Timothy J. Brennan, MD, PhD

Portrait
Professor of Anesthesia - Acute Pain and Regional Anesthesia
Professor of Pharmacology
Professor

Contact Information

Primary Office
200 Hawkins Drive
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-356-2633

Lab
3000 ML
25 South Grand Avenue
Iowa City, IA 52242
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Education

BS, Natural Science, St. John's University
PhD, Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Center
MD, Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health and Science Center
Postdoctoral Fellow, Physiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
Internship, Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
Resident, Anesthesiology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Translational Biomedicine, Medical Scientist Training Program

Research Summary

Our goal has been to improve the management of postoperative pain in surgical patients. We recognized that there was a significant gap between basic science pain research and clinical acute postoperative pain management that should be explored. We examine how surgical incisions cause pain using preclinical animal models. Having developed a model for measuring pain behaviors caused by incision in rats, we examine the key process producing clinical pain states- sensory neuron sensitization; the conversion of normal, non-painful sensory stimuli to pain eliciting responses. We utilize in vivo and in vitro neurophysiologic methods to examine the sensitization process and the resulting behavioral phenomena at the level of the primary afferent neuron, as well as the spinal cord dorsal horn. Extracellular in vivo dorsal horn cells are recorded in anesthetized rats and combined with behavioral pharmacology. The results of the spinal cord dorsal horn experiments describe why the AMPA-kainate receptor system is critical for expression of pain behaviors after incision. An area of research to develop in the future is the clinical use of spinal and epidural non-NMDA receptor antagonists for use in humans and clinical pain states. Our second area of emphasis is the peripheral sensitization process caused by incision. In vivo single fiber primary afferent recordings continue to be utilized. Recordings of pain transmitting fibers will be studied in vitro using organ sensory nerve preparations like skin nerve and muscle nerve studies. We will attempt to develop these preparations in mouse tissues to take advantage of knockout animals.

Publications

Gu, H., Sugiyama, D., Kang, S. & Brennan, T. J. (2018). Deep tissue incision enhances spinal dorsal horn neuron activity during static isometric muscle contraction in rats. The journal of pain. PMID: 30296612.

Chae, W. S., Choi, S., Sugiyama, D., Richerson, G. B., Brennan, T. J. & Kang, S. (2018). Effect of thoracic epidural anesthesia in a rat model of phrenic motor inhibition after upper abdominal surgery. Anesthesiology, 129(4), 791-807. PMID: 29952817.

Bayman, E. O., Brennan, T. J. (2018). Video-assisted thorascopic surgery versus robotic-assisted thorascopic surgery and postoperative opioid consumption. (Vols. 10). (Suppl 26) Journal of Thoracic Disease. DOI: 10/21037/jtd.2018.08.16.

Reddy, C. G., Miller, J. W., Abode-Iyamah, K. O., Safayi, S., Wilson, S., Dalm, B. D., Fredericks, D. C., Gillies, G. T., Howard, 3rd, M. A. & Brennan, T. J. (2018). Ovine model of neuropathic pain for assessing mechanisms of spinal cord stimulation therapy via dorsal horn recordings, von Frey filaments, and gait analysis. Journal of pain research, 11, 1147-1162. PMID: 29942150.

Bayman, E. O., Parekh, K. R., Keech, J., Larson, N., Vander Weg, M. & Brennan, T. J. (2018). Preoperative patient expectations of postoperative pain are associated with moderate to severe acute pain after VATS. Pain medicine. PMID: 29878248.

Eisenach, J. C., Brennan, T. J. (2018). Pain after surgery. Pain, 159(6), 1010-1011. PMID: 29768304.

Bayman, E. O., Parekh, K. R., Keech, J. C. & Brennan, T. J. (2018). Predictors of Moderate-to-Severe Acute Pain after Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery.

Bayman, E. O., Brennan, T. J. (2018). In reply. (Vols. 128). (1), pp. 225. Anesthesiology. PMID: 29232230.

Bayman, E. O., Parekh, K. R., Keech, J. & Brennan, T. J. (2017). Response to "Editorial on pain following thoracic surgery". (Vols. 9). (12), pp. E1154-5. Journal of thoracic disease. PMID: 29313846.

Bayman, E. O., Parekh, K. R., Keech, J. & Brennan, T. J. (2017). Response to "VATS vs. thoracotomy regarding postoperative chronic pain". (Vols. 9). (12), pp. E1151-3. Journal of thoracic disease. PMID: 29313852.

Sugiyama, D., Kang, S., Arpey, N., Arunakul, P., Usachev, Y. M. & Brennan, T. J. (2017). Hydrogen peroxide induces muscle nociception via transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 receptors. Anesthesiology, 127(4), 695-708. PMID: 28640016.

Bayman, E. O., Parekh, K. R., Keech, J. & Brennan, T. J. (2017). Association of preoperative expected pain with acute pain after video-assisted thorascopic surgery.

Bayman, E. O., Parekh, K. R., Keech, J., Selte, A. & Brennan, T. J. (2017). A prospective study of chronic pain after thoracic surgery. Anesthesiology, 126(5), 938-51. PMID: 28248713.

Kent, M. L., Tighe, P. J., Belfer, I., Brennan, T. J., Bruehl, S., Brummett, C. M., Buckenmaier, 3rd, C. C., Buvanendran, A., Cohen, R. I., Desjardins, P., Edwards, D., Fillingim, R., Gewandter, J., Gordon, D. B., Hurley, R. W., Kehlet, H., Loeser, J. D., Mackey, S., McLean, S. A., Polomano, R., Rahman, S., Raja, S., Rowbotham, M., Suresh, S., Schachtel, B., Schreiber, K., Schumacher, M., Stacey, B., Stanos, S., Todd, K., Turk, D. C., Weisman, S. J., Wu, C., Carr, D. B., Dworkin, R. H. & Terman, G. (2017). The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) multidimensional approach to classifying acute pain conditions. Pain Medicine, 18(5), 947-58. PMID: 28482098.

Kent, M. L., Tighe, P. J., Belfer, I., Brennan, T. J., Bruehl, S., Brummett, C. M., Buckenmaier, 3rd, C. C., Buvanendran, A., Cohen, R. I., Desjardins, P., Edwards, D., Fillingim, R., Gewandter, J., Gordon, D. B., Hurley, R. W., Kehlet, H., Loeser, J. D., Mackey, S., McLean, S. A., Polomano, R., Rahman, S., Raja, S., Rowbotham, M., Suresh, S., Schachtel, B., Schreiber, K., Schumacher, M., Stacey, B., Stanos, S., Todd, K., Turk, D. C., Weisman, S. J., Wu, C., Carr, D. B., Dworkin, R. H. & Terman, G. (2017). The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) multidimensional approach to classifying acute pain conditions. The Journal of Pain, 18(5), 479-89. PMID: 28495013.

Bayman, E. O., Parekh, K. R., Keech, J. & Brennan, T. J. (2017). A prospective study of predictors of chronic pain after thoracic surgery.

Bayman, E. O., Lennertz, R. & Brennan, T. J. (2017). Pain-related limitations in daily activities following thoracic surgery in a United States population. Pain Physician, 20(3), E367-E378. PMID: 28339436.

Sugiyama, D., Kang, S. & Brennan, T. J. (2017). Muscle reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to post-incisional guarding via the TRPA1 receptor. PloS One, 12(1), e0170410. PMID: 28103292.

Brennan, T. J., Lennertz, R. C. & Kang, S. (2016). Are opioid-tolerant patients resistant to local anesthetic nerve blockade?: we need more information. Anesthesiology, 125(4), 625-6. PMID: 27428824.

Miller, J. W., Reddy, C. G., Wilson, S., Abode-Iyamah, K. O., DeVries-Watson, N. A., Fredericks, D. C., Gillies, G. T., Johnson, M. D., Brennan, T. J. & Howard III, M. A. (2016). Spinal cord stimulation in sheep models of chronic neuropathic pain and spinal cord injury-induced spasticity.

(2016). The Danish questionnaire for pain after thoracic surgery in a United States population.

Reddy, C. G., Dalm, B. D., Flouty, O. E., Gillies, G. T., Howard, 3rd, M. A. & Brennan, T. J. (2016). Comparison of conventional and kilohertz frequency epidural stimulation in patients undergoing trialing for spinal cord stimulation: clinical considerations. World Neurosurgery, 88, 586-91. PMID: 26585728.

Gordon, D. B., de Leon-Casasola, O. A., Wu, C. L., Sluka, K. A., Brennan, T. J. & Chou, R. (2016). Research gaps in practice guidelines for acute postoperative pain management in adults: findings from a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society Clinical Practice Guideline. The Journal of Pain, 17(2), 158-66. PMID: 26719073.

Chou, R., Gordon, D. B., de Leon-Casasola, O. A., Rosenberg, J. M., Bickler, S., Brennan, T. J., Carter, T., Cassidy, C. L., Chittenden, E. H., Degenhardt, E., Griffith, S., Manworren, R., McCarberg, B., Montgomery, R., Murphy, J., Perkal, M. F., Suresh, S., Sluka, K., Strassels, S., Thirlby, R., Viscusi, E., Walco, G. A., Warner, L., Weisman, S. J. & Wu, C. L. (2016). Management of postoperative pain: a clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society, the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists' Committee on Regional Anesthesia, Executive Committee, and Administrative Council. The Journal of Pain, 17(2), 131-57. PMID: 26827847.

Dalm, B. D., Reddy, C. G., Howard, M. A., Kang, S. & Brennan, T. J. (2015). Conditioned place preference and spontaneous dorsal horn neuron activity in chronic constriction injury model in rats. Pain, 156(12), 2562-71. PMID: 26584420.

Miller, J. W., Reddy, C. G., Wilson, S., Dalm, B. D., Safayi, S., Adobe-Iyamah, K., Shivapour, S. K., Viljoen, S., Fredericks, D. C., Gibson-Corley, K. N., Grosland, N. M., Jerath, N. U., Stoner, K., Reale, R., Oya, H., Jeffery, N. D., Brennan, T. J., Gillies, G. T. & Howard III, M. A. (2015). Spinal cord stimulation in an ovine model of neuorpathic pain measured through Von Frey filaments, gait analysis, and dorsal horn recordings.

Sugiyama, D., Kang, S., Gu, H. & Brennan, T. J. (2015). Possible contribution of TRPA1 to capsaicin-induced analgesia in deep tissue pain.

Kang, S., Sugiyama, D., Gu, H. & Brennan, T. J. (2015). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces pain via TRPA1 receptors in deep tissue.

Marian, A. A., Ranganath, Y., Bayman, E. O., Senasu, J. & Brennan, T. J. (2015). A comparison of 2 ultrasound-guided approaches to the saphenous nerve block: adductor canal versus distal transsartorial: a prospective, randomized, blinded, noninferiority trial. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 40(5), 623-30. PMID: 26110441.

Wibbenmeyer, L., Eid, A., Kluesner, K., Heard, J., Zimmerman, B., Kealey, G. P. & Brennan, T. J. (2015). An evaluation of factors related to postoperative pain control in burn patients. Journal of Burn Care & Research, 36(5), 580-6. PMID: 26335109.

Vaid-Pinyard, S., Masters, J. & Brennan, T. J. (2015). The novel use of bilateral popliteal sciatic catheters for analgesia to facilitate healing from nonfreezing cold-induced injury (immersion foot).

Miller, J. W., Reddy, C. G., Wilson, S., Dalm, B. D., Safayi, S., Shivapour, S. K., Adobe-Iyamah, K., Viljoen, S., Fredericks, D. C., Gibson-Corley, K. N., Grosland, N. M., Jerath, N. U., Stoner, K., Reale, R., Oya, H., Jeffery, N. D., Brennan, T. J., Gillies, G. T. & Howard III, M. A. (2015). Spinal cord stimulation in an ovine model of neuorpathic pain measured through Von Frey filaments, gait analysis, and dorsal horn recordings.

Dalm, B. D., Viljoen, S. V., Dahdaleh, N. S., Reddy, C. G., Brennan, T. J., Oya, H., Wilson, S., Safayi, S., Jeffrey, N. D., Gillies, G. T. & Howard III, M. A. (2014). Revisiting intradural spinal cord stimulation: an introduction to a novel intradural spinal cord stimulation device. Innovative Neurosurgery, 2(1-4), 13-20. DOI: 10.1515/ins-2014-0005.

Kang, S., Sugiyama, D. & Brennan, T. J. (2014). Effect of Damage to Skin on Nociceptive Pathways. In O. Wilder-Smith , L. Arendt-Nielsen & D. Yarnitsky , K. C. Vissers (Eds.) Postoperative Pain – Science and Clinical Practice. (2), pp. 5-16. Seattle, WA: International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Press.

Kang, S., Chae, W. & Brennan, T. J. (2014). A rat model of phrenic motor inhibition after upper abdominal surgery.

Bayman, E. O., Brennan, T. J. (2014). Incidence and severity of chronic pain at 3 and 6 months after thoracotomy: meta-analysis. The Journal of Pain, 15(9), 887-97. PMID: 24968967.

Mamet, J., Klukinov, M., Yaksh, T. L., Malkmus, S. A., Williams, S., Harris, S., Manning, D. C., Taylor, B. K., Donahue, R. R., Porreca, F., Xie, J. Y., Oyarzo, J., Brennan, T. J., Subieta, A., Schmidt, W. K. & Yeomans, D. C. (2014). Single intrathecal administration of the transcription factor decoy AYX1 prevents acute and chronic pain after incisional, inflammatory, or neuropathic injury. Pain, 155(2), 322-33. PMID: 24145208.

Brennan, T. J., Kang, S. (2014). Is second pain worse than the first?. (Vols. 155). (1), pp. 2-3. Pain. PMID: 24141225.

Xu, J., Brennan, T. J. (2014). Incision-Induced Nociceptive Effects in Deep Tissue. In T. Graven-Nielsen , L. Arendt-Nielsen (Eds.) Musculoskeletal Pain: Basic Mechanisms and Implications. Washington, DC: IASP Press.

Brennan, T. J. (2014). Effects of Damage to Skin on Nociceptive Pathways. In O. Walder-Smith , L. Arendt-Nielsen , D. Yarnitsky , K. C. Vissers (Eds.) Postoperative Pain, Science and Clinical Practice. Washington, DC: IASP Press.

Kehlet, H., Edwards, R. R. & Brennan, T. J. (2014). Persistent Postoperative Pain: Pathogenic Mechanisms and Preventive Strategies. In S. N. Raja , C. L. Sommer (Eds.) Pain 2014 Refresher Courses: 15th World Congress on Pain. Washington, DC: IASP Press.

Bayman, E. O., Brennan, T. J. (2014). No change on the incidence of chronic pain after thoracotomy for three decades.

Kang, S., Brennan, T. J. (2013). Plantar Incision Model: a Preclinical Model of Postoperative Pain. In H. Handwerker , L. Arendt-Nielsen (Eds.) Pain Models: Translational Relevance and Applications. Washington, DC: IASP Press.

Kido, K., Gautam, M., Benson, C. J., Gu, H. & Brennan, T. J. (2013). Effect of deep tissue incision on pH responses of afferent fibers and dorsal root ganglia innervating muscle. Anesthesiology, 119(5), 1186-97. PMID: 23732174.

Dalm, B. D., Brennan, T. J., Elahi, F., Howard III, M. A. & Reddy, C. G. (2013). Successful conservative management of an intrathecal catheter-associated inflammatory mass. The Spine Journal, 13(11), 1708-9. PMID: 24176809.

Shutov, L. P., Warwick, C. A., Gupte, R. P., Shepherd, A. J., Brennan, T. J., Clark, D. D., Mohapatra, D. P. & Usachev, Y. M. (2013). Complement C5a produces nociceptive sensitization via TRPV1 in mouse.

Kang, S., Lee, D., Theusch, B. E., Arpey, C. J. & Brennan, T. J. (2013). Wound hypoxia in deep tissue after incision in rats. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 21(5), 730-9. PMID: 23926943.

Yalamuri, S. M., Brennan, T. J. & Spofford, C. M. (2013). Neuropeptide Y is analgesic in rats after plantar incision. European Journal of Pharmacology, 698(1-3), 206-12. PMID: 23123350.

Ueda, K., Shields, B. E. & Brennan, T. J. (2013). Transesophageal echocardiography: a novel technique for guidance and placement of an epidural catheter in infants. Anesthesiology, 118(1), 219-22. PMID: 23165474.

Flouty, O., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Wilson, S., Reddy, C. G., Jeffery, N. D., Brennan, T. J., Gibson-Corley, K. N., Utz, M., Gillies, G. T. & Howard III, M. A. (2012). A new device concept for directly modulating spinal cord pathways: initial in vivo experimental results. Physiological Measurement, 33(12), 2003-15. PMID: 23151433.

Arunakul, P., Brennan, T. J. (2012). Combined capsaicin and local anesthetic nerve blockade inhibits postoperative pain behaviors in rat plantar incision model.

Dudley-Cash, A. I., Brennan, T. J. (2012). The effect of low concentration capsaicin infiltration on acute pain from incision.

Arunakul, P., Brennan, T. J. (2012). Nerve blockade using capsaicin and local anesthetic reduces pain behaviors caused by plantar incision.

Spofford, C. M., Brennan, T. J. (2012). Gene expression in skin, muscle, and dorsal root ganglion after plantar incision in the rat. Anesthesiology, 117(1), 161-72. PMID: 22617252.

Buys, M. J., Brennan, T. J. (2012). A novel fracture pain model in the rat.

Wilson, S., Howard, M. A., Rossen, J. D., Brennan, T. J., Dalm, B. D., Dahdaleh, N. S., Utz, M. & Gillies, G. T. (2012). Pulsatile spinal cord surrogate for intradural neuromodulation studies. Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology, 36(1), 22-5. PMID: 22188575.

Kang, S., Jang, J. H., Price, M. P., Gautam, M., Benson, C. J., Gong, H., Welsh, M. J. & Brennan, T. J. (2012). Simultaneous disruption of mouse ASIC1a, ASIC2 and ASIC3 genes enhances cutaneous mechanosensitivity. PloS One, 7(4), e35225. PMID: 22506072.

Arunakul, P., Brennan, T. J. (2011). Effect of capsaicin and local anesthetic nerve blockade on pain behaviors caused by plantar incision.

Dudley-Cash, A. I., Subieta, A. R. & Brennan, T. J. (2011). The differential effect of low dose capsaicin infiltration on incisional pain.

Kang, S., Jang, J. H., Subieta, A. R., Price, M. P., Welsh, M. J. & Brennan, T. J. (2011). A role of ASICs in guarding pain behaviors and C-fiber chemosensitivity in postoperative pain.

Kido, K., Brennan, T. J. (2011). The effect of amiloride on pH response of incised muscle afferents.

Spofford, C. M., Brennan, T. J. (2011). Evaluation of a new model of postoperative pain.

Yalamuri, S. M., Brennan, T. J. & Spofford, C. M. (2011). Intrathecal administration of neuropeptide Y is analgesic after plantar incision.

Howard III, M. A., Utz, M., Brennan, T. J., Dalm, B. D., Viljoen, S., Kanwal, J. K. & Gillies, G. T. (2011). Biophysical attributes of an in vitro spinal cord surrogate for use in developing an intradural neuromodulation system. Journal of Applied Physics, 110, 074701. DOI: 10.1063/1.3642976.

Brennan, T. J., Kang, S. & Xu, J. (2011). The Neurobiology of Incisional Pain. In G. A. Mashour , R. Lydic (Eds.) Neuroscientific Foundations of Anesthesiology. pp. 141-52. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Xu, J., Brennan, T. J. (2011). The pathophysiology of acute pain: animal models. (Vols. 24). (5), pp. 508-14. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology. PMID: 21841478.

Howard III, M. A., Utz, M., Brennan, T. J., Dalm, B. D., Viljoen, S., Jeffery, N. D. & Gillies, G. T. (2011). Intradural approach to selective stimulation in the spinal cord for treatment of intractable pain: design principles and wireless protocol. Journal of Applied Physiology, 110, 044702. DOI: 10.1063/1.3626469.

Jang, J. H., Liang, D., Kido, K., Sun, Y., Clark, D. J. & Brennan, T. J. (2011). Increased local concentration of complement C5a contributes to incisional pain in mice. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 8, 80. PMID: 21736743.

Manion, S. C., Brennan, T. J. (2011). Thoracic epidural analgesia and acute pain management. (Vols. 115). (1), pp. 181-8. Anesthesiology. PMID: 21606825.

Spofford, C. M., Mohan, S., Kang, S., Jang, J. H. & Brennan, T. J. (2011). Evaluation of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in a rat model of postoperative pain. The Journal of Pain, 12(7), 819-32. PMID: 21729793.

Brennan, T. J. (2011). Pathophysiology of postoperative pain. (Vols. 152). (3 Suppl), pp. S33-40. Pain. PMID: 21232860.

Xu, J., Gu, H. & Brennan, T. J. (2010). Increased sensitivity of group III and group IV afferents from incised muscle in vitro. Pain, 151(3), 744-55. PMID: 20888124.

Wu, C., Xu, J., Kang, S., Spofford, C. M. & Brennan, T. J. (2010). Animal Models of Postoperative Pain. In C. Ma , J. Zhang (Eds.) Animal Models of Pain. pp. 181-200. Springer.

Jang, J. H., Kido, K. & Brennan, T. J. (2010). Activation and sensitization of nociceptors by complement C5a in incised mouse skin.

Gu, H., Brennan, T. J. (2010). Skin plus deep tissue incision enhances dorsal horn neuron activity during rat plantar muscle contraction.

Xu, J., Gu, H. & Brennan, T. J. (2010). Sensitization of group III and IV afferents from incised muscle in vitro.

Spofford, C. M., Mohan, S., Kang, S., Jang, J. & Brennan, T. J. (2010). Characterization of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) after plantar incision.

Kang, S., Lee, D., Theusch, B. E. & Brennan, T. J. (2010). Tissue hypoxia in subcutaneous and deep muscle tissues after incision in rats.

Pulley, S. C., Spofford, C. M. & Brennan, T. J. (2010). Continuous cervical paravertebral catheter knot. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 22(2), 135-8. PMID: 20304358.

Jang, J. H., Clark, D. J., Li, X., Yorek, M. S., Usachev, Y. M. & Brennan, T. J. (2010). Nociceptive sensitization by complement C5a and C3a in mouse. Pain, 148(2), 343-52. PMID: 20031321.

Kang, S., Wu, C., Banik, R. K. & Brennan, T. J. (2010). Effect of capsaicin treatment on nociceptors in rat glabrous skin one day after plantar incision. Pain, 148(1), 128-40. PMID: 19948377.

Xu, J., Brennan, T. J. (2010). Guarding pain and spontaneous activity of nociceptors after skin versus skin plus deep tissue incision. Anesthesiology, 112(1), 153-64. PMID: 19996955.

Brennan, T. J. (2010). Acute pain: pathophysiology and clinical implications. M. Rosenblatt (Eds.) (Vols. 38). pp. 8-14. Schaumburg, IL: American Society of Anesthesiologists. DOI: 10.1097/ASA.0b013e3181e9561f.

Spofford, C. M., Ashmawi, H., Subieta, A., Buevich, F., Moses, A., Baker, M. & Brennan, T. J. (2009). Ketoprofen produces modality-specific inhibition of pain behaviors in rats after plantar incision. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 109(6), 1992-9. PMID: 19923531.

Kumar, A. B., Brennan, T. J. (2009). Pain assessment, sedation, and analgesic administration in the intensive care unit. (Vols. 111). (6), pp. 1187-8. Anesthesiology. PMID: 19934859.

Borgeat, A., Brennan, T. J., Eisenach, J. C., Hemmings, H. C., Isono, S., Kersten, J. R., Kochs, E., Riou, B. & Warner, D. S. (2009). 2009 in Review: Advancing medicine in anesthesiology. Anesthesiology, 111, 1192-6. DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181c1879b.

Spofford, C. M., Brennan, T. J. (2009). Gene regulation in muscle after plantar incision.

Spofford, C. M., Brennan, T. J. (2009). P2X4 Receptor incision in skin and muscle after plantar incision in the rat.

Brennan, T. J., Gu, H. (2009). Skin plus deep tissue incision enhanced dorsal horn activity during the rat plantar muscle static contraction.

Jang, J. H., Kang, S., Price, M. P., Welsh, M. H. & Brennan, T. J. (2009). Response of cutaneous mechanosensitive afferents to the combination of acid/lactate/ATP in ASIC triple KO mouse in vitro.

Kang, S., Brennan, T. J. (2009). Changes in tissue oxygen tension after incision in the rat.

Mohan, S., Spofford, C. M. & Brennan, T. J. (2009). Expression profile of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor in a rat model of postoperative pain.

Spofford, C. M., Brennan, T. J. (2009). Plantar incision differentially regulates gene expression in rat muscle.

Xu, J., Brennan, T. J. (2009). Incision increases spontaneous activity, chemosensitivity, mechanical, and heat response of muscle nociceptors in vitro.

Xu, J., Richebe, P. & Brennan, T. J. (2009). Separate groups of dorsal horn neurons transmit spontaneous activity and mechanosensitivity one day after plantar incision. European Journal of Pain, 13(8), 820-8. PMID: 19081275.

Xu, J., Brennan, T. J. (2009). Comparison of skin incision vs. skin plus deep tissue incision on ongoing pain and spontaneous activity in dorsal horn neurons. Pain, 144(3), 329-39. PMID: 19527922.

Kang, S., Brennan, T. J. (2009). Chemosensitivity and mechanosensitivity of nociceptors from incised rat hindpaw skin. Anesthesiology, 111(1), 155-64. PMID: 19512876.

Shontz, R., Karuparthy, V., Temple, R. & Brennan, T. J. (2009). Prevalence and risk factors predisposing to coagulopathy in patients receiving epidural analgesia for hepatic surgery. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 34(4), 308-11. PMID: 19574863.

Udeh, C., Brennan, T. J. (2009). Perioperative medicine in the United States. Perioperative Medizin, 1(4), 211-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.periop.2009.05.001.

Hamalainen, M. M., Subieta, A., Arpey, C. & Brennan, T. J. (2009). Differential effect of capsaicin treatment on pain-related behaviors after plantar incision. The Journal of Pain, 10(6), 637-45. PMID: 19386553.

Banik, R. K., Brennan, T. J. (2009). TrpV1 mediates spontaneous firing and heat sensitization of cutaneous primary afferents after plantar incision. Pain, 141(1-2), 41-51. PMID: 19010598.

Wu, C., Erickson, M. A., Xu, J., Wild, K. D. & Brennan, T. J. (2009). Expression profile of nerve growth factor after muscle incision in the rat. Anesthesiology, 110(1), 140-9. PMID: 19104181.

Brennan, T. J. (2009). Incisional/Postoperative Pain. In M. D. Binder , N. Hirokawa , U. Windhorst (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. pp. 1941-5. Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-29678-2_2405.

Eisenach, J. C., Borgeat, A., Bosnjak, Z. J., Brennan, T. J., Kersten, J. R., Kochs, E., Lerman, J., Warner, D. S. & Wiener-Kronish, J. P. (2008). 2008 in Review: Advancing medicine in anesthesiology. Anesthesiology, 109(6), 962-72. PMID: 19034092.

Jang, J. H., Brennan, T. J. (2008). Complement C5a activates and sensitizes cutaneous nociceptors in mouse hairy skin.

Kang, S., Brennan, T. J. (2008). In vitro acid sensitivity of nociceptors from incised rat hindpaw skin.

Spofford, C. M., Brennan, T. J. (2008). Gene upregulation in rat skin, muscle, and dorsal root ganglion after plantar incision.

Wu, C., Erickson, M., Xu, J., Wild, K. D. & Brennan, T. J. (2008). Role of muscle NGF in incisional pain.

Xu, L., Price, M., Banik, R., Subieta, A. R., Welsh, M. & Brennan, T. J. (2008). Mechanical responses of cutaneous afferents in ASIC triple KO mice.

Xu, J., Brennan, T. J. (2008). In vitro characterization of group III and IV primary afferents from incised muscle.

Banik, R. K., Brennan, T. J. (2008). Sensitization of primary afferents to mechanical and heat stimuli after incision in a novel in vitro mouse glabrous skin-nerve preparation. Pain, 138(2), 380-91. PMID: 18316159.

Xu, L., Price, M. J., Banik, R. K., Welsh, M. & Brennan, T. J. (2008). Mechanical responses of cutaneous afferents in ASIC triple KO mice.

Brennan, T. J., Gavaa, N. & Wu, C. (2008). Effect of AMG0347, a Transient Receptor Potential Type V1 receptor antagonist, and morphine on pain behavior after plantar incision.

Brennan, T. J., Spofford, C. M. (2008). Differential effect of ketoprofen on pain behavior after plantar incision.

Wu, C., Gavva, N. R. & Brennan, T. J. (2008). Effect of AMG0347, a transient receptor potential type V1 receptor antagonist, and morphine on pain behavior after plantar incision. Anesthesiology, 108(6), 1100-8. PMID: 18497612.

Gordon, D., Inturrisi, C. E., Greensmith, J. E., Brennan, T. J., Goble, L. & Kerns, R. D. (2008). Perioperative pain management in the opioid-tolerant individual. The Journal of Pain, 9(5), 383-7. PMID: 18337186.

Cameron, D. M., Brennan, T. J. & Gebhart, G. F. (2008). Hind paw incision in the rat produces long-lasting colon hypersensitivity. The Journal of Pain, 9(3), 246-53. PMID: 18088562.

Eisenach, J. C., Borgeat, A., Bosnjak, Z. J., Brennan, T. J., Kersten, J. R., Kochs, E. F. & Wiener-Kronish, J. P. (2008). 2007 in Review: A dozen steps forward in Anesthesiology. Anesthesiology, 108(1), 149-55. PMID: 18156893.

Xu, L., Wu, C., Xu, T. & Brennan, T. J. (2007). NGF expression in muscle after plantar incision.

Xu, J., Subieta, A. R. & Brennan, T. J. (2007). In vivo nociceptor activity and pain behaviors in skin versus skin plus deep tissue incision in the rat hindpaw.

Wu, C., Kang, S. & Brennan, T. J. (2007). Differential effect of subcutaneous capsaicin injection on pain behaviors and afferent fiber immunoreactivity after plantar incision.

Kang, S., Banik, R. K. & Brennan, T. J. (2007). Effect of subcutaneous capsaicin on mechanosensitive afferents in rat glabrous skin one day after plantar incision.

Brennan, T. J., Xu, J. & Subieta, A. R. (2007). In vivo dorsal horn neuron activity in skin versus skin plus deep tissue incision in the rat hindpaw.

Costa-Bartlett, V., Price, M. P., Hattori, T., Burnes, L. A., Subieta, A. R., Brennan, T. J., Sluka, K. A., Benson, C. J. & Welsh, M. J. (2007). ASIC3 overexpression enhances thermal sensitivity in transgenic mice.

Jin, H. C., Keller, A. J., Jung, J. K., Subieta, A. & Brennan, T. J. (2007). Epidural tezampanel, an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, produces postoperative analgesia in rats. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 105(4), 1152-9, table of contents. PMID: 17898404.

Eisenach, J. C., Brennan, T. J. (2007). Anesthesiology and the press. (Vols. 107). (1), pp. 8. Anesthesiology. PMID: 17585209.

Wu, C., Boustany, L., Liang, H. & Brennan, T. J. (2007). Nerve growth factor expression after plantar incision in the rat. Anesthesiology, 107(1), 128-35. PMID: 17585224.

Pogatzki-Zahn, E. M., Zahn, P. K. & Brennan, T. J. (2007). Postoperative pain--clinical implications of basic research. Best Practice & Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology, 21(1), 3-13. PMID: 17489216.

Kim, T. J., Freml, L., Park, S. S. & Brennan, T. J. (2007). Lactate concentrations in incisions indicate ischemic-like conditions may contribute to postoperative pain. The Journal of Pain, 8(1), 59-66. PMID: 16949881.

Banik, R. K., Woo, Y. C., Park, S. S. & Brennan, T. J. (2006). Strain and sex influence on pain sensitivity after plantar incision in the mouse. Anesthesiology, 105(6), 1246-53. PMID: 17122588.

Lee, H., Pogatzki-Zahn, E. M. & Brennan, T. J. (2006). The effect of the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist LY293558 in a rat model of postoperative pain. The Journal of Pain, 7(10), 768-77. PMID: 17018337.

Wu, C., Subieta, A. R. & Brennan, T. J. (2006). Effect of capsaicin intradermal pre-injection on skin incision pain in rats.

Jin, H. C., Brennan, T. J. (2006). Epidural NGX 424, an AMPA-kainate receptor antagonist produces analgesia in rats after plantar incision.

Whyte, D. G., Brennan, T. J. & Johnson, A. K. (2006). Thermoregulatory behavior is disrupted in rats with lesions of the anteroventral third ventricular area (AV3V). Physiology & Behavior, 87(3), 493-9. PMID: 16487986.

Ness, T. J., Brennan, T. J. (2006). Chapter 22: Sensory Systems. In H. C. Hemmings JR , P. M. Hopkins (Eds.) Foundations of Anesthesia. (2), pp. 257-266. Elsevier. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-323-03707-5.50028-0.

Brennan, T. J., Kehlet, H. (2005). Preventive analgesia to reduce wound hyperalgesia and persistent postsurgical pain: not an easy path. (Vols. 103). (4), pp. 681-3. Anesthesiology. PMID: 16192759.

Banik, R. K., Subieta, A. R., Wu, C. & Brennan, T. J. (2005). Increased nerve growth factor after rat plantar incision contributes to guarding behavior and heat hyperalgesia. Pain, 117(1-2), 68-76. PMID: 16061324.

Brennan, T. J. (2005). Incisional sensitivity and pain measurements: dissecting mechanisms for postoperative pain. (Vols. 103). (1), pp. 3-4. Anesthesiology. PMID: 15983447.

Zahn, P. K., Pogatzki-Zahn, E. M. & Brennan, T. J. (2005). Spinal administration of MK-801 and NBQX demonstrates NMDA-independent dorsal horn sensitization in incisional pain. Pain, 114(3), 499-510. PMID: 15777875.

Brennan, T. J., Zahn, P. K. & Pogatzki-Zahn, E. M. (2005). Mechanisms of incisional pain. Anesthesiology Clinics of North America, 23(1), 1-20. PMID: 15763408.

Richebé, P., Rathmell, J. P. & Brennan, T. J. (2005). Immediate early genes after pulsed radiofrequency treatment: neurobiology in need of clinical trials. (Vols. 102). (1), pp. 1-3. Anesthesiology. PMID: 15618777.

Page, A. J., Brierley, S. M., Martin, C. M., Martinez-Salgado, C., Wemmie, J. A., Brennan, T. J., Symonds, E., Omari, T., Lewin, G. R., Welsh, M. J. & Blackshaw, L. A. (2004). The ion channel ASIC1 contributes to visceral but not cutaneous mechanoreceptor function. Gastroenterology, 127(6), 1739-47. PMID: 15578512.

Banik, R. K., Brennan, T. J. (2004). Spontaneous discharge and increased heat sensitivity of rat C-fiber nociceptors are present in vitro after plantar incision. Pain, 112(1-2), 204-13. PMID: 15494202.

Leonard, P. A., Arunkumar, R. & Brennan, T. J. (2004). Bradykinin antagonists have no analgesic effect on incisional pain. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 99(4), 1166-72, table of contents. PMID: 15385370.

Woo, Y. C., Park, S. S., Subieta, A. R. & Brennan, T. J. (2004). Changes in tissue pH and temperature after incision indicate acidosis may contribute to postoperative pain. Anesthesiology, 101(2), 468-75. PMID: 15277931.

Brennan, T. J. (2004). Chapter 5: A rat model of postoperative pain. pp. Unit 5.34. Current Protocols in Pharmacology. PMID: 22294121.

Zahn, P. K., Subieta, A., Park, S. S. & Brennan, T. J. (2004). Effect of blockade of nerve growth factor and tumor necrosis factor on pain behaviors after plantar incision. The Journal of Pain, 5(3), 157-63. PMID: 15106128.

Pogatzki, E. M., Niemeier, J. S., Sorkin, L. S. & Brennan, T. J. (2003). Spinal glutamate receptor antagonists differentiate primary and secondary mechanical hyperalgesia caused by incision. Pain, 105(1-2), 97-107. PMID: 14499425.

Berde, C. B., Brennan, T. J. & Raja, S. N. (2003). Opioids: more to learn, improvements to be made. (Vols. 98). (6), pp. 1309-12. Anesthesiology. PMID: 12766636.

Jarvis, M. F., Burgard, E. C., McGaraughty, S., Honore, P., Lynch, K., Brennan, T. J., Subieta, A., Van Biesen, T., Cartmell, J., Bianchi, B., Niforatos, W., Kage, K., Yu, H., Mikusa, J., Wismer, C. T., Zhu, C. Z., Chu, K., Lee, C. H., Stewart, A. O., Polakowski, J., Cox, B. F., Kowaluk, E., Williams, M., Sullivan, J. & Faltynek, C. (2002). A-317491, a novel potent and selective non-nucleotide antagonist of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors, reduces chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain in the rat. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(26), 17179-84. PMID: 12482951.

Zahn, P. K., Sluka, K. A. & Brennan, T. J. (2002). Excitatory amino acid release in the spinal cord caused by plantar incision in the rat. Pain, 100(1-2), 65-76. PMID: 12435460.

Brennan, T. J. (2002). Frontiers in translational research: the etiology of incisional and postoperative pain. (Vols. 97). (3), pp. 535-7. Anesthesiology. PMID: 12218516.

Zahn, P. K., Pogatzki, E. M. & Brennan, T. J. (2002). Mechanisms for pain caused by incisions. Regional Aesthesia and Pain Medicine, 27(5), 514-6. PMID: 12373702.

Von Bergen, N. H., Subieta, A. & Brennan, T. J. (2002). Effect of intrathecal non-NMDA EAA receptor antagonist LY293558 in rats: a new class of drugs for spinal anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 97(1), 177-82. PMID: 12131120.

Pogatzki, E. M., Urban, M. O., Brennan, T. J. & Gebhart, G. F. (2002). Role of the rostral medial medulla in the development of primary and secondary hyperalgesia after incision in the rat. Anesthesiology, 96(5), 1153-60. PMID: 11981156.

Pogatzki, E. M., Vandermeulen, E. P. & Brennan, T. J. (2002). Effect of plantar local anesthetic injection on dorsal horn neuron activity and pain behaviors caused by incision. Pain, 97(1-2), 151-61. PMID: 12031788.

Hämäläinen, M. M., Gebhart, G. F. & Brennan, T. J. (2002). Acute effect of an incision on mechanosensitive afferents in the plantar rat hindpaw. Journal of Neurophysiology, 87(2), 712-20. PMID: 11826040.

Pogatzki, E. M., Gebhart, G. F. & Brennan, T. J. (2002). Characterization of Adelta- and C-fibers innervating the plantar rat hindpaw one day after an incision. Journal of Neurophysiology, 87(2), 721-31. PMID: 11826041.

Pogatzki, E. M., Niemeier, J. S. & Brennan, T. J. (2002). Persistent secondary hyperalgesia after gastrocnemius incision in the rat. European Journal of Pain, 6(4), 295-305. PMID: 12161095.

Price, M. P., McIlwrath, S. L., Xie, J., Cheng, C., Qiao, J., Tarr, D. E., Sluka, K. A., Brennan, T. J., Lewin, G. R. & Welsh, M. J. (2001). The DRASIC cation channel contributes to the detection of cutaneous touch and acid stimuli in mice. Neuron, 32(6), 1071-83. PMID: 11754838.

Vandermeulen, E. P., Brennan, T. J. (2000). Alterations in ascending dorsal horn neurons by a surgical incision in the rat foot. Anesthesiology, 93(5), 1294-302; discussion 6A. PMID: 11046219.

Price, M. P., Lewin, G. R., McIlwrath, S. L., Cheng, C., Xie, J., Heppenstall, P. A., Stucky, C. L., Mannsfeldt, A. G., Brennan, T. J., Drummond, H. A., Qiao, J., Benson, C. J., Tarr, D. E., Hrstka, R. F., Yang, B., Williamson, R. A. & Welsh, M. J. (2000). The mammalian sodium channel BNC1 is required for normal touch sensation. (Vols. 407). (6807), pp. 1007-11. Nature. PMID: 11069180.

Pogatzki, E. M., Zahn, P. K. & Brennan, T. J. (2000). Effect of pretreatment with intrathecal excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists on the development of pain behavior caused by plantar incision. Anesthesiology, 93(2), 489-96. PMID: 10910500.

Pogatzki, E. M., Zahn, P. K. & Brennan, T. J. (2000). Lumbar catheterization of the subarachnoid space with a 32-gauge polyurethane catheter in the rat. European Journal of Pain, 4(1), 111-3. PMID: 10833561.

Brennan, T. J., Zahn, P. K. (2000). Effect of intrathecal ACEA-1021 in a rat model for postoperative pain. The Journal of Pain, 1(4), 279-84. PMID: 14622611.

Brennan, T. J., Taylor, B. K. (2000). Analgesic treatment before incision compared with treatment after incision provides no improvement in postoperative pain relief. The Journal of Pain, 1(2), 96-8. DOI: 10.1016/S1526-5900(00)90094-4.

Zahn, P. K., Brennan, T. J. (2000). Preemptive analgesia: moving beyond conventional strategies and confusing terminology. The Journal of Pain, 1(2), 77-84. DOI: 10.1016/S1526-5900(00)90090-7.

Zahn, P. K., Brennan, T. J. (1999). Incision-induced changes in receptive field properties of rat dorsal horn neurons. Anesthesiology, 91(3), 772-85. PMID: 10485789.

Brennan, T. J. (1999). Postoperative models of nociception. ILAR Journal, 40(3), 129-36. PMID: 11406691.

Zahn, P. K., Brennan, T. J. (1999). Primary and secondary hyperalgesia in a rat model for human postoperative pain. Anesthesiology, 90(3), 863-72. PMID: 10078689.

Zahn, P. K., Brennan, T. J. (1998). Intrathecal metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists do not decrease mechanical hyperalgesia in a rat model of postoperative pain. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 87(6), 1354-9. PMID: 9842826.

Brennan, T. J. (1998). AMPA/kainate receptor antagonists as novel analgesic agents. (Vols. 89). (5), pp. 1049-51. Anesthesiology. PMID: 9821991.

Zahn, P. K., Umali, E. & Brennan, T. J. (1998). Intrathecal non-NMDA excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists inhibit pain behaviors in a rat model of postoperative pain. Pain, 74(2-3), 213-23. PMID: 9520236.

Zahn, P. K., Brennan, T. J. (1998). Lack of effect of intrathecally administered N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists in a rat model for postoperative pain. Anesthesiology, 88(1), 143-56. PMID: 9447867.

Brennan, T. J., Umali, E. F. & Zahn, P. K. (1997). Comparison of pre- versus post-incision administration of intrathecal bupivacaine and intrathecal morphine in a rat model of postoperative pain. Anesthesiology, 87(6), 1517-28. PMID: 9416737.

Wedel, D. J., White, P. F., Brennan, T. J. & Sandler, A. (1997). Workshop on how to perform clinical outcome studies. University of Münster, Münster, Germany, May 22-23, 1997. Anesthesiology, 87(4), 1021-2. PMID: 9357923.

Brennan, T. J. (1997). Point of View: Postoperative pain control after lumbar spine fusion: Patient-controlled analgesia versus continuous epidural analgesia. (Vols. 22). (16), pp. 1896-7. Lebanon, New Hampshire: Spine.

Zahn, P. K., Gysbers, D. & Brennan, T. J. (1997). Effect of systemic and intrathecal morphine in a rat model of postoperative pain. Anesthesiology, 86(5), 1066-77. PMID: 9158356.

Zahn, P. K., Brennan, T. J. (1997). Physiologic and pharmacologic bases of anesthesiology. (Vols. 86). pp. 751. Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology.

Brennan, T. J., Vandermeulen, E. P. & Gebhart, G. F. (1996). Characterization of a rat model of incisional pain. Pain, 64(3), 493-501. PMID: 8783314.

Brennan, T. J. (1995). Nalmefene: a long-acting injectable opioid antagonist. The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics, 37(960), 97-8. PMID: 7565300.

Demun, E. M., Redd, J. L., Buchanan, K. A., Brennan, T. J., Rowlingson, J. C., Himel, H. N., Morgan, R. F. & Edlich, R. F. (1993). Reflex sympathetic dystrophy after a minor electric shock. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 11(4), 393-6. PMID: 8228100.

Chandler, M. J., Brennan, T. J., Garrison, D. W., Kim, K. S., Schwartz, P. J. & Foreman, R. D. (1993). A mechanism of cardiac pain suppression by spinal cord stimulation: implications for patients with angina pectoris. European Heart Journal, 14(1), 96-105. PMID: 8432300.

Bolser, D. C., Hobbs, S. F., Chandler, M. J., Ammons, W. S., Brennan, T. J. & Foreman, R. D. (1991). Convergence of phrenic and cardiopulmonary spinal afferent information on cervical and thoracic spinothalamic tract neurons in the monkey: implications for referred pain from the diaphragm and heart. Journal of Neurophysiology, 65(5), 1042-54. PMID: 1869904.

Hobbs, S. F., Oh, U. T., Brennan, T. J., Chandler, M. J., Kim, K. S. & Foreman, R. D. (1990). Urinary bladder and hindlimb stimuli inhibit T1-T6 spinal and spinoreticular cells. The American Journal of Physiology, 258(1 Pt 2), R10-20. PMID: 2301620.

Chandler, M. J., Garrison, D. W., Brennan, T. J. & Foreman, R. D. (1989). Effects of chemical and electrical stimulation of the midbrain on feline T2-T6 spinoreticular and spinal cell activity evoked by cardiopulmonary afferent input. Brain Research, 496(1-2), 148-64. PMID: 2804627.

Brennan, T. J., Oh, U. T., Hobbs, S. F., Garrison, D. W. & Foreman, R. D. (1989). Urinary bladder and hindlimb afferent input inhibits activity of primate T2-T5 spinothalamic tract neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology, 61(3), 573-88. PMID: 2709101.

Girardot, M., Brennan, T. J., Martindale, M. E. & Foreman, R. D. (1987). Effects of stimulating the subcoeruleus-parabrachial region on the non-noxious and noxious responses of T1-T5 spinothalamic tract neurons in the primate. Brain Research, 409(1), 19-30. PMID: 3034377.

Haywood, J. R., Ball, N. A., Lifschitz, M. D. & Brennan, T. J. (1987). Contribution of AV3V region in anephric NaCl-induced hypertension in the rat. The American Journal of Physiology, 252(3 Pt 2), F536-42. PMID: 3826392.

Brennan, T. J., Oh, U. T., Girardot, M. N., Ammons, W. S. & Foreman, R. D. (1987). Inhibition of cardiopulmonary input to thoracic spinothalamic tract cells by stimulation of the subcoeruleus-parabrachial region in the primate. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, 18(1), 61-72. PMID: 3819316.

Brennan, T. J., Haywood, J. R. (1985). GABAergic inhibition of hypertonic saline-induced vasopressin-dependent hypertension. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 233(3), 663-71. PMID: 4009486.

Haywood, J. R., Brennan, T. J. & Hinojosa, C. (1985). Neurohumoral mechanisms of sodium-dependent hypertension. Federation Proceedings, 44(8), 2393-9. PMID: 2859221.

Haywood, J. R., Brennan, T. J. (1985). Interactions of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid with Osmotic-Stimulated Vasopressin Release. In R. W. Schrier (Eds.) Vasopressin. pp. 417-24. New York, NY: Raven Press.

Brennan, T. J., Morris, M. & Haywood, J. R. (1984). GABA agonists inhibit the vasopressin-dependent pressor effects of central angiotensin II. Neuroendocrinology, 39(5), 429-36. PMID: 6514131.

Brennan, T. J., Morris, M. & Haywood, J. R. (1984). GABA agonists inhibit central sodium-induced vasopressin-dependent increases in arterial pressure. European Journal of Pharmacology, 103(3-4), 223-34. PMID: 6489442.

Thyagarajan, R., Brennan, T. & Ticku, M. K. (1983). GABA and benzodiazepine binding sites in spontaneously hypertensive rat. European Journal of Pharmacology, 93(3-4), 127-36. PMID: 6315448.

Brennan, T. J., Haywood, J. R. & Ticku, M. K. (1983). GABA receptor binding and hemodynamic responses to ICV GABA in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sciences, 33(8), 701-9. PMID: 6136888.

Brennan, T. J., Haywood, J. R. (1983). GABA inhibition of central angiotensin II and hypertonic CSF pressor responses. Brain Research, 267(2), 261-9. PMID: 6871675.