series, 229, 79-84.

Hirt, H., Chen, Y., Schlievert, P. M. & Dunny, G. M. (1998). Use of electroporation in genetic analysis of enterococcal virulence. Meth Cell Science, 20(1-4), 79-84.

Bey, T. A., Walter, F. G., Lober, W., Schmidt, J., Spark, R. & Schlievert, P. M. (1997). Loxosceles arizonica bite associated with shock. Ann Emerg Med, 30(5), 701-3. PMID: 9360587.

Leung, D. Y., Sullivan, K. E., Brown-Whitehorn, T. F., Fehringer, A. P., Allen, S., Finkel, T. H., Washington, R. L., Makida, R. & Schlievert, P. M. (1997). Association of toxic shock syndrome toxin-secreting and exfoliative toxin-secreting Staphylococcus aureus with Kawasaki syndrome complicated by coronary artery disease. Pediatr Res, 42(3), 268-72. PMID: 9284264.

Roggiani, M., Stoehr, J. A., Leonard, B. A. & Schlievert, P. M. (1997). Analysis of toxicity of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A mutants. Infect Immun, 65(7), 2868-75. PMID: 9199461.

Prasad, G. S., Radhakrishnan, R., Mitchell, D. T., Earhart, C. A., Dinges, M. M., Cook, W. J., Schlievert, P. M. & Ohlendorf, D. H. (1997). Refined structures of three crystal forms of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and of a tetramutant with reduced activity. Protein Sci, 6(6), 1220-7. PMID: 9194182.

Leung, D. Y., Meissner, H. C. & Schlievert, P. M. (1997). The etiology and pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease - how close are we to an answer?. Curr Opin Infect Dis, 10(3), 226-32.

Vath, G. M., Earhart, C. A., Rago, J. V., Kim, M. H., Bohach, G. A., Schlievert, P. M. & Ohlendorf, D. H. (1997). The structure of the superantigen exfoliative toxin A suggests a novel regulation as a serine protease. Biochemistry, 36(7), 1559-66. PMID: 9048539.

Gaskin, D. K., Bohach, G. A., Schlievert, P. M. & Hovde, C. J. (1997). Purification of Staphylococcus aureus beta-toxin: comparison of three isoelectric focusing methods. Protein Expr Purif, 9(1), 76-82. PMID: 9116505.

Schlievert, P. M., Dunny, G. M., Stoehr, J. A. & Assimacopoulos, A. P. (1997). Aggregation and binding substances enhance pathogenicity in a rabbit model of Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis. Adv Exp Med Biol, 418, 789-91. PMID: 9331770.

Cockerill 3rd, F. R., MacDonald, K. L., Thompson, R. L., Roberson, F., Kohner, P. C., Besser-Wiek, J., Manahan, J. M., Musser, J. M., Schlievert, P. M., Talbot, J., Frankfort, B., Steckelberg, J. M., Wilson, W. R. & Osterholm, M. T. (1997). An outbreak of invasive group A streptococcal disease associated with high carriage rates of the invasive clone among school-aged children. JAMA, 277(1), 38-43. PMID: 8980208.

Mitchell, D. T., Schlievert, P. M., Ohlendorf, D. H., Kim, J., Wiley, D. C., Urban, R. G. & Strominger, J. L. (1997). Comparison of structures of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 unbound and bound to a class II major histocompatibility molecule. In D. Y. Leung , B. T. Huber , P. M. Schlievert (Eds.) Superantigens: Molecular Biology, Immunology, and Relevance to Human Disease. pp. 149-66. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY.

Bohach, G. A., Dinges, M. M., Mitchell, D. T., Ohlendorf, D. H. & Schlievert, P. M. (1997). Exotoxins. In K. B. Crossley , G. L. Archer (Eds.) The Staphylococci in Human Disease. pp. 83-112. Churchill Livingstone, New York.

Leung, D. M., Huber, B. T. & Schlievert, P. M. (1997). Historical perspective of superantigens and their biological activities. In D. Y. Leung , B. T. Huber & P. M. Schlievert (Eds.) Superantigens: Molecular Biology, Immunology, and Relevance to Human Disease. pp. 1-14. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY.

Assimacopoulos, A. P., Stoehr, J. A. & Schlievert, P. M. (1997). Mitogenic factors from group G streptococci associated with scarlet fever and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Adv Exp Med Biol, 418, 109-14. PMID: 9331611.

Kim, M. H., Schlievert, P. M. (1997). Molecular genetics, structure, and immunobiology of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins A and C. In D. Y. Leung , B. T. Huber , P. M. Schlievert (Eds.) Superantigens: Molecular Biology, Immunology, and Relevance to Human Disease. pp. 257-80. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY.

Newton, D., Norrby-Teglund, A., McGeer, A., Low, D. E., Schlievert, P. M. & Kotb, M. (1997). Novel superantigens from streptococcal toxic shock syndrome Streptococcus pyogenes isolates. Adv Exp Med Biol, 418, 525-9. PMID: 9331707.

Schlievert, P. M. (1997). Searching for superantigens. Immunol Invest, 26(1-2), 283-90. PMID: 9037631.

Assimacopoulos, A. P., Schlievert, P. M. (1997). Staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. In J. P. Kassirer , H. L. Green II (Eds.) Current therapy of adult medicine. pp. 278-9. Mosby, St Louis.

Holm, S. E., Köhler, W., Kaplan, E. L., Schlievert, P. M., Alouf, J. E., Stevens, D. L. & Kotb, M. (1997). Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). An update: a roundtable presentation. Adv Exp Med Biol, 418, 193-9. PMID: 9331631.

Leung, D. M., Schlievert, P. M. (1997). Superantigens in human disease: Future directions in therapy and elucidation of disease pathogenesis. In D. Y. Leung , B. T. Huber , P. M. Schlievert (Eds.) Superantigens: Molecular Biology, Immunology, and Relevance to Human Disease. pp. 581-602. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY.

Leung, D. Y., Huber, B. T., Schlievert, P. M. (Eds.) (1997). Superantigens: Molecular Biology, Immunology, and Relevance to Human Disease. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY.

Earhart, C. A., Mitchell, D. T., Murray, D. L., Schlievert, P. M. & Ohlendorf, D. H. (1997). Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1: Molecular structure and basis for T-cell recognition. In D. Y. Leung , B. T. Huber , P. M. Schlievert (Eds.) Superantigens: Molecular Biology, Immunology, and Relevance to Human Disease. pp. 127-48. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY.

Fields, B. A., Malchiodi, E. L., Li, H., Ysern, X., Stauffacher, C. V., Schlievert, P. M., Karjalainen, K. & Mariuzza, R. A. (1996). Crystal structure of a T-cell receptor beta-chain complexed with a superantigen. Nature, 384(6605), 188-92. PMID: 8906797.

Wagner, J. G., Schlievert, P. M., Assimacopoulos, A. P., Stoehr, J. A., Carson, P. J. & Komadina, K. (1996). Acute group G streptococcal myositis associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis, 23(5), 1159-61. PMID: 8922817.

Schlievert, P. M. (1996). Effect of Merocel vaginal sponge on growth of Staphylococcus aureus and production of toxic shock syndrome-associated toxins. J Am Coll Surg, 183(1), 19-24. PMID: 8673303.

Hofer, M. F., Newell, K., Duke, R. C., Schlievert, P. M., Freed, J. H. & Leung, D. Y. (1996). Differential effects of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 on B cell apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93(11), 5425-30. PMID: 8643591.

Schlievert, P. M. (1996). Tampons and toxic shock syndrome. Med J Aust, 164(10), 635-6. PMID: 8637474.

Birnbaum, G., Kotilinek, L., Schlievert, P. M., Clark, H. B., Trotter, J., Horvath, E., Gao, E., Cox, M. & Braun, P. E. (1996). Heat shock proteins and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE): I. Immunization with a peptide of the myelin protein 2',3' cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase that is cross-reactive with a heat shock protein alters the course of EAE. J Neurosci Res, 44(4), 381-96. PMID: 8739158.

Schlievert, P. M. (1996). Reply concerning toxic shock syndrome. (Vols. 173). (5), pp. 1290-91. J Infect Dis.

Vugia, D. J., Peterson, C. L., Meyers, H. B., Kim, K. S., Arrieta, A., Schlievert, P. M., Kaplan, E. L. & Werner, S. B. (1996). Invasive group A streptococcal infections in children with varicella in Southern California. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 15(2), 146-50. PMID: 8822288.

Murray, D. L., Earhart, C. A., Mitchell, D. T., Ohlendorf, D. H., Novick, R. P. & Schlievert, P. M. (1996). Localization of biologically important regions on toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Infect Immun, 64(1), 371-4. PMID: 8557369.

Witcher, K. J., Novick, R. P. & Schlievert, P. M. (1996). Modulation of immune cell proliferation by glycerol monolaurate. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol, 3(1), 10-3. PMID: 8770497.

Kim, M. H., Assimacopoulos, A. P. & Schlievert, P. M. (1996). PCR amplification and Southern hybridization detection of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins in Streptococcus pyogenes. In D. H. Persing (Eds.) PCR Protocols for Emerging Infectious Disease. pp. 156-62. ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Manders, S. M., Heymann, W. R., Atillasoy, E., Kleeman, J. & Schlievert, P. M. (1996). Recurrent toxin-mediated perineal erythema. Arch Dermatol, 132(1), 57-60. PMID: 8546484.

Schlievert, P. M., Assimacopoulos, A. P. & Cleary, P. P. (1996). Severe invasive group A streptococcal disease: clinical description and mechanisms of pathogenesis. J Lab Clin Med, 127(1), 13-22. PMID: 8592092.

Assimacopoulos, A. P., Schlievert, P. M. (1996). Staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock and Kawasaki syndrome. In D. Schlossberg (Eds.) Current therapy of infectious disease. pp. 48-50. Mosby, St Louis.

Bohach, G. A., Stauffacher, C. V., Ohlendorf, D. H., Chi, Y. I., Vath, G. M. & Schlievert, P. M. (1996). The staphylococcal and streptococcal pyrogenic toxin family. Adv Exp Med Biol, 391, 131-54. PMID: 8726053.

Malchiodi, E. L., Eisenstein, E., Fields, B. A., Ohlendorf, D. H., Schlievert, P. M., Karjalainen, K. & Mariuzza, R. A. (1995). Superantigen binding to a T cell receptor beta chain of known three-dimensional structure. J Exp Med, 182(6), 1833-45. PMID: 7500029.

Hofer, M. F., Lester, M. R., Schlievert, P. M. & Leung, D. Y. (1995). Upregulation of IgE synthesis by staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy, 25(12), 1218-27. PMID: 8821303.

Leung, D. Y., Travers, J. B., Giorno, R., Norris, D. A., Skinner, R., Aelion, J., Kazemi, L. V., Kim, M. H., Trumble, A. E., Kotb, M. & Schlievert, P. M. (1995). Evidence for a streptococcal superantigen-driven process in acute guttate psoriasis. J Clin Invest, 96(5), 2106-12. PMID: 7593594.

Schlievert, P. M., Bohach, G. A., Ohlendorf, D. H., Stauffacher, C. V., Leung, D. Y., Murray, D. L., Prasad, G. S., Earhart, C. A., Jablonski, L. M., Hoffmann, M. L. & Chi, Y. I. (1995). Molecular structure of staphylococcus and streptococcus superantigens. J Clin Immunol, 15(6 Suppl), 4S-10S. PMID: 8613491.

Leung, D. Y., Meissner, H. C., Fulton, D. R., Quimby, F. & Schlievert, P. M. (1995). Superantigens in Kawasaki syndrome. Clin Immunol Immunopathol, 77(2), 119-26. PMID: 7586718.

Leung, D. Y., Meissner, C., Fulton, D. & Schlievert, P. M. (1995). The potential role of bacterial superantigens in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki syndrome. J Clin Immunol, 15(6 Suppl), 11S-17S. PMID: 8613483.

Schlievert, P. M. (1995). Comparison of cotton and cotton/rayon tampons for effect on production of toxic shock syndrome toxin. J Infect Dis, 172(4), 1112-4. PMID: 7561191.

Nyberg, S. L., Schlievert, P. M., Saul, W., Johnson, J. R., Ferrieri, P. & Watkins, V. S. (1995). Successful management of a serious group A streptococcal infection during the third trimester of pregnancy. Clin Infect Dis, 21(4), 1058-9. PMID: 8645817.

Forni, A. L., Kaplan, E. L., Schlievert, P. M. & Roberts, R. B. (1995). Clinical and microbiological characteristics of severe group A streptococcus infections and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Clin Infect Dis, 21(2), 233-40. PMID: 8562741.

Schad, E. M., Zaitseva, I., Zaitsev, V. N., Dohlsten, M., Kalland, T., Schlievert, P. M., Ohlendorf, D. H. & Svensson, L. A. (1995). Crystal structure of the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin type A. EMBO J, 14(14), 3292-301. PMID: 7628431.

Hussain, S. M., Luedtke, G. S., Baker, C. J., Schlievert, P. M. & Leggiadro, R. J. (1995). Invasive group B streptococcal disease in children beyond early infancy. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 14(4), 278-81. PMID: 7603808.

Leung, D. Y., Gately, M., Trumble, A., Ferguson-Darnell, B., Schlievert, P. M. & Picker, L. J. (1995). Bacterial superantigens induce T cell expression of the skin-selective homing receptor, the cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen, via stimulation of interleukin 12 production. J Exp Med, 181(2), 747-53. PMID: 7836926.

Schlievert, P. M. (1995). Role of streptococcal pyrogenic toxin superantigens in invasive disease. Spirit Bulletin, 5, 8-10.

Watanabe-Ohnishi, R., Low, D. E., McGeer, A., Stevens, D. L., Schlievert, P. M., Newton, D., Schwartz, B., Kreiswirth, B. & Kotb, M. (1995). Selective depletion of V beta-bearing T cells in patients with severe invasive group A streptococcal infections and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Ontario Streptococcal Study Project. J Infect Dis, 171(1), 74-84. PMID: 7798684.

Murray, D. L., Ohlendorf, D. H. & Schlievert, P. M. (1995). Staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens in human disease. ASM News, 61, 229-35.

Schlievert, P. M. (1995). The role of superantigens in human diseases. Curr Sci, 8, 170-4.

Smith, R. J., Schlievert, P. M., Himelright, I. M. & Baddour, L. M. (1994). Dual infections with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes causing toxic shock syndrome. Possible synergistic effects of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 19(4), 245-7. PMID: 7851088.

Roggiani, M., Schlievert, P. M. (1994). Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, including necrotizing fasciitis and myositis. (Vols. 7). (4), pp. 423-6. Curr Opin Infect Dis.

Projan, S. J., Brown-Skrobot, S., Schlievert, P. M., Vandenesch, F. & Novick, R. P. (1994). Glycerol monolaurate inhibits the production of beta-lactamase, toxic shock toxin-1, and other staphylococcal exoproteins by interfering with signal transduction. J Bacteriol, 176(14), 4204-9. PMID: 8021206.

Meissner, H. C., Schlievert, P. M. & Leung, D. Y. (1994). Mechanisms of immunoglobulin action: observations on Kawasaki syndrome and RSV prophylaxis. Immunol Rev, 139, 109-23. PMID: 7927408.

Davies, H. D., Matlow, A., Scriver, S. R., Schlievert, P. M., Lovgren, M., Talbot, J. A. & Low, D. E. (1994). Apparent lower rates of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and lower mortality in children with invasive group A streptococcal infections compared with adults. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 13(1), 49-56. PMID: 8170732.

Murray, D. L., Prasad, G. S., Earhart, C. A., Leonard, B. A., Kreiswirth, B. N., Novick, R. P., Ohlendorf, D. H. & Schlievert, P. M. (1994). Immunobiologic and biochemical properties of mutants of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. J Immunol, 152(1), 87-95. PMID: 8254210.

Birnbaum, G., Kotilinek, L. & Schlievert, P. M. (1994). Immunologic cross-reactivity between a mycobacterial heat-shock protein and the myelin basic protein, 2',3' cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase. Neurology, 44, A146.

Lee, P. K., Kreiswirth, B. N., Deringer, J. R., Projan, S. J., Eisner, W., Smith, B. L., Carlson, E., Vercellotti, G. M., Novick, R. P. & Schlievert, P. M. (1994). Nucleotide sequences and biological properties of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 from ovine and bovine-associated Staphylococcus aureus. Zentralblatt Fur Bakteriologie Supplement, 26, 328-30.

Schlievert, P. M., Leonard, B. B., Lee, P. K., Kreiswirth, B. N., Eisner, W., Projan, S. J. & Novick, R. P. (1994). Staphylococcal and group A streptococcal pyrogenic toxin superantigens associated with toxic shock syndrome and related illnesses. Zentralblatt Fur Bakteriologie Supplement, 26, 303-11.

Prasad, G. S., Earhart, C. A., Murray, D. L., Novick, R. P., Schlievert, P. M. & Ohlendorf, D. H. (1993). Structure of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Biochemistry, 32(50), 13761-6. PMID: 8268150.

Leung, D. Y., Meissner, H. C., Fulton, D. R., Murray, D. L., Kotzin, B. L. & Schlievert, P. M. (1993). Toxic shock syndrome toxin-secreting Staphylococcus aureus in Kawasaki syndrome. Lancet, 342(8884), 1385-8. PMID: 7901681.

Earhart, C. A., Prasad, G. S., Murray, D. L., Novick, R. P., Schlievert, P. M. & Ohlendorf, D. H. (1993). Growth and analysis of crystal forms of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Proteins, 17(3), 329-34. PMID: 8272430.

Ware, J. C., Eich, W. F., Ruben, E. B., Malone, J. A., Schlievert, P. M. & Gray, B. M. (1993). Streptococcal toxic shock in three Alabama children. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 12(9), 765-9. PMID: 8414805.

Wang, B., Schlievert, P. M., Gaber, A. O. & Kotb, M. (1993). Localization of an immunologically functional region of the streptococcal superantigen pepsin-extracted fragment of type 5 M protein. J Immunol, 151(3), 1419-29. PMID: 8335938.

Schlievert, P. M., Gocke, J. E. & Deringer, J. R. (1993). Group B streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome: report of a case and purification of an associated pyrogenic toxin. Clin Infect Dis, 17(1), 26-31. PMID: 8353243.

Leggiadro, R. J., Bugnitz, M. C., Peck, B. A., Luedtke, G. S., Kim, M. H., Kaplan, E. L. & Schlievert, P. M. (1993). Group A streptococcal bacteremia in a mid-south children's hospital. South Med J, 86(6), 615-8. PMID: 8506479.

Demers, B., Simor, A. E., Vellend, H., Schlievert, P. M., Byrne, S., Jamieson, F., Walmsley, S. & Low, D. E. (1993). Severe invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada: 1987-1991. Clin Infect Dis, 16(6), 792-800. PMID: 8329511.

Schlievert, P. M. (1993). Role of superantigens in human disease. J Infect Dis, 167(5), 997-1002. PMID: 8486972.

Schwab, J. H., Brown, R. R., Anderle, S. K. & Schlievert, P. M. (1993). Superantigen can reactivate bacterial cell wall-induced arthritis. J Immunol, 150(9), 4151-9. PMID: 8473753.

Musser, J. M., Kapur, V., Kanjilal, S., Shah, U., Musher, D. M., Barg, N. L., Johnston, K. H., Schlievert, P. M., Henrichsen, J., Gerlach, D., Rakita, R. M., Tanna, A., Cookson, B. D. & Huang, J. C. (1993). Geographic and temporal distribution and molecular characterization of two highly pathogenic clones of Streptococcus pyogenes expressing allelic variants of pyrogenic exotoxin A (Scarlet fever toxin). J Infect Dis, 167(2), 337-46. PMID: 8093623.

Breiman, R. F., Davis, J. P., Facklam, R. R., Gray, B. M., Hoge, C. W., Kaplan, E. L., Mortimer, E. A., Schlievert, P. M., Schwartz, B., Stevens, D. L. & Todd, J. K. (1993). Defining the Group A Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome: Rationale and Consensus Definition. JAMA, 269(3), 390-1. PMID: 8418347.

Schlievert, P. M. (1993). Role of the Staphylococcal and Streptococcal Pyrogenic-Toxin Superantigens in Human Disease. Mediguide to Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 1-7.

Blocki, F. A., Schlievert, P. M. & Wackett, L. P. (1992). Rat liver protein linking chemical and immunological detoxification systems. Nature, 360(6401), 269-70. PMID: 1436109.

Cherchi, G. B., Kaplan, E. L., Schlievert, P. M., Bitti, A. & Orefici, G. (1992). First reported case of Streptococcus pyogenes infection with toxic shock-like syndrome in Italy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 11(9), 836-8. PMID: 1468424.

Leonard, B. A., Schlievert, P. M. (1992). Immune cell lethality induced by streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A and endotoxin. Infect Immun, 60(9), 3747-55. PMID: 1500185.

Kapur, V., Nelson, K., Schlievert, P. M., Selander, R. K. & Musser, J. M. (1992). Molecular population genetic evidence of horizontal spread of two alleles of the pyrogenic exotoxin C gene (speC) among pathogenic clones of Streptococcus pyogenes. Infect Immun, 60(9), 3513-7. PMID: 1500157.

Lee, P. K., Kreiswirth, B. N., Deringer, J. R., Projan, S. J., Eisner, W., Smith, B. L., Carlson, E., Novick, R. P. & Schlievert, P. M. (1992). Nucleotide sequences and biological properties of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 from ovine- and bovine-associated Staphylococcus aureus. J Infect Dis, 165(6), 1056-63. PMID: 1583323.

Begovac, J., Gmajnicki, B., Schlievert, P. M., Johnson, D. R. & Kaplan, E. L. (1992). Production of pyrogenic exotoxins in group A streptococci isolated from patients in Zagreb, Croatia. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 11(6), 540-3. PMID: 1526238.

Chapnick, E. K., Gradon, J. D., Lutwick, L. I., Kim, J., Levi, M., Kim, M. H. & Schlievert, P. M. (1992). Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome due to noninvasive pharyngitis. Clin Infect Dis, 14(5), 1074-7. PMID: 1600009.

Cone, L. A., Woodard, D. R., Byrd, R. G., Schulz, K., Kopp, S. M. & Schlievert, P. M. (1992). A recalcitrant, erythematous, desquamating disorder associated with toxin-producing staphylococci in patients with AIDS. J Infect Dis, 165(4), 638-43. PMID: 1552193.

Schlievert, P. M., Deringer, J. R., Kim, M. H., Projan, S. J. & Novick, R. P. (1992). Effect of glycerol monolaurate on bacterial growth and toxin production. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 36(3), 626-31. PMID: 1622174.

Musser, J. M., Gray, B. M., Schlievert, P. M. & Pichichero, M. E. (1992). Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngitis: characterization of strains by multilocus enzyme genotype, M and T protein serotype, and pyrogenic exotoxin gene probing. J Clin Microbiol, 30(3), 600-3. PMID: 1551976.

Cleary, P. P., Kaplan, E. L., Handley, J. P., Wlazlo, A., Kim, M. H., Hauser, A. R. & Schlievert, P. M. (1992). Clonal basis for resurgence of serious Streptococcus pyogenes disease in the 1980s. Lancet, 339(8792), 518-21. PMID: 1346879.

Tomai, M. A., Schlievert, P. M. & Kotb, M. (1992). Distinct T-cell receptor V beta gene usage by human T lymphocytes stimulated with the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins and pep M5 protein. Infect Immun, 60(2), 701-5. PMID: 1530928.

Ostrow, R. S., Forslund, K. M., McGlennen, R. C., Shaw, D. P., Schlievert, P. M., Ussery, M. A., Huggins, J. W. & Faras, A. J. (1992). Ribavirin mitigates wart growth in rabbits at early stages of infection with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus. Antiviral Res, 17(2), 99-113. PMID: 1313222.

Schlievert, P. M., MacDonald, K. M. (1992). Toxic shock syndrome. In S. L. Gorbach , J. G. Bartlett , N. R. Blacklow (Eds.) Infectious Diseases. pp. 889-93. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.

Lee, P. K., Schlievert, P. M. (1992). Toxic shock-like syndrome.

Schlievert, P. M., Kim, M. H. (1991). Reporting of toxic shock syndrome Staphylococcus aureus in 1982 to 1990. J Infect Dis, 164(6), 1245-6. PMID: 1955734.

Kaplan, E. L., Johnson, D. R., Wlazlo, A., Kim, M. H. & Schlievert, P. M. (1991). Stability of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin production with laboratory manipulation of group A streptococci. J Infect Dis, 164(6), 1210-1. PMID: 1955721.

Nelson, K., Schlievert, P. M., Selander, R. K. & Musser, J. M. (1991). Characterization and clonal distribution of four alleles of the speA gene encoding pyrogenic exotoxin A (scarlet fever toxin) in Streptococcus pyogenes. J Exp Med, 174(5), 1271-4. PMID: 1940804.

Lee, P. K., Vercellotti, G. M., Deringer, J. R. & Schlievert, P. M. (1991). Effects of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 on aortic endothelial cells. J Infect Dis, 164(4), 711-9. PMID: 1654356.

Bradley, J. S., Schlievert, P. M. & Peterson, B. M. (1991). Toxic shock-like syndrome, a complication of strep throat. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 10(10), 790. PMID: 1945587.

Hauser, A. R., Stevens, D. L., Kaplan, E. L. & Schlievert, P. M. (1991). Molecular analysis of pyrogenic exotoxins from Streptococcus pyogenes isolates associated with toxic shock-like syndrome. J Clin Microbiol, 29(8), 1562-7. PMID: 1684795.

Wheeler, M. C., Roe, M. H., Kaplan, E. L., Schlievert, P. M. & Todd, J. K. (1991). Outbreak of group A streptococcus septicemia in children. Clinical, epidemiologic, and microbiological correlates. JAMA, 266(4), 533-7. PMID: 2061980.

Belani, K., Schlievert, P. M., Kaplan, E. L. & Ferrieri, P. (1991). Association of exotoxin-producing group A streptococci and severe disease in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 10(5), 351-4. PMID: 2067883.

Musser, J. M., Hauser, A. R., Kim, M. H., Schlievert, P. M., Nelson, K. & Selander, R. K. (1991). Streptococcus pyogenes causing toxic-shock-like syndrome and other invasive diseases: clonal diversity and pyrogenic exotoxin expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 88(7), 2668-72. PMID: 1672766.

Leonard, B. A., Lee, P. K., Jenkins, M. K. & Schlievert, P. M. (1991). Cell and receptor requirements for streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin T-cell mitogenicity. Infect Immun, 59(3), 1210-4. PMID: 1997426.

Lee, P. K., Deringer, J. R., Kreiswirth, B. N., Novick, R. P. & Schlievert, P. M. (1991). Fluid replacement protection of rabbits challenged subcutaneous with toxic shock syndrome toxins. Infect Immun, 59(3), 879-84. PMID: 1997438.

Hauser, A. R., Goshorn, S. C., Kaplan, E. L., Stevens, D. L. & Schlievert, P. M. (1991). Molecular analysis of the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins. In G. M. Dunny , P. P. Cleary , L. L. McKay (Eds.) Genetics and Molecular Biology of Streptococci, Lactococci, and Enterococci. pp. 195-200. ASM Publications, Washington, DC.

Lee, P. K., Schlievert, P. M. (1991). Molecular genetics of pyrogenic exotoxin "superantigens" of group A streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 174, 1-19. PMID: 1802616.

Bradley, J. S., Schlievert, P. M. & Sample Jr, T. G. (1991). Streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome as a complication of varicella. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 10(1), 77-9. PMID: 2003062.

Valenzuela, T. D., Hooton, T. M., Kaplan, E. L. & Schlievert, P. M. (1991). Transmission of 'toxic strep' syndrome from an infected child to a firefighter during CPR. Ann Emerg Med, 20(1), 90-2. PMID: 1984738.

Hauser, A. R., Schlievert, P. M. (1990). Nucleotide sequence of the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type B gene and relationship between the toxin and the streptococcal proteinase precursor. J Bacteriol, 172(8), 4536-42. PMID: 2198264.

McCollister, B. D., Kreiswirth, B. N., Novick, R. P. & Schlievert, P. M. (1990). Production of toxic shock syndrome-like illness in rabbits by Staphylococcus aureus D4508: association with enterotoxin A. Infect Immun, 58(7), 2067-70. PMID: 2365451.

Norton, S. D., Schlievert, P. M., Novick, R. P. & Jenkins, M. K. (1990). Molecular requirements for T cell activation by the staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. J Immunol, 144(6), 2089-95. PMID: 2313089.

Musser, J. M., Schlievert, P. M., Chow, A. W., Ewan, P., Kreiswirth, B. N., Rosdahl, V. T., Naidu, A. S., Witte, W. & Selander, R. K. (1990). A single clone of Staphylococcus aureus causes the majority of cases of toxic shock syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 87(1), 225-9. PMID: 1967495.

Schlievert, P. M., Bohach, G. A., Hovde, C. J., Kreiswirth, B. N. & Novick, R. P. (1990). Molecular studies of toxic shock syndrome associated staphylococcal and streptococcal toxins. In R. P. Novick (Eds.) Molecular Biology of Staphylococci. pp. 313-26. VCH Publishers, NY.

Nelson, R. D., Fast, D. J. & Schlievert, P. M. (1990). Pyrogenic toxin stimulation of TNF Production by human mononuclear leukocytes and effect of TNF on neutrophil Chemotaxis. In B. Bonavida , G. Granger (Eds.) Tumor Necrosis Factor: Structure, Mechanism of Action, Role in Disease and Therapy. pp. 177-86. S. Karger, Basel, Switzerland.

Bohach, G. A., Fast, D. J., Nelson, R. D. & Schlievert, P. M. (1990). Staphylococcal and streptococcal pyrogenic toxins involved in toxic shock syndrome and related illnesses. Crit Rev Microbiol, 17(4), 251-72. PMID: 2206394.

Lee, P. K., Schlievert, P. M. (1989). Quantification and toxicity of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins in an animal model of toxic shock syndrome-like illness. J Clin Microbiol, 27(8), 1890-2. PMID: 2504778.

Stevens, D. L., Tanner, M. H., Winship, J., Swarts, R., Ries, K. M., Schlievert, P. M. & Kaplan, E. (1989). Severe group A streptococcal infections associated with a toxic shock-like syndrome and scarlet fever toxin A. N Engl J Med, 321(1), 1-7. PMID: 2659990.

Bohach, G. A., Schlievert, P. M. (1989). Conservation of the biologically active portions of staphylococcal enterotoxins C1 and C2. Infect Immun, 57(7), 2249-52. PMID: 2543637.

Rizkallah, M. F., Tolaymat, A., Martinez, J. S., Schlievert, P. M. & Ayoub, E. M. (1989). Toxic shock syndrome caused by a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that produces enterotoxin C but not toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. Am J Dis Child, 143(7), 848-9. PMID: 2741860.

Goshorn, S. C., Schlievert, P. M. (1989). Bacteriophage association of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C. J Bacteriol, 171(6), 3068-73. PMID: 2566595.

Schlievert, P. M., Gray, E. D. (1989). Group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (scarlet fever toxin) type A and blastogen A are the same protein. Infect Immun, 57(6), 1865-7. PMID: 2498210.

Priest, B. P., Schlievert, P. M. & Dunn, D. L. (1989). Treatment of toxic shock syndrome with endotoxin-neutralizing antibody. J Surg Res, 46(6), 527-31. PMID: 2733415.

Cavalieri, S. J., Allais, J. M., Schlievert, P. M., Dworzack, D. L. & Clark, R. B. (1989). Group A streptococcal peritonitis in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Med, 86(2), 249-50. PMID: 2643874.

Bohach, G. A., Kreiswirth, B. N., Novick, R. P. & Schlievert, P. M. (1989). Analysis of toxic shock syndrome isolates producing staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C1 with use of southern hybridization and immunologic assays. Rev Infect Dis, 11(Suppl 1), S75-81; discussion S81-2. PMID: 2494691.

Bohach, G. A., Handley, J. P. & Schlievert, P. M. (1989). Biological and immunological properties of the carboxyl terminus of staphylococcal enterotoxin C1. Infect Immun, 57(1), 23-8. PMID: 2909489.

Schlievert, P. M. (1989). Role of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in toxic shock syndrome: overview. Rev Infect Dis, 11 Suppl 1, S107-9. PMID: 2648535.

Kreiswirth, B. N., Projan, S. J., Schlievert, P. M. & Novick, R. P. (1989). Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 is encoded by a variable genetic element. Rev Infect Dis, 11 Suppl 1, S83-8; discussion S88-9. PMID: 2564693.

Fast, D. J., Schlievert, P. M. & Nelson, R. D. (1989). Toxic shock syndrome-associated staphylococcal and streptococcal pyrogenic toxins are potent inducers of tumor necrosis factor production. Infect Immun, 57(1), 291-4. PMID: 2642470.

Peng, H. L., Novick, R. P., Kreiswirth, B., Kornblum, J. & Schlievert, P. M. (1988). Cloning, characterization, and sequencing of an accessory gene regulator (agr) in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol, 170(9), 4365-72. PMID: 2457579.

Murphy, B. G., Kreiswirth, B. N., Novick, R. P. & Schlievert, P. M. (1988). Localization of a biologically important epitope on toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1. J Infect Dis, 158(3), 549-55. PMID: 2457635.

Goshorn, S. C., Schlievert, P. M. (1988). Nucleotide sequence of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C. Infect Immun, 56(9), 2518-20. PMID: 3045005.

Kass, E. H., Schlievert, P. M., Parsonnet, J. & Mills, J. T. (1988). Effect of magnesium on production of toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1: a collaborative study. J Infect Dis, 158(1), 44-51. PMID: 3134495.

Bohach, G. A., Hauser, A. R. & Schlievert, P. M. (1988). Cloning of the gene, speB, for streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type B in Escherichia coli. Infect Immun, 56(6), 1665-7. PMID: 3286506.

Goshorn, S. C., Bohach, G. A. & Schlievert, P. M. (1988). Cloning and characterization of the gene, speC, for pyrogenic exotoxin type C from Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol Gen Genet, 212(1), 66-70. PMID: 2836707.

Bohach, G. A., Hovde, C. J., Handley, J. P. & Schlievert, P. M. (1988). Cross-neutralization of staphylococcal and streptococcal pyrogenic toxins by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Infect Immun, 56(2), 400-4. PMID: 2448242.

Fast, D. J., Schlievert, P. M. & Nelson, R. D. (1988). Nonpurulent response to toxic shock syndrome toxin 1-producing Staphylococcus aureus. Relationship to toxin-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor. J Immunol, 140(3), 949-53. PMID: 3339245.

Bohach, G. A., Schlievert, P. M. (1988). Detection of endotoxin by enhancement with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Methods Enzymol, 165, 302-6. PMID: 3231108.

Schlievert, P. M. (1988). Immunochemical assays for toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. Methods Enzymol, 165, 339-44. PMID: 3148098.

Blomster-Hautamaa, D. A., Schlievert, P. M. (1988). Non-enteric staphylococcal toxins. In C. Hardegree , W. Habig , A. Tu (Eds.) Bacterial Toxins. pp. 267-95. Marcel Dekker.

Blomster-Hautamaa, D. A., Schlievert, P. M. (1988). Preparation of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. Methods Enzymol, 165, 37-43. PMID: 3231114.

Wannamaker, L. W., Schlievert, P. M. (1988). Streptococcal exotoxins. In C. Hardegree , W. Habig , A. Tu (Eds.) Bacterial Toxins. pp. 297-330. Marcel Dekker.

Kreiswirth, B. N., Schlievert, P. M. & Novick, R. P. (1987). Evaluation of coagulase-negative staphylococci for ability to produce toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. J Clin Microbiol, 25(10), 2028-9. PMID: 3117846.

Bohach, G. A., Schlievert, P. M. (1987). Nucleotide sequence of the staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 gene and relatedness to other pyrogenic toxins. Mol Gen Genet, 209(1), 15-20. PMID: 2823067.

Cone, L. A., Woodard, D. R., Schlievert, P. M. & Tomory, G. S. (1987). Clinical and bacteriologic observations of a toxic shock-like syndrome due to Streptococcus pyogenes. N Engl J Med, 317(3), 146-9. PMID: 3299086.

Poindexter, N. J., Schlievert, P. M. (1987). Binding of toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1 to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Infect Dis, 156(1), 122-9. PMID: 3598213.

Kreiswirth, B. N., Handley, J. P., Schlievert, P. M. & Novick, R. P. (1987). Cloning and expression of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in Bacillus subtilis. Mol Gen Genet, 208(1-2), 84-7. PMID: 3112526.

Stone, R. L., Schlievert, P. M. (1987). Evidence for the involvement of endotoxin in toxic shock syndrome. J Infect Dis, 155(4), 682-9. PMID: 2950183.

MacDonald, K. L., Osterholm, M. T., Hedberg, C. W., Schrock, C. G., Peterson, G. F., Jentzen, J. M., Leonard, S. A. & Schlievert, P. M. (1987). Toxic shock syndrome. A newly recognized complication of influenza and influenzalike illness. JAMA, 257(8), 1053-8. PMID: 3806893.

Bohach, G. A., Schlievert, P. M. (1987). Expression of staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 in Escherichia coli. Infect Immun, 55(2), 428-32. PMID: 3542834.

Schlievert, P. M., Johnson, L. P., Tomai, M. A. & Handley, J. P. (1987). Characterization and genetics of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins. In J. J. Ferretti , R. Curtiss III (Eds.) Streptococcal Genetics. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.

Blomster-Hautamaa, D. A., Novick, R. P. & Schlievert, P. M. (1986). Localization of biologic functions of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 by use of monoclonal antibodies and cyanogen bromide-generated toxin fragments. J Immunol, 137(11), 3572-6. PMID: 3782792.

Blomster-Hautamaa, D. A., Kreiswirth, B. N., Kornblum, J. S., Novick, R. P. & Schlievert, P. M. (1986). The nucleotide and partial amino acid sequence of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. J Biol Chem, 261(33), 15783-6. PMID: 3782090.

Kreiswirth, B. N., Kravitz, G. R., Schlievert, P. M. & Novick, R. P. (1986). Nosocomial transmission of a strain of Staphylococcus aureus causing toxic shock syndrome. Ann Intern Med, 105(5), 704-7. PMID: 3021039.

Schlievert, P. M. (1986). Staphylococcal enterotoxin B and toxic-shock syndrome toxin-1 are significantly associated with non-menstrual TSS. Lancet, 1(8490), 1149-50. PMID: 2871397.

Johnson, L. P., Tomai, M. A. & Schlievert, P. M. (1986). Bacteriophage involvement in group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A production. J Bacteriol, 166(2), 623-7. PMID: 3009415.

Johnson, L. P., L'Italien, J. J. & Schlievert, P. M. (1986). Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type A (scarlet fever toxin) is related to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B. Mol Gen Genet, 203(2), 354-6. PMID: 3526093.

Poindexter, N. J., Schlievert, P. M. (1986). Suppression of immunoglobulin-secreting cells from human peripheral blood by toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1. J Infect Dis, 153(4), 772-9. PMID: 3512737.

Blomster-Hautamaa, D. A., Kreiswirth, B. N., Novick, R. P. & Schlievert, P. M. (1986). Resolution of highly purified toxic-shock syndrome toxin 1 into two distinct proteins by isoelectric focusing. Biochemistry, 25(1), 54-9. PMID: 3954993.

Keane, W. F., Gekker, G., Schlievert, P. M. & Peterson, P. K. (1986). Enhancement of endotoxin-induced isolated renal tubular cell injury by toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Am J Pathol, 122(1), 169-76. PMID: 3079956.

Schlievert, P. M. (1986). Principles of bacterial infection and immunity. In R. P. Galask , B. Larsen (Eds.) Infectious Diseases for the Obstetrician and Gynecologist. Springer Verlag.

Recsei, P., Kreiswirth, B., O'Reilly, M., Schlievert, P. M., Gruss, A. & Novick, R. P. (1986). Regulation of exoprotein gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus by agar. Mol Gen Genet, 202(1), 58-61. PMID: 3007938.

Schlievert, P. M. (1985). Effect of magnesium on production of toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1 by Staphylococcus aureus. J Infect Dis, 152(3), 618-20. PMID: 4031559.

Recsei, P., Kreiswirth, B., O'Reilly, M., Schlievert, P. M., Gruss, A. & Novick, R. P. (1985). Regulation of exoprotein gene expression by agr. In Proc Fifth Internat Symp Staph and Staphylococcal Infect. pp. 701-6. Gustav Fisher Verlag, NY.

Poindexter, N. J., Schlievert, P. M. (1985). The Biochemical and Immunological Properties of Toxic-Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (Tsst-1) and Association with TSS. J Toxicol Tox Rev, 4(1), 1-39. DOI: 10.3109/15569548509014412.

Poindexter, N. J., Schlievert, P. M. (1985). Toxic-shock-syndrome toxin 1-induced proliferation of lymphocytes: comparison of the mitogenic response of human, murine, and rabbit lymphocytes. J Infect Dis, 151(1), 65-72. PMID: 3871225.

Schlievert, P. M., Blomster, D. A. & Kelly, J. A. (1984). Toxic shock syndrome Staphylococcus aureus: effect of tampons on toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 production. Obstet Gynecol, 64(5), 666-71. PMID: 6436761.

Bergdoll, M. S., Schlievert, P. M. (1984). Toxic-shock syndrome toxin. Lancet, 2(8404), 691. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(84)91241-8.

Schlievert, P. M., Kelly, J. A. (1984). Clindamycin-induced suppression of toxic-shock syndrome--associated exotoxin production. J Infect Dis, 149(3), 471. PMID: 6715902.

Schlievert, P. M. (1984). Biological properties of toxic shock syndrome exotoxin. Surv Synth Pathol Res, 3(1), 54-62. PMID: 6505480.

Johnson, L. P., Schlievert, P. M. (1984). Group A streptococcal phage T12 carries the structural gene for pyrogenic exotoxin type A. Mol Gen Genet, 194(1-2), 52-6. PMID: 6374381.

Bergdoll, M. S., Schlievert, P. M. (1984). Toxic-shock syndrome toxin-one. ASM News, 50, 525.

Kreiswirth, B. N., Löfdahl, S., Betley, M. J., O'Reilly, M., Schlievert, P. M., Bergdoll, M. S. & Novick, R. P. (1983). The toxic shock syndrome exotoxin structural gene is not detectably transmitted by a prophage. Nature, 305(5936), 709-12. PMID: 6226876.

Bonventre, P. F., Weckbach, L., Staneck, J., Schlievert, P. M. & Thompson, M. (1983). Production of staphylococcal enterotoxin F and pyrogenic exotoxin C by Staphylococcus aureus isolates from toxic shock syndrome-associated sources. Infect Immun, 40(3), 1023-9. PMID: 6189784.

Schlievert, P. M., Varner, M. W. & Galask, R. P. (1983). Endotoxin enhancement as a possible etiology of early-onset group B beta-hemolytic streptococcal sepsis in the newborn. Obstet Gynecol, 61(5), 588-92. PMID: 6340011.

Pollack, M., Weinberg, W. G., Hoskins, W. J., O'Brien, W. F., Iannini, P. B., Anderson, S. E. & Schlievert, P. M. (1983). Toxinogenic vaginal infections due to Staphylococcus aureus in menstruating rhesus monkeys without toxic-shock syndrome. J Infect Dis, 147(5), 963-4. PMID: 6842033.

Schlievert, P. M. (1983). Alteration of immune function by staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C: possible role in toxic-shock syndrome. J Infect Dis, 147(3), 391-8. PMID: 6833789.

Altemeier, W. A., Lewis, S. A., Bjornson, H. S., Staneck, J. L. & Schlievert, P. M. (1983). Staphylococcus in toxic shock syndrome and other surgical infections. Development of new bacteriophages. Arch Surg, 118(3), 281-4. PMID: 6218795.

Schlievert, P. M., Blomster, D. A. (1983). Production of staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C: influence of physical and chemical factors. J Infect Dis, 147(2), 236-42. PMID: 6827140.

Peterson, P. K., Schlievert, P. M., Conroy, W., Kelly, J. A., Spika, J. & Quie, P. G. (1983). Protection against staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C-enhanced endotoxin lethality with methylprednisolone and IgG. J Infect Dis, 147(2), 358. PMID: 6827151.

Johnson, L. P., Schlievert, P. M. (1983). A physical map of the group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin bacteriophage T12 genome. Mol Gen Genet, 189(2), 251-5. PMID: 6304466.

Schlievert, P. M. (1983). Toxic-shock syndrome Staphylococcus aureus: Methods for detection. Lab Management, 21, 38-42.

Kreiswirth, B. N., Novick, R. P., Schlievert, P. M. & Bergdoll, M. (1982). Genetic studies on Staphylococcal strains from patients with toxic shock syndrome. Ann Intern Med, 96(6 Pt 2), 974-7. PMID: 6212007.

Schlievert, P. M., Kelly, J. A. (1982). Staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C: further characterization. Ann Intern Med, 96(6 Pt 2), 982-6. PMID: 7091979.

Altemeier, W. A., Lewis, S. A., Schlievert, P. M., Bergdoll, M. S., Bjornson, H. S., Staneck, J. L. & Crass, B. A. (1982). Staphylococcus aureus associated with toxic shock syndrome: phage typing and toxin capability testing. Ann Intern Med, 96(6 Pt 2), 978-82. PMID: 6212008.

Schlievert, P. M., Osterholm, M. T., Kelly, J. A. & Nishimura, R. D. (1982). Toxin and enzyme characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with and without toxic shock syndrome. Ann Intern Med, 96(6 Pt 2), 937-40. PMID: 7091971.

Schlievert, P. M. (1982). Enhancement of host susceptibility to lethal endotoxin shock by staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C. Infect Immun, 36(1), 123-8. PMID: 7042568.

Schachern, P. A., Paparella, M. M., Goycoolea, M., Goldberg, B. & Schlievert, P. M. (1981). The round window membrane following application of staphylococcal exotoxin: an electron microscopic study. Laryngoscope, 91(12), 2007-17. PMID: 7321721.

Altemeier, W. A., Lewis, S., Schlievert, P. M. & Bjornson, H. S. (1981). Studies of the staphylococcal causation of toxic shock syndrome. Surg Gynecol Obstet, 153(4), 481-5. PMID: 6456561.

Goldberg, B., Goycoolea, M. V., Schlievert, P. M., Shea, D., Schachern, P., Paparella, M. M. & Carpenter, A. M. (1981). Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla. Am J Otolaryngol, 2(3), 210-4. PMID: 7283064.

Schlievert, P. M., Shands, K. N., Dan, B. B., Schmid, G. P. & Nishimura, R. D. (1981). Identification and characterization of an exotoxin from Staphylococcus aureus associated with toxic-shock syndrome. J Infect Dis, 143(4), 509-16. PMID: 6972418.

Schlievert, P. M. (1981). Staphylococcal scarlet fever: role of pyrogenic exotoxins. Infect Immun, 31(2), 732-6. PMID: 7216472.

Larsen, B., Schlievert, P. M. (1981). TSS: The mystery unfolds. Contemp OB/Gyn, 18, 219-29.

Schlievert, P. M. (1980). Purification and characterization of staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type B. Biochemistry, 19(26), 6204-8. PMID: 6781533.

Schlievert, P. M. (1980). Activation of murine T-suppressor lymphocytes by group A streptococcal and staphylococcal pyurogenic exotoxins. Infect Immun, 28(3), 876-80. PMID: 6447111.

Johnson, L. P., Schlievert, P. M. & Watson, D. W. (1980). Transfer of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin production to nontoxigenic strains of lysogenic conversion. Infect Immun, 28(1), 254-7. PMID: 6991440.

Schlievert, P. M., Bettin, K. M. & Watson, D. W. (1980). Inhibition of ribonucleic acid synthesis by group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin. Infect Immun, 27(2), 542-8. PMID: 6155335.

Goycoolea, M. V., Paparella, M. M., Goldberg, B., Schlievert, P. M. & Carpenter, A. M. (1980). Permeability of the middle ear to staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin in otitis media. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 1(4), 301-8. PMID: 7451031.

Schlievert, P. M., Schoettle, D. J. & Watson, D. W. (1980). Ganglioside and monosaccharide inhibition of nonspecific lymphocyte mitogenicity by group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins. Infect Immun, 27(1), 276-9. PMID: 6987174.

Schlievert, P. M., Watson, D. W. (1979). Biogenic amine involvement in pyrogenicity and enhancement of lethal endotoxin shock by group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 162(2), 269-74. PMID: 42075.

Schlievert, P. M., Bettin, K. M. & Watson, D. W. (1979). Natural phosphorylation of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C. Infect Immun, 26(2), 585-9. PMID: 121110.

Schlievert, P. M., Bettin, K. M. & Watson, D. W. (1979). Production of pyrogenic exotoxin by groups of streptococci: association with group A. J Infect Dis, 140(5), 676-81. PMID: 393776.

Schlievert, P. M., Bettin, K. M. & Watson, D. W. (1979). Reinterpretation of the Dick test: role of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin. Infect Immun, 26(2), 467-72. PMID: 161910.

Schlievert, P. M., Schoettle, D. J. & Watson, D. W. (1979). Nonspecific T-lymphocyte mitogenesis by pyrogenic exotoxins from group A streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun, 25(3), 1075-7. PMID: 387590.

Schlievert, P. M., Schoettle, D. J. & Watson, D. W. (1979). Purification and physicochemical and biological characterization of a staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin. Infect Immun, 23(3), 609-17. PMID: 457253.

Barsumian, E. L., Schlievert, P. M. & Watson, D. W. (1978). Nonspecific and specific immunological mitogenicity by group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins. Infect Immun, 22(3), 681-8. PMID: 365764.

Schlievert, P. M., Watson, D. W. (1978). Group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin: pyrogenicity, alteration of blood-brain barrier, and separation of sites for pyrogenicity and enhancement of lethal endotoxin shock. Infect Immun, 21(3), 753-63. PMID: 361577.

Barsumian, E. L., Cunningham, C. M., Schlievert, P. M. & Watson, D. W. (1978). Heterogeneity of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type B. Infect Immun, 20(2), 512-8. PMID: 352946.

Schlievert, P. M., Bettin, K. M. & Watson, D. W. (1978). Effect of antipyretics on group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin fever production and ability to enhance lethal endotoxin shock. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 157(3), 472-5. PMID: 345284.

Schlievert, P. M., Bettin, K. M. & Watson, D. W. (1977). Purification and characterization of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C. Infect Immun, 16(2), 873-9. PMID: 324918.

Schlievert, P. M., Johnson, W. & Galask, R. P. (1977). Bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid. VII. The effect of zinc supplementation on bacterial inhibitory activity of amniotic fluids from gestation of 20 weeks. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 127(6), 603-8. PMID: 842586.

Schlievert, P. M., Johnson, W. & Galask, R. P. (1977). Amniotic fluid antibacterial mechanisms: newer concepts. Semin Perinatol, 1(1), 59-70. PMID: 370990.

Schlievert, P. M., Johnson, W. & Galask, R. P. (1976). Isolation of a low-molecular-weight antibacterial system from human amniotic fluid. Infect Immun, 14(5), 1156-66. PMID: 789241.

Schlievert, P. M., Johnson, W. & Galask, R. P. (1976). Bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid. V. Phosphate-to-zinc ratio as a predictor of bacterial growth-inhibitory activity. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 125(7), 899-905. PMID: 782248.

Schlievert, P. M., Johnson, W. & Galask, R. P. (1976). Bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid. VI. Evidence for a zinc-peptide antibacterial system. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 125(7), 906-10. PMID: 782249.

Schlievert, P. M. (1976). Isolation and characterization of a low molecular weight antibacterial system from human amniotic fluid. University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.

Schlievert, P. M., Larsen, B., Johnson, W. & Galask, R. P. (1975). Bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid. III. Demonstration of the variability of bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid with a new plate-count technique. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 122(7), 809-19. PMID: 1096616.

Schlievert, P. M., Larsen, B., Johnson, W. & Galask, R. P. (1975). Bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid. IV. Studies on the nature of bacterial inhibition with the use of plate-count determinations. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 122(7), 814-9. PMID: 1096617.

Larsen, B., Schlievert, P. M. & Galask, R. (1974). The spectrum of antibacterial activity of human amniotic fluid determined by scanning electron microscopy. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 119(7), 895-903. PMID: 4366790.