Nazan Aksan, PhD

Portrait
Specialty: Driving safety in at-risk populations
Research Assistant Professor of Neurology

Contact Information

Primary Office
CC208 GH
200 Hawkins Dr.
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-356-8112

Education

BS, Psychology, University of Iowa
Other, Statistics, University of Wisconsin
PhD, Psychology (Developmental Specialization), University of Wisconsin

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience

Research Summary

I’m a developmental psychologist with a strong interest in statistical modeling of trait- and state-level behavioral data to better understand self-regulation in multiple domains including driving safety in at-risk populations. To date, at-risk populations have included healthy and diseased aging, obstructive sleep apnea. These studies will expand to include brain injury patients and adolescents. Driving safety assessments include multiple platforms including simulation, real-world driving with instrumented vehicles, and black-boxes in participants’ own vehicles. EEG, peripheral physiology, and eye-trackers are integrated into our simulation environment permitting enriched assessments of self-regulation of attention. I also have strong interests in individual differences specifically how personality and affective factors relevant to risk-taking intersect with attentional self-regulation to influence driving safety. A better understanding of self-regulatory processes and how they bear on tactical and strategic decisions that bear on driving safety will inform intervention efforts to improve safety outcomes and public policy.

Publications

Aksan, N., Marini, R., Dawson, J., Tippin, J. & Rizzo, M. (In Press). Effects of actigraphically acquired sleep quality on driving outcomes in Obstructive Sleep Apnea patients and control drivers: A naturalistic driving study. Proceedings of the Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics.

Dawson, J., Bair, E., Aksan, N., Sewell, K., Tippin, J., Rizzo, M. (In Press). Contextualizing naturalistic driving data in a rural state among drivers with and without obstructive sleep apnea. Proceedings of Tenth International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, 10.

Aksan, N., Marini, R., Dawson, J., Tippin, J. & Rizzo, M. (In Press). Driving performance and driver state in obstructive sleep apnea: What changes with positive airway pressure?. Proceedings of Tenth International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, 10.

Aksan, N., Sager, L., Hacker, S., Lester, B., Dawson, J., Rizzo, M., Ebe, K. & Foley, J. (2017). Individual differences in cognitive functioning predict effectiveness of a heads-up lane departure warning for younger and older drivers. Accident; analysis and prevention, 99(Pt A), 171-183. PMID: 27898370.

Bergmeier, H., Aksan, N., McPhie, S., Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, M., Baur, L., Milgrom, J., Campbell, K., Demir, D. & Skouteris, H. (2016). Mutually Responsive Orientation: A novel observational assessment of mother-child mealtime interactions. Appetite, 105, 400-9. PMID: 27317618.

Tippin, J., Aksan, N., Dawson, J., Anderson, S. & Rizzo, M. (2016). Sleep remains disturbed in obstructive sleep apnea patients treated with positive airway pressure: a three-month cohort study using continuous actigraphy. Sleep Medicine, 22.

Yavuz, M., Selcuk, B., Corapci, F. & Aksan, N. (2016). Role of Temperament, Parenting Behaviors, and Stress on Turkish Preschoolers’ Internalizing Symptoms. Social Development. DOI: 10.1111/sode.12192.

Aksan, N., Sager, L., Hacker, S., Lester, B., Dawson, J. & Rizzo, M. (2016). Benefits from Heads-up Lane Departure Warnings Predicts Safety In the Real-World. SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety, 4(1). DOI: 10.4271/2016-01-1443.

Aksan, N., Sager, L., Marini, R., Dawson, J., Anderson, S. & Rizzo, M. (2016). Forward Collision Warning: Clues to Optimal Timing of Advisory Warnings. SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety, 4(1). DOI: 10.4271/2016-01-1439.

Aksan, N., Hacker, S., Sager, L., Dawson, J., Anderson, S. & Rizzo, M. (2016). Correspondence between simulator and on-road drive performance: Implications for assessment of driving safety. Geriatrics, 1(8). DOI: 10:3390.

Aksan, N., Hacker, S., Marini, R. & Farmer, A. (2016). Relevance of Inhibitory Control and Neurocognitive Function to Tactical Self-Regulation in the Context of Driving. Iowa City: Annals of Neurology.

Aksan, N., Dawson, J., Tippin, J., Lee, J. D. & Rizzo, M. (2015). Effects of Fatigue on Real-world Driving in Diseased and Control Participants. Proceedings of the 9th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, 2015, 268-274. PMID: 26618204.

Dawson, J. D., Yu, L., Aksan, N. S., Tippin, J., Rizzo, M. & Anderson, S. W. (2015). Feedback from Naturalistic Driving Improves Treatment Compliance in Drivers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Proceedings of the 9th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, 2015, 30-35. PMID: 26658275.

Dawson, J. D., Yu, L., Sewell, K., Skibbe, A., Aksan, N. S., Tippin, J. & Rizzo, M. (2015). Linking GPS Data to GIS Databases in Naturalistic Studies: Examples from Drivers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Proceedings of the 9th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, 2015, 148-154. PMID: 26665183.

Lester, B. D., Sager, L. N., Dawson, J., Hacker, S. D., Aksan, N., Rizzo, M. & Kitazaki, S. (2015). Pilot results on forward collision warning system effectiveness in older drivers. Proceedings of the 9th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, 2015, 345-351. PMID: 27135061.

Kochanska, G., Brock, R. L., Chen, K. H., Aksan, N. & Anderson, S. W. (2015). Paths from mother-child and father-child relationships to externalizing behavior problems in children differing in electrodermal reactivity: a longitudinal study from infancy to age 10. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(4), 721-34. PMID: 25218772.

Eggum-Wilkens, N. D., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Aksan, N. & Goldsmith, H. H. (2015). Self-Conscious Shyness: Growth during Toddlerhood, Strong Role of Genetics, and No Prediction from Fearful Shyness. Infancy : the official journal of the International Society on Infant Studies, 20(2), 160-188. PMID: 25685095.

Aksan, N., Anderson, S. W., Dawson, J., Uc, E. & Rizzo, M. (2015). Cognitive functioning differentially predicts different dimensions of older drivers' on-road safety. Accident; analysis and prevention, 75, 236-44. PMID: 25525974.

Aksan, N., Sager, L., Lester, B., Hacker, S., Dawson, J., Anderson, S. W. & Rizzo, M. (2015). Effectiveness of a Heads-Up Adaptive Lane Deviation Warning System for Middle-Aged and Older Adults. pp. 422-428. Proceedings of the 9th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design.

Wu, Y. H., Aksan, N., Rizzo, M., Stangl, E., Zhang, X. & Bentler, R. (2014). Measuring listening effort: driving simulator versus simple dual-task paradigm. Ear and hearing, 35(6), 623-32. PMID: 25083599.

Brooker, R. J., Buss, K. A., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Aksan, N., Davidson, R. J. & Goldsmith, H. H. (2014). Profiles of observed infant anger predict preschool behavior problems: moderation by life stress. Developmental psychology, 50(10), 2343-52. PMID: 25151247.

Aksan, N., Kochanska, G. & Ortmann, M. R. (2014). Mutually Responsive Orientation Scale. DOI: 10.1037/t33418-000.

McLaurin, E., McDonald, A. D., Lee, J. D., Aksan, N., Dawson, J., Tippin, J. & Rizzo, M. (2014). Variations on a theme: Topic modeling of naturalistic driving data. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society ... Annual Meeting Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Annual Meeting, 58(1), 2107-2111. PMID: 26190948.

Chen, K. H., Aksan, N., Anderson, S. W., Grafft, A. & Chapleau, M. W. (2014). Habituation of parasympathetic-mediated heart rate responses to recurring acoustic startle. Frontiers in psychology, 5, 1288. PMID: 25477830.

Hasan, S. S., Chipara, O., Wu, Y. & Aksan, N. (2014). Evaluating Auditory Contexts and Their Impacts on Hearing Aid Outcomes with Mobile Phones. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare. Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering (ICST). DOI: 10.4108/icst.pervasivehealth.2014.254952.

Skouteris, H., McCabe, M., Ricciardelli, L., Milgrom, J., Baur, L. & Aksan, N. (2014). A manual for coding filmed observations of mother-child interaction during mealtime and play: mother-child responsiveness, mother-child affect, mother control and child compliance. Burwood, Victoria: Deakin University.

Brooker, R. J., Buss, K. A., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Aksan, N., Davidson, R. J. & Goldsmith, H. H. (2013). The development of stranger fear in infancy and toddlerhood: normative development, individual differences, antecedents, and outcomes. Developmental science, 16(6), 864-78. PMID: 24118713.

McDonald, A. D., Lee, J. D., Aksan, N. S., Dawson, J. D., Tippin, J. & Rizzo, M. (2013). Highway Healthcare: How Naturalistic Driving Data Index Adherence to CPAP Therapy in Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society ... Annual Meeting. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Annual Meeting, 57(1), 1859-1863. PMID: 26500422.

Orta, I. M., Corapci, F., Yagmurlu, B. & Aksan, N. (2013). The Mediational Role of Effortful Control and Emotional Dysregulation in the Link Between Maternal Responsiveness and Turkish Preschoolers' Social Competency and Externalizing Symptoms. Infant and Child Development, 22(5), 459-479. DOI: 10.1002/icd.1806.

Aksan, N., Dawson, J. D., Emerson, J. L., Yu, L., Uc, E. Y., Anderson, S. W. & Rizzo, M. (2013). Naturalistic distraction and driving safety in older drivers. Human factors, 55(4), 841-53. PMID: 23964422.

Chen, K. H., Anderson, S. W., Rusch, M. L., Aksan, N. S., Dawson, J. D. & Rizzo, M. (2013). "Choking Under Pressure" in Older Drivers. Proceedings of the ... International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, 2013, 432-438. PMID: 27135060.

Schall, Jr, M. C., Rusch, M. L., Lee, J. D., Dawson, J. D., Thomas, G., Aksan, N. & Rizzo, M. (2013). Augmented reality cues and elderly driver hazard perception. Human factors, 55(3), 643-58. PMID: 23829037.

Dawson, J. D., Yu, L., Chen, K. H., Rusch, M., Johnson, A. M., Aksan, N. S., Sunda, T., Hiramatsu, M., Anderson, S. W. & Rizzo, M. (2013). Neuropsychological predictors of safety in urban left-turn scenarios. Proceedings of the 7th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, 2013, 226-232. PMID: 27135059.

Rizzo, M., Tippin, J. & Aksan, N. (2013). Final report on the diagnostic tools for identifying sleep drivers in the field - Phase II. In Report number RB21-012. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics, Department of Neurology ; Sponsored by Iowa Department of Transportation & Federal Highway Administration.

Aksan, N., Schall, M., Anderson, S., Dawson, J., Tippin, J. & Rizzo, M. (2013). Can Intermittent Video Sampling Capture Individual Differences in Naturalistic Driving?. Proceedings of the ... International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, 135-141. PMID: 24535569.

Yu, L., Dawson, J. D., Aksan, N. S., Tippin, J. & Rizzo, M. (2013). Effects of environmental factors on naturalistic driving in obstructive sleep apnea. Proceedings of the International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, 2013, 142-148. PMID: 25374964.

McDonald, A. D., Lee, J. D., Aksan, N. S., Dawson, J. D., Tippin, J. & Rizzo, M. (2013). The Language of Driving: Advantages and Applications of Symbolic Data Reduction for Analysis of Naturalistic Driving Data. Transportation research record, 2392, 22-30. PMID: 26203202.

Krone, J. T., Dawson, J. D., Anderson, S. W., Aksan, N. S., Tippin, J. & Rizzo, M. (2013). Using feedback from naturalistic driving to improve treatment adherence in drivers with obstructive sleep apnea. Proceedings of the International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, 43-49. PMID: 24525915.

Aksan, N., Dawson, J. D., Anderson, S. A., Uc, E. & Rizzo, M. (2013). Differential and unique roles of off-road assessments to on-road safety. In N. A. Stanton (Eds.) Advances in human aspects of road and rail transportation. pp. 404-411. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Cebioglu, S., Aksan, N. (2013). Benlik Düzenlemenim Gelisiminde Mizac ve Ana Baba Etkisi. In M. Sayil , B. Yagmurlu (Eds.) Ana Babalik: Kuram ve Arastirma. Koç Üniversitesi Yayinlari.

Corapci, F., Aksan, N. & Yagmurlu, B. (2012). Socialization of Turkish Children's Emotions: Do Different Emotions Elicit Different Responses?. Global Studies of Childhood, 2(2), 106-116. DOI: 10.2304/gsch.2012.2.2.106.

Skouteris, H., McCabe, M., Ricciardelli, L. A., Milgrom, J., Baur, L. A., Aksan, N. & Dell’Aquila, D. (2012). Parent–child interactions and obesity prevention: a systematic review of the literature. Early Child Development and Care, 182(2), 153-174. DOI: 10.1080/03004430.2010.548606.

Aksan, N., Anderson, S. W., Dawson, J. D., Johnson, A. M., Uc, E. Y. & Rizzo, M. (2012). Cognitive functioning predicts driver safety on road tests 1 and 2 years later. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60(1), 99-105. PMID: 22091535.

Anderson, S. W., Aksan, N., Dawson, J. D., Uc, E. Y., Johnson, A. M. & Rizzo, M. (2012). Neuropsychological assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurologic disease. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, 34(9), 895-905. PMID: 22943767.

Tippin, J., Aksan, N., Dawson, J. & Rizzo, M. (2012). Neuroergonomics of Sleep and Alertness. In Neuroergonomics. pp. 110-27. Springer Nature. DOI: 10.1057/9781137316523.0013.

Demir, D., Skouteris, H., Dell’Aquila, D., Aksan, N., McCabe, M., Ricciardelli, L., Milgrom, J. & Baur, L. (2012). An observational approach to testing bi-directional parent-child interactions as influential to child eating and weight. Early Child Development and Care, 182(8), 943–950. DOI: 10.1080/03004430.2012.678591.

Cebioglu, S., Aksan, N. (2012). Benlik Düzenlemenin Gelisiminde Mirac ve Ana Baba Etkisi. In M. Sayil , B. Yagmurlu (Eds.) Ana babalik : kuram ve aras¸tirma. Koc üniversitesi Yainlari.

Read, K., Yu, L., Emerson, J., Dawson, J., Aksan, N. & Rizzo, M. (2011). Effects of Familiarity and Age on Driver Safety Errors during Wayfinding. Proceedings of the ... International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, 2011, 569-575. PMID: 24273758.

McPhie, S., Skouteris, H., McCabe, M., Ricciardelli, L. A., Milgrom, J., Baur, L. A., Aksan, N. & Dell'aquila, D. (2011). Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: a cross-sectional study. International journal of pediatric obesity : IJPO : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 6(5-6), 476-80. PMID: 21780868.

Gagne, J. R., Van Hulle, C. A., Aksan, N., Essex, M. J. & Goldsmith, H. H. (2011). Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery—Home Version. DOI: 10.1037/t03739-000.

Rizzo, M., Tippin, J. & Aksan, N. (2011). Final report on the portable computerized assessments of sleepy drivers in operational environments. In Report number SPR 900-00-SLDR-010. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics, Department of Neurology ; Sponsored by Iowa Department of Transportation.

Gagne, J. R., Van Hulle, C. A., Aksan, N., Essex, M. J. & Goldsmith, H. H. (2011). Deriving childhood temperament measures from emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes: scale construction and initial validation. Psychological assessment, 23(2), 337-53. PMID: 21480723.

Çorapçi, F., Aksan, N., Arslan-Yalçin, D. & Yagmurlu, B. (2010). Okul öncesi dönemde duygusal davranissal ve sosyal uyum taramasi: Sosyal Yetkinlik ve Davranis Degerlendirme-30 Ölçegi. [Emotional, behavioral and social adjustment screening at school entry: Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation-30 Scale.]. Çocuk ve Gençlik Ruh Sagligi Dergisi, 17(2), 63–74.

Çorapçi, F., Aksan, N., Arslan, D. Y. & Yagmurlu, B. (2010). Emotional, Behavioral and Social Adjusment Screening at School Entry: Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation-30 Scale. Turkish Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 17(2), 63-74.

Aksan, N. & Çorapçi, B. (2010). Socioemotional development and mother-child relationship in preschool years = Erken çocukluk çaginda sosyoduygusal gelsim ve anne-çocuk iliskisi. In Final Report TUBITAK 109K106. Kavaklidere, Ankara: Tubitak.

Aksan, N., Goldsmith, H. H., Essex, M. & Vandell, D. (2009). Communicative functions of emotion in sibling relationships. In M. Russo , A. De Luca (Eds.) Psychology of Family Relationships. pp. 133-158. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.

Kochanska, G., Barry, R. A., Aksan, N. & Boldt, L. J. (2008). A developmental model of maternal and child contributions to disruptive conduct: the first six years. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines, 49(11), 1220-7. PMID: 18684154.

Kochanska, G., Aksan, N., Prisco, T. R. & Adams, E. E. (2008). Mother-child and father-child mutually responsive orientation in the first 2 years and children's outcomes at preschool age: mechanisms of influence. Child development, 79(1), 30-44. PMID: 18269507.

Kochanska, G., Aksan, N., Penney, S. J. & Doobay, A. F. (2007). Early positive emotionality as a heterogeneous trait: implications for children's self-regulation. Journal of personality and social psychology, 93(6), 1054-66. PMID: 18072854.

Anderson, S. W., Aksan, N., Kochanska, G., Damasio, H., Wisnowski, J. & Afifi, A. (2007). The earliest behavioral expression of focal damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior, 43(6), 806-16. PMID: 17710831.

Volbrecht, M. M., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Aksan, N., Zahn-Waxler, C. & Goldsmith, H. H. (2007). Examining the familial link between positive affect and empathy development in the second year. The Journal of genetic psychology, 168(2), 105-29. PMID: 17936968.

Kochanska, G., Aksan, N. & Joy, M. E. (2007). Children's fearfulness as a moderator of parenting in early socialization: Two longitudinal studies. Developmental psychology, 43(1), 222-37. PMID: 17201521.

Kochanska, G., Aksan, N., Penney, S. J. & Boldt, L. J. (2007). Parental personality as an inner resource that moderates the impact of ecological adversity on parenting. Journal of personality and social psychology, 92(1), 136-50. PMID: 17201548.

Kochanska, G., Aksan, N. (2006). Children's conscience and self-regulation. Journal of personality, 74(6), 1587-617. PMID: 17083659.

Aksan, N., Kochanska, G. & Ortmann, M. R. (2006). Mutually responsive orientation between parents and their young children: toward methodological advances in the science of relationships. Developmental psychology, 42(5), 833-48. PMID: 16953690.

Kochanska, G., Aksan, N. & Carlson, J. J. (2005). Temperament, relationships, and young children's receptive cooperation with their parents. Developmental psychology, 41(4), 648-60. PMID: 16060811.

Aksan, N., Kochanska, G. (2005). Conscience in childhood: old questions, new answers. Developmental psychology, 41(3), 506-16. PMID: 15910158.

Kochanska, G., Forman, D. R., Aksan, N. & Dunbar, S. B. (2005). Pathways to conscience: early mother-child mutually responsive orientation and children's moral emotion, conduct, and cognition. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines, 46(1), 19-34. PMID: 15660641.

Kochanska, G., Aksan, N. (2004). Development of mutual responsiveness between parents and their young children. Child development, 75(6), 1657-76. PMID: 15566371.

Forman, D. R., Aksan, N. & Kochanska, G. (2004). Toddlers' responsive imitation predicts preschool-age conscience. Psychological science, 15(10), 699-704. PMID: 15447642.

Aksan, N., Kochanska, G. (2004). Links between systems of inhibition from infancy to preschool years. Child development, 75(5), 1477-90. PMID: 15369526.

Kochanska, G., Aksan, N., Knaack, A. & Rhines, H. M. (2004). Maternal parenting and children's conscience: early security as moderator. Child development, 75(4), 1229-42. PMID: 15260874.

Kochanska, G., Aksan, N. (2004). Conscience in childhood: Past, present, and future. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50(3), 299–310.

Aksan, N., Kochanska, G. (2004). Heterogeneity of joy in infancy. Infancy, 6(1), 79–94.

Kochanska, G., Aksan, N. & Nichols, K. E. (2003). Maternal power assertion in discipline and moral discourse contexts: commonalities, differences, and implications for children's moral conduct and cognition. Developmental psychology, 39(6), 949-63. PMID: 14584977.

Aksan, N., Goldsmith, H. H. (2003). Temperament and guilt representations in children's narratives. In R. N. Emde , D. P. Wolf & D. Oppenheim (Eds.) Revealing the Inner Worlds of Young Children: The MacArthur Story Stem Battery and Parent-Child Narratives. pp. 129-46. Oxford University Press.

Kochanska, G., Aksan, N. (2003). Child compliance and parent discipline. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa.

Goldsmith, H. H., Aksan, N., Essex, M. & Vandell, D. L. (2001). Temperament and socioemotional adjustment to kindergarten: A multi-informant perspective. In T. D. Wachs , R. R. McCrae , G. A. Kohnstamm (Eds.) Temperament in Context. pp. 103-138. Psychology Press.

Aksan, N. S. (2001). Temperament and sibling conflict: The mediating role of nonverbal -affective behavior. United States – Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin - Madison.

Goldsmith, H. H., Lemery, K., Aksan, n. & Buss, K. (2000). Temperamental substrates of personality development. In D. Molfese , V. Molfese (Eds.) Temperament and Personality Development Across the Lifespan. pp. 1-32. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Aksan, N., Lemery, K. (2000). The role of emotion in the development of child psychopathology: A commentary on Zahn-Waxler. DOI: DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195133585.003.0012.

Aksan, N., Goldsmith, H. H., Smider, N. A., Essex, M. J., Clark, R., Hyde, J. S., Klein, M. H. & Vandell, D. L. (1999). Derivation and prediction of temperamental types among preschoolers. Developmental psychology, 35(4), 958-71. PMID: 10442865.

Kochanska, G., Aksan, N. & Koenig, A. L. (1995). A longitudinal study of the roots of preschoolers' conscience: committed compliance and emerging internalization. Child development, 66(6), 1752-69. PMID: 8556897.

KOCHANSKA, G., Aksan, N. (1995). Mother-child mutually positive affect, the quality of child compliance to requests and prohibitions, and maternal control as correlates of early internalization. Child Development, 66, 236-254.