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Bruce Pfohl, MD

Professor of Psychiatry
Professor of Biostatistics

Contact Information

8960 John Pappajohn Pavilion
Iowa City, IA 52242


BA, Graceland College, Lamoni, IA
MD, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA
MS, Preventative Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA
Resident, Psychiatry, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA

Licensure and Certifications

Psychiatry certification - American Board of Psychiatry & Neurology
Medical License - Iowa Board of Medicine


Blum, N. S., Bartels, N. E., St. John, D., Pfohl, B. & Harvey, R. (2016). Managing Emotional Intensity – Early Intervention. In STEPPS EI. UK: Level One Publishing and Sussex Partnership Foundation.

Black, D. W., Pfohl, B., Blum, N., McCormick, B., Allen, J., North, C. S., Phillips, K. A., Robins, C., Siever, L., Silk, K. R., Williams, J. B. & Zimmerman, M. (2011). Attitudes Toward Borderline Personality Disorder: A Survey of 706 Mental Health Clinicians. CNS Spectr, 16(3), 67-74. PMID: 24725357.

Shanks, C., Pfohl, B., Blum, N. & Black, D. W. (2011). Can negative attitudes toward patients with borderline personality disorder be changed? The effect of attending a STEPPS workshop. J Pers Disord, 25(6), 806-12. PMID: 22217226.

Black, D. W., Allen, J., St John, D., Pfohl, B., McCormick, B. & Blum, N. (2009). Predictors of response to Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) for borderline personality disorder: an exploratory study. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 120(1), 53-61. PMID: 19183126.

Pfohl, B., Blum, N., St. John, D., McCormick, B., Allen, J. & Black, D. W. (2009). Reliability and validity of the Borderline Evaluation of Severity Over Time (BEST): a self-rated scale to measure severity and change in persons with borderline personality disorder. J Pers Disord, 23(3), 281-93. PMID: 19538082.

Blum, N., St. John, D., Pfohl, B., Stuart, S., McCormick, B., Allen, J., Arndt, S. & Black, D. W. (2008). Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: a randomized controlled trial and 1-year follow-up. Am J Psychiatry, 165(4), 468-78. PMID: 18281407.

McCormick, B., Blum, N., Hansel, R., Franklin, J. A., St. John, D., Pfohl, B., Allen, J. & Black, D. W. (2007). Relationship of sex to symptom severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and health care utilization in 163 subjects with borderline personality disorder. Compr Psychiatry, 48(5), 406-12. PMID: 17707247.

Black, D. W., Blum, N., Pfohl, B. & Hale, N. (2004). Suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder: prevalence, risk factors, prediction, and prevention. J Pers Disord, 18(3), 226-39. PMID: 15237043.

Skodol, A. E., Gunderson, J. G., Pfohl, B., Widiger, T. A., Livesley, W. J. & Siever, L. J. (2002). The borderline diagnosis I: psychopathology, comorbidity, and personality structure. Biol Psychiatry, 51(12), 936-50. PMID: 12062877.

Skodol, A. E., Siever, L. J., Livesley, W. J., Gunderson, J. G., Pfohl, B. & Widiger, T. A. (2002). The borderline diagnosis II: biology, genetics, and clinical course. Biol Psychiatry, 51(12), 951-63. PMID: 12062878.

Stuart, S., Pfohl, B., Battaglia, M., Bellodi, L., Grove, W. & Cadoret, R. (1998). The cooccurrence of DSM-III-R personality disorders. J Pers Disord, 12(4), 302-15. PMID: 9891285.

Wallace, J., Pfohl, B. (1995). Age-related differences in the symptomatic expression of major depression. J Nerv Ment Dis, 183(2), 99-102. PMID: 7844584.

Black, D. W., Noyes, R., Pfohl, B., Goldstein, R. B. & Blum, N. (1993). Personality disorder in obsessive-compulsive volunteers, well comparison subjects, and their first-degree relatives. Am J Psychiatry, 150(8), 1226-32. PMID: 8328568.

Langbehn, D., Pfohl, B. (1993). Clinical correlates of self-mutilation among psychiatric inpatients. Ann Clin Psychiatry, 5(1), 45-51. PMID: 8348198.

Blashfield, R., Blum, N. & Pfohl, B. (1992). The effects of changing axis II diagnostic criteria. Compr Psychiatry, 33(4), 245-52. PMID: 1643865.

Spitzer, R. L., Feister, S., Gay, M. & Pfohl, B. (1991). Results of a survey of forensic psychiatrists on the validity of the sadistic personality disorder diagnosis. Am J Psychiatry, 148(7), 875-9. PMID: 2053627.

Noyes, R., Reich, J., Christiansen, J., Suelzer, M., Pfohl, B. & Coryell, W. A. (1990). Outcome of panic disorder. Relationship to diagnostic subtypes and comorbidity. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 47(9), 809-18. PMID: 2393339.

Pfohl, B., Black, D., Noyes, R., Kelley, M. & Blum, N. (1990). A test of the tridimensional personality theory: association with diagnosis and platelet imipramine binding in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry, 28(1), 41-6. PMID: 2165423.

Paulsen, A. S., Crowe, R. R., Noyes, R. & Pfohl, B. (1988). Reliability of the telephone interview in diagnosing anxiety disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 45(1), 62-3. PMID: 3337610.

Zimmerman, M., Coryell, W. & Pfohl, B. (1987). Prognostic validity of the dexamethasone suppression test: results of a six-month prospective follow-up. Am J Psychiatry, 144(2), 212-4. PMID: 3812791.

Zimmerman, M., Coryell, W. & Pfohl, B. (1986). Validity of familial subtypes of primary unipolar depression. Clinical, demographic, and psychosocial correlates. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 43(11), 1090-6. PMID: 3767599.

Zimmerman, M., Coryell, W., Pfohl, B., Corenthal, C. & Stangl, D. (1986). ECT response in depressed patients with and without a DSM-III personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry, 143(8), 1030-2. PMID: 3728718.

Zimmerman, M., Coryell, W., Pfohl, B. & Stangl, D. (1986). Validity of the Hamilton Endogenous Subscale: an independent replication. Psychiatry Res, 18(3), 209-15. PMID: 3749383.

Zimmerman, M., Coryell, W. & Pfohl, B. (1986). The validity of the dexamethasone suppression test as a marker for endogenous depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 43(4), 347-55. PMID: 3954557.

Zimmerman, M., Coryell, W., Pfohl, B. & Stangl, D. (1986). The validity of four definitions of endogenous depression. II. Clinical, demographic, familial, and psychosocial correlates. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 43(3), 234-44. PMID: 3954543.

Coryell, W., Zimmerman, M. & Pfohl, B. (1986). Outcome at discharge and six months in major depression. The significance of psychotic features. J Nerv Ment Dis, 174(2), 92-6. PMID: 3944599.

Schlechte, J. A., Sherman, B. & Pfohl, B. (1986). A comparison of adrenal cortical function in patients with depressive illness and Cushing's disease. Horm Res, 23(1), 1-8. PMID: 3940937.

Zimmerman, M., Coryell, W. & Pfohl, B. (1986). Melancholic subtyping: a qualitative or quantitative distinction?. Am J Psychiatry, 143(1), 98-100. PMID: 3942297.

Sherman, B., Wysham, C. & Pfohl, B. (1985). Age-related changes in the circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 61(3), 439-43. PMID: 4019712.

Zimmerman, M., Coryell, W. & Pfohl, B. (1985). The treatment validity of DSM-III melancholic subtyping. Psychiatry Res, 16(1), 37-43. PMID: 3864174.

Perry, P. J., Browne, J. L., Alexander, B., Pfohl, B., Dunner, F. J., Sherman, A. D. & Tsuang, M. T. (1985). Relationship of free nortriptyline levels to therapeutic response. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 72(2), 120-5. PMID: 4050504.

Pfohl, B., Stangl, D. & Zimmerman, M. (1984). The implications of DSM-III personality disorders for patients with major depression. J Affect Disord, 7(3-4), 309-18. PMID: 6241212.

Coryell, W., Pfohl, B. & Zimmerman, M. (1984). The clinical and neuroendocrine features of psychotic depression. J Nerv Ment Dis, 172(9), 521-8. PMID: 6470694.

Campbell, J., Crowe, R. R., Goeken, N., Pfohl, B., Pauls, D. & Palmer, D. (1984). Affective disorder not linked to HLA in a large bipolar kindred. J Affect Disord, 7(1), 45-51. PMID: 6236243.

Sherman, B., Pfohl, B. & Winokur, G. (1984). Circadian analysis of plasma cortisol levels before and after dexamethasone administration in depressed patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 41(3), 271-5. PMID: 6703845.

Pfohl, B., Stangl, D. & Tsuang, M. T. (1983). The association between early parental loss and diagnosis in the Iowa 500. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 40(9), 965-7. PMID: 6615159.

Pfohl, B., Winokur, G. (1983). The micropsychopathology of hebephrenic/catatonic schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis, 171(5), 296-300. PMID: 6854292.

Pfohl, B., Vasquez, N. & Nasrallah, H. (1982). Unipolar vs. bipolar mania: a review of 247 patients. Br J Psychiatry, 141, 453-8. PMID: 7150881.

Swartz, C. M., Pfohl, B. (1981). A learning aid for DSM-III: computerized prompting of diagnostic criteria. J Clin Psychiatry, 42(9), 359-61. PMID: 7024256.

Pfohl, B., Vasquez, N. & Nasrallah, H. (1981). The mathematical case against unipolar mania. J Psychiatr Res, 16(4), 259-65. PMID: 7348279.

Andreasen, N. G., Pfohl, B. (1976). Linguistic analysis of speech in affective disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 33(11), 1361-7. PMID: 985047.