Douglas R. Spitz, PhD

Portrait
Director, Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program
Director, Free Radical Metabolism and Imaging Program
Director, Radiation and Free Radical Research Core
Professor of Radiation Oncology

Contact Information

Office: B180-E ML
Iowa City, IA 52242
--

+1319-335-8001

Education

BA, Biology/Sociology, Grinnell College
PhD, Radiation Biology, University of Iowa

Fellow, Radiation Research Laboratory, University of Iowa
Postdoctoral Fellow, Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of California

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Biomedical Science Program, Free Radical and Radiation Biology Graduate Program, Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Translational Biomedicine, Medical Scientist Training Program

Research Summary

For 80 years it has been noted that cancer cells exhibit increased glycolysis and pentose phosphate cycle activity, while demonstrating only slightly reduced rates of respiration. These metabolic differences were thought to arise as a result of "damage" to the respiratory mechanism and tumor cells were thought to compensate for this defect by increasing glycolysis (Science 132:309). In the last 10 years, glucose deprivation-induced oxidative stress has been shown to cause cytotoxicity, activation of signal transduction (i.e., ERK1, ERK2, JNK, and Lyn kinase), and increased expression of genes associated with malignancy (i.e., bFGF and c-Myc) in MCF-7/ADR human breast cancer cells (J. Biol. Chem. 273:5294; Free Radic. Biol. Med. 26:419). These results have lead to the proposal that intracellular oxidation/reduction reactions involving hydroperoxides and thiols may provide a mechanistic link between metabolism, signal transduction, and gene expression in human cancer cells during glucose deprivation (Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 899:349). Further studies have shown that several other transformed human cell types appear to be more susceptible to glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress than untransformed human cell types (Free Radic. Biol. Med. 26:419; Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 899:349; Biochem J. 418:29). Studies with mitochondrial electron transport chain blockers that increase superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production have shown that glucose deprivation-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity can be greatly enhanced in human cancer cells, relative to normal cells (J. Biol. Chem. 280:4254; Biochem J. 418:29). Finally, CHO cells carrying mutations in mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins (succinate dehydrogenase subunits C and D) that are associated with human cancers demonstrate increased production of reactive oxygen species, increased glucose consumption, increased genomic instability, and increased sensitivity to glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity that can be reversed by over expressing cellular antioxidants. Overall, these results support the working hypothesis that transformed cells may have dysfunctional mitochondrial respiration leading to increased steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species and glucose metabolism may be increased to provide reducing equivalents to compensate for this defect. This theorectical construct is being utilized by Dr. Spitz's lab in basic science studies of cancer vs. normal cell mitochondria metabolism to determine the role that damage to genes coding for mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins may play in cancer and aging. This theorectical construct is also being used to develop novel strategies for treating cancers with combined therapies utilizing inhibitors of glucose and hydroperoxide metabolism together with agents that increase respiratory dependent damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Finally, Dr. Spitz's laboratory is also using these principals in preclinical translational studies to develop strategies for imaging glucose utilization and alterations in mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells for the purpose of predicting which patients may respond to therapies base on taking advantage of fundamental defects in oxidative metabolism.

Publications

Heer, C. D., Davis, A. B., Riffe, D. B., Wagner, B. A., Falls, K. C., Allen, B. G., Buettner, G. R., Beardsley, R. A., Riley, D. P. & Spitz, D. R. (2018). Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic GC4419 Enhances the Oxidation of Pharmacological Ascorbate and Its Anticancer Effects in an H2O2-Dependent Manner. Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 7(1). PMID: 29351198.

Rashmi, R., Huang, X., Floberg, J. M., Elhammali, A. E., McCormick, M. L., Patti, G. J., Spitz, D. R. & Schwarz, J. K. (2018). Radioresistant Cervical Cancers Are Sensitive to Inhibition of Glycolysis and Redox Metabolism. Cancer research. PMID: 29339540.

Schoenfeld, J. D., Sibenaller, Z. A., Mapuskar, K. A., Bradley, M. D., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R., Monga, V., Milhem, M., Spitz, D. R. & Allen, B. G. (2018). Redox active metals and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> mediate the increased efficacy of pharmacological ascorbate in combination with gemcitabine or radiation in pre-clinical sarcoma models. Redox biology, 14, 417-422. PMID: 29069637.

Brandt, K. E., Falls, K. C., Schoenfeld, J. D., Rodman, S. N., Gu, Z., Zhan, F., Cullen, J. J., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R., Allen, B. G., Berg, D. J., Spitz, D. R. & Fath, M. A. (2018). Augmentation of intracellular iron using iron sucrose enhances the toxicity of pharmacological ascorbate in colon cancer cells. Redox biology, 14, 82-87. PMID: 28886484.

Schoenfeld, J. D., Sibenaller, Z. A., Mapuskar, K. A., Wagner, B. A., Cramer-Morales, K. L., Furqan, M., Sandhu, S., Carlisle, T. L., Smith, M. C., Abu Hejleh, T., Berg, D. J., Zhang, J., Keech, J., Parekh, K. R., Bhatia, S., Monga, V., Bodeker, K. L., Ahmann, L., Vollstedt, S., Brown, H., Shanahan Kauffman, E. P., Schall, M. E., Hohl, R. J., Clamon, G. H., Greenlee, J. D., Howard, M. A., Schultz, M. K., Smith, B. J., Riley, D. P., Domann, F. E., Cullen, J. J., Buettner, G. R., Buatti, J. M., Spitz, D. R. & Allen, B. G. (2017). O<sub>2</sub><sup>·-</sup> and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-Mediated Disruption of Fe Metabolism Causes the Differential Susceptibility of NSCLC and GBM Cancer Cells to Pharmacological Ascorbate. Cancer cell, 31(4), 487-500.e8. PMID: 28366679.

Zahra, A., Fath, M. A., Opat, E., Mapuskar, K. A., Bhatia, S. K., Ma, D. C., Rodman, III, S. N., Snyders, T. P., Chenard, C. A., Eichenberger-Gilmore, J. M., Bodeker, K. L., Ahmann, L., Smith, B. J., Vollstedt, S. A., Brown, H. A., Hejleh, T. A., Clamon, G. H., Berg, D. J., Szweda, L. I., Spitz, D. R., Buatti, J. M. & Allen, B. G. (2017). Consuming a Ketogenic Diet while Receiving Radiation and Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Lung Cancer and Pancreatic Cancer: The University of Iowa Experience of Two Phase 1 Clinical Trials. Radiation research, 187(6), 743-754. PMID: 28437190.

Sciegienka, S. J., Solst, S. R., Falls, K. C., Schoenfeld, J. D., Klinger, A. R., Ross, N. L., Rodman, S. N., Spitz, D. R. & Fath, M. A. (2017). D-penicillamine combined with inhibitors of hydroperoxide metabolism enhances lung and breast cancer cell responses to radiation and carboplatin via H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-mediated oxidative stress. Free radical biology & medicine, 108, 354-361. PMID: 28389407.

Mapuskar, K. A., Flippo, K. H., Schoenfeld, J. D., Riley, D. P., Strack, S., Hejleh, T. A., Furqan, M., Monga, V., Domann, F. E., Buatti, J. M., Goswami, P. C., Spitz, D. R. & Allen, B. G. (2017). Mitochondrial Superoxide Increases Age-Associated Susceptibility of Human Dermal Fibroblasts to Radiation and Chemotherapy. Cancer research, 77(18), 5054-5067. PMID: 28765155.

Schoenfeld, J. D., Sibenaller, Z. A., Mapuskar, K. A., Wagner, B. A., Cramer-Morales, K. L., Furqan, M., Sandhu, S., Carlisle, T. L., Smith, M. C., Abu Hejleh, T., Berg, D. J., Zhang, J., Keech, J., Parekh, K. R., Bhatia, S., Monga, V., Bodeker, K. L., Ahmann, L., Vollstedt, S., Brown, H., Kauffman EPS,, Schall, M. E., Hohl, R. J., Clamon, G. H., Greenlee, J. D., Howard, M. A., Schultz, M. K., Smith, B. J., Riley, D. P., Domann, F. E., Cullen, J. J., Buettner, G. R., Buatti, J. M., Spitz, D. R. & Allen, B. G. (2017). O<sub>2</sub><sup>·-</sup> and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-Mediated Disruption of Fe Metabolism Causes the Differential Susceptibility of NSCLC and GBM Cancer Cells to Pharmacological Ascorbate. Cancer cell, 32(2), 268. PMID: 28810149.

Wongrakpanich, A., Mudunkotuwa, I. A., Geary, S. M., Morris, A. S., Mapuskar, K. A., Spitz, D. R., Grassian, V. H. & Salem, A. K. (2016). Size-dependent cytotoxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles in lung epithelial cells. Environmental science. Nano, 3(2), 365-374. PMID: 27347420.

Spitz, D. R., Hauer-Jensen, M. (2016). James William Osborne, PhD 1928-2015. Radiation research, 185(2), 214-6. PMID: 26890300.

Silvis, A. M., McCormick, M. L., Spitz, D. R. & Kiningham, K. K. (2016). Redox balance influences differentiation status of neuroblastoma in the presence of all-trans retinoic acid. Redox biology, 7, 88-96. PMID: 26678800.

Schibler, J., Tomanek-Chalkley, A. M., Reedy, J. L., Zhan, F., Spitz, D. R., Schultz, M. K. & Goel, A. (2016). Mitochondrial-Targeted Decyl-Triphenylphosphonium Enhances 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Mediated Oxidative Stress and Clonogenic Killing of Multiple Myeloma Cells. PloS one, 11(11), e0167323. PMID: 27902770.

Klaren, W. D., Gibson-Corley, K. N., Wels, B., Simmons, D. L., McCormick, M. L., Spitz, D. R. & Robertson, L. W. (2016). Assessment of the Mitigative Capacity of Dietary Zinc on PCB126 Hepatotoxicity and the Contribution of Zinc to Toxicity. Chemical research in toxicology, 29(5), 851-9. PMID: 26967026.

Zahra, A., Chang, T., Hejleh, T. A., Furqan, M., Clamon, G. H., Bhatia, S. K., Watkins, J. M., Mott, S. L., Ahmann, L. L., Bodeker, K. L., Spitz, D. R., Buatti, J. M. & Allen, B. G. (2016). Once Daily High-dose Radiation (=60 Gy) Treatment in Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer. Journal of oncology translational research, 2(1). PMID: 27981260.

Rodman, S. N., Spence, J. M., Ronnfeldt, T. J., Zhu, Y., Solst, S. R., O'Neill, R. A., Allen, B. G., Guan, X., Spitz, D. R. & Fath, M. A. (2016). Enhancement of Radiation Response in Breast Cancer Stem Cells by Inhibition of Thioredoxin- and Glutathione-Dependent Metabolism. Radiation research, 186(4), 385-395. PMID: 27643875.

Bayer, J. L., Spitz, D. R., Christensen, D., McCormick, M. L., Farley, D., DeGeest, K., Damoush, L., Aust, S., Sood, A. K. & Lutgendorf, S. K. (2015). Biobehavioral and neuroendocrine correlates ofantioxidant enzyme activity in ovarian carcinoma. Brain Behav Immun., pii: S0889-1591(15)00127-0. PMID: 25989110.

O'Leary, B. R., Fath, M. A., Bellizzi, A. M., Hrabe, J. E., Button, A. M., Allen, B. G., Case, A. J., Altekruse, A., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R., Lynch, C. F., Hernandez, B. Y., Cozen, W., Beardsley, R. A., Keene, J., Henry, M. D., Domann, F. E., Spitz, D. R. & Mezhir, J. J. (2015). Loss of SOD3 (EcSOD) Expression Promotes an Aggressive Phenotype in Human Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res., 21(7), 1741-1751. PMID: 25634994.

Du, J., Cieslak 3rd, J. A., Welsh, J. L., Sibenaller, Z. A., Allen, B. G., Wagner, B. A., Kalen, A. L., Doskey, C. M., Strother, E. K., Button, A. M., Mott, S. L., Smith, B., Tsai, S., Mezhir, J., Goswami, P. C., Spitz, D. R., Buettner, G. R. & Cullen, J. J. (2015). Pharmacological Ascorbate RadiosensitizesPancreatic Cancer. Cancer Res., pii: canres.1707.2014.. PMID: 26081808.

Rasmusses, T. P., Yu, Y., Joiner, M. A., Koval, O. M., Wilson, N. R., Luczak, E. D., Wang, Q., Chen, B., Gao, Z., Zhu, Z., Wagner, B. A., Soto, J., McCormick, M. L., Kutzchike, W., Weiss, R. M., Yu, L., Boudreau, R. L., Abel, E. D., Zhan, F., Spitz, D. R., Buettner, G. R., Song, L. S., Zingman, L. V. & Anderson, M. E. (2015). Inhibition of MCU forces extramitochondrial adaptations governing physiological and pathological stress responses in heart. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, pii: 201504705. PMID: 26153425.

Welch, D. R., Antalis, T. M., Burnstein, K., Vona-Davis, L., Jensen, R. A., Nakshatri, H., Riegel, A. T., Spitz, D. R., Watson, D. K. & Weiner, G. J. (2015). Essential Components of Cancer Education. Cancer research, 75(24), 5202-5. PMID: 26627010.

Hrabe, J. E., O'Leary, B. R., Fath, M. A., Rodman, S. N., Button, A. M., Domann, F. E., Spitz, D. R. & Mezhir, J. J. (2015). Disruption of thioredoxin metabolism enhances the toxicity oftransforming growth factor ß-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) inhibition in KRAS-mutatedcolon cancer cells. Redox Biol., 5, 319-327. PMID: 26114584.

Hall, D. D., Wu, Y., Domann, F. E., Spitz, D. R. & Anderson, M. E. (2014). Mitochondrial calcium uniporter activity is dispensable for MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell survival. PLoS One, 9(5), e96866. PMID: PMID: 24802861.

Spitz, D. R., Hauer-Jensen, M. (2014). Ionizing Radiation-Induced Responses: Where Free Radical Chemistry Meets Redox Biology and Medicine. Antioxid Redox Signal.. PMID: PMID:24354361.

Wongrakpanich, A., Adamcakova-Dodd, A., Xie, W., Joshi, V. B., Mapuskar, K. A., Geary, S. M., Spitz, D. R., Thorne, P. S. & Salem, A. K. (2014). The Absence of CpG in Plasmid DNA-Chitosan Polyplexes Enhances Transfection Efficiencies and Reduces Inflammatory Responses in Murine Lungs. Mol Pharm., Epub ahead of print. PMID: PMID:24494979.

Li, L., Fath, M. A., Scarbrough, P. M., Watson, W. H. & Spitz, D. R. (2014). Combined inhibition ofglycolysis, the pentose cycle, and thioredoxin metabolism selectively increasescytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human breast and prostate cancer. Redox Biol, 4C, 127-135. PMID: 25560241.

Coleman, M. C., Olivier, A. K., Jacobus, J. A., Mapuskar, K. A., Mao, G., Martin, S. M., Riley, D. P., Gius, D. & Spitz, D. R. (2014). Superoxide mediates acute liver injury in irradiated mice lacking sirtuin 3. Antioxid Redox Signal., 20(20), 1423-35. DOI: doi:10.1089/ars.2012.5091.

Wegman-Points, L. J., Teoh-Ftizgerald, M. L., Mao, G., Zhu, Y., Fath, M. A., Spitz, D. R. & Domann, F. E. (2014). Retroviral-infection increases tumorigenic potential of MDA-MB-231 breastcarcinoma cells by expanding an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1) positive stem-celllike population. Redox Biol., 2, 847-854. PMID: 25009786.

Allen, B. G., Bhatia, S. K., Anderson, C. M., Eichenberger-Gilmore, J. M., Sibenaller, Z. A., Mapuskar, K. A., Schoenfeld, J. D., Buatti, J. M., Spitz, D. R. & Fath, M. A. (2014). Ketogenic diets as anadjuvant cancer therapy: History and potential mechanism. Redox Biol, 2C, 963-970. PMID: 25460731.

Zhou, D., Shao, L. & Spitz, D. R. (2014). Reactive oxygen species in normal and tumor stem cells. Adv Cancer Res., 122, 1-67. PMID: 24974178.

Wegman-Points, L. J., Teoh-Fitzgerald, M. L., Mao, G., Zhu, Y., Fath, M. A., Spitz, D. R. & Domann, F. E. (2014). Retroviral-infection increases tumorigenic potential of MDA-MB-231 breastcarcinoma cells by expanding an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1) positive stem-celllike population. Redox Biol., 24(2), 847-54. PMID: 25009786.

Xiao, W., Zhu, Y., Sarsour, E. H., Kalen, A. L., Aykin-Burns, N., Spitz, D. R. & Goswami, P. C. (2013). Selenoprotein P regulates 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-benzo-2,5-quinone-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in human keratinocytes. Free Radic Biol Med., 65C, 70-77. PMID: PMID:23770201.

Cyr, A. R., Brown, K. E., McCormick, M. L., Coleman, M. C., Case, A. J., Watts, G. S., Futscher, B. W., Spitz, D. R. & Domann, F. E. (2013). Maintenance of mitochondrial genomic integrity in the absence of manganese superoxide dismutase in mouse liver hepatocytes. Redox Biol., 1(1), 172-7. PMID: PMID: 24024150.

Allen, B. G., Bhatia, S. K., Buatti, J. M., Brandt, K. E., Lindholm, K. E., Button, A. M., Szweda, L. I., Smith, B. G., Spitz, D. R. & Fath, M. A. (2013). Ketogenic diets enhance oxidative stress and radio-chemo-therapy responses in lung cancer xenografts. Clin Cancer Res., 19(14), 3905-13. PMID: PMID:23743570.

Bey, E. A., Reinicke, K. E., Srougi, M. C., Varnes, M., Anderson, V., Pink, J. J., Li, L. S., Patel, M., Cao, L., Moore, Z., Rommel, A., Boatman, M., Lewis, C., Euhus, D. M., Bornmann, W. G., Buchsbaum, D. J., Spitz, D. R., Gao, J. & Boothman, D. A. (2013). Catalase abrogates ß-lapachone-induced PARP1 hyperactivation-directed programmed necrosis in NQO1-positive breast cancers. Mol Cancer Ther., Epub ahead of print. PMID: PMID:23883585.

Jacobus, J. A., Duda, C. G., Coleman, M. C., Martin, S. M., Mapuskar, K., Mao, G., Smith, B. J., Aykin-Burns, N., Guida, P., Gius, D., Domann, F. E., Knudson, C. M. & Spitz, D. R. (2013). Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Enhancement of Thymic Lymphomagenesis in Lck-Bax Mice is Dependent on LET and Gender. Radiat Res., 180(2), 156-65. PMID: PMID:23819597.

Allen, B. A., Sibenaller, Z. A., Cullen, J. J., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R., Welsh, J. L., Buatti, J., Bhatia, S. K., Abu Hejleh, T. & Spitz, D. R. (2013). Pharmacological Ascorbate Enhances NSCLC Chemo-Radio-Sensitization. (Vols. 87). (2), pp. S655. Int J Rad Onc Biol Phys.

Zhu, Y., Mapuskar, K. A., Marek, R. F., Xu, W., Lehmler, H. J., Robertson, L. W., Hornbuckle, K. C., Spitz, D. R. & Aykin-Burns, N. (2013). A New Player in Environmentally Induced Oxidative Stress: Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congener, 3,3' dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11). Toxicol Sci., Epub ahead of print. PMID: PMID:23997111.

Worthington, K. L., Adamcakova-Dodd, A., Wongrakpanich, A., Mudunkotuwa, I. A., Mapuskar, K. A., Joshi, V. B., Allan Guymon, C., Spitz, D. R., Grassian, V. H., Thorne, p. S. & Salem, A. K. (2013). Chitosan coating of copper nanoparticles reduces in vitro toxicity and increases inflammation in the lung. Nanotechnology., 24(39), 395101. PMID: PMID:24008224.

Dholakiya, P. P., Neff, T., Smith, E., Domann, F. E., Spitz, D., Rubenstein, L., Bender, D. P. & Goodheart, M. J. (2013). Inflammatory Gene Expression and Obesity in Endometrial Carcinoma. Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

Xiao, W., Zhu, Y., Sarsour, E. H., Kalen, A. L., Aykin-Burns, N., Spitz, D. R. & Goswami, P. C. (2013). Selenoprotein P Regulates Environmental Pollutant PCB-Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity in Human Keratinocytes. (Vols. 65). (2), pp. S:136, 316. FRBM. PMID: 23770201.

Mapuskar, K. A., Jacobus, J., Coleman, M. C., Mao, G., Aykin-Burns, N., Gius, D. & Spitz, D. R. (2012). Loss of Sirt3 enhances metabolic oxidative stress and compromises radiation-induced responses in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF’s).

Kim, S. Y., Rhee, J. G., Song, X., Prochownik, E. V., Spitz, D. R. & Lee, Y. J. (2012). Breast cancer stem cell-like cells are more sensitive to ionizing radiation than non-stem cells: role of ATM. PloS one, 7(11), e50423. PMID: 23185620.

Fath, M. A., Simons, A. L., Erickson, J., Anderson, M. E. & Spitz, D. R. (2012). Enhancement of cancer therapy using ketogenic diets. in Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice: Oxidative Stress in Cancer Biology and Therapy. Spitz , Gius , Krishnan , Dornfeld (Eds.) pp. 47-58. Humana Press, Springer Science+Business Media, New York, NY.

Jacobus, J. A., Duda, C. G., Coleman, M. C., Mao, G., Mapuskar, K. A., Joseph, J., Kalyanaraman, B., Domann, F. E., Aykin-Burns, N., Knudson, M. & Spitz, D. R. (2012). Mitochondrial oxidative stress and radiation response in vivo: The role of LET and gender.

Coleman, M. C., Olivier, A. K., Jacobus, J. A., Mao, G., Mapuskar, K. A., Riley, D., Gius, D. & Spitz, D. R. (2012). Sirtuin 3 prevents acute hepatic injury and regulars chronic metabolic oxidative stress following ionizing radiation.

Allen, B. G., Sibenaller, Z. A., Cullen, J., Buettner, G. R., Welsh, J. L., van't Erve, T. J., Buatti, J. M., Carlisle, T. L., Smith, M., Walsh, S. A., Bayouth, J. E., TenNapel, M. & Spitz, D. R. (2012). Pharmacological ascorbate enhances chemo-radio-sensitization in brain and lung cancer.

Simons, A. L., Orcutt, K. P., Madsen, J. M., Scarbrough, P. M., Parsons, A. D. & Spitz, D. R. (2012). The Role of Akt Pathway Signaling in Glucose Metabolism and Metabolic Oxidative Stress. in Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice: Oxidative Stress in Cancer Biology and Therapy. Spitz , Gius , Krishnan , Dornfeld (Eds.) pp. 21-46. Humana Press, Springer Science+Business Media; New York, NY.

Mao, G., Coleman, M. C., Jacobus, J. A., Olivier, A. K., Mapuskar, K., Martin, S., Aykin-Burns, N., Knudson, M., Gius, D., Domann, F. E. & Spitz, D. R. (2012). The effect of gender and sirtuin 3 on acute and chronic radiation responses of splenic b lymphocytes form c57b/6 mice.

Sobhakumari, A., Love-Homan, L., Fletcher, E. V., Martin, S. M., Parsons, A. D., Spitz, D. R., Knudson, C. M. & Simons, A. L. (2012). Susceptibility of human head and neck cancer cells to combined inhibition of glutathione and thioredoxin metabolism. PloS one, 7(10), e48175. PMID: 23118946.

Welsh, J. L., Du, J., Sibenaller, Z. A., Kalen, A. L., Wagner, B. A., Allen, B. G., Spitz, D. R., Goswami, P., Buettner, G. R. & Cullen, J. (2012). Ascorbate is aradiosensitizer in pancreatic cancer.

Kloepping, K. C., Coleman, M. C., Wagner, B. A., Jacobus, J. A., Mapuskar, K. A., Buettner, G. R., Spitz, D. R. & Schultz, M. K. (2012). Small Molecule oxidative metabolism inhibitors for metastatic melanoma therapy.

Kang, M. A., So, E. Y., Simons, A. L., Spitz, D. R. & Ouchi, T. (2012). DNA damage induces reactive oxygen species generation through the H2AX-Nox1/Rac1 pathway. Cell death & disease, 3, e249. PMID: 22237206.

Zhu, Y., Park, S. H., Ozden, O., Kim, H. S., Jiang, H., Vassilopoulos, A., Spitz, D. R. & Gius, D. (2012). Exploring the electrostatic repulsion model in the role of Sirt3 in directing MnSOD acetylation status and enzymatic activity. Free radical biology & medicine, 53(4), 828-33. PMID: 22732184.

Sobhakumari, A., Love-Homan, L., Fletcher, E. V., Martin, S. M., Parsons, A. D., Spitz, D. R., Knudson, C. M. & Simons, A. L. (2012). Susceptibility of human head and neck cancer cells to combined inhibition of glutathione and thioredoxin metabolism. PLoS One., 7(10), e48175. PMID: PMID:23118946.

Allen, B. G., Sibenaller, Z., Cullen, J. J., Buettner, G. R., Buatti, J., Carlisle, T. L., Wagner, B. A., Welsh, J. L., Fath, M. A. & Spitz, D. R. (2012). High-dose Ascorbate Enhances Chemo-Radio-Sensitization in GBM. (Vols. 84). (3), pp. S702. Int J Rad Onc Biol Phys.

Scarbrough, P. M., Mapuskar, K. A., Mattson, D. M., Gius, D., Watson, W. H. & Spitz, D. R. (2012). Simultaneous inhibition of glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent metabolism is necessary to potentiate 17AAG-induced cancer cell killing via oxidative stress. Free radical biology & medicine, 52(2), 436-43. PMID: 22100505.

Duru, N., Fan, M., Candas, D., Menaa, C., Liu, H. C., Nantajit, D., Wen, Y., Xiao, K., Eldridge, A., Chromy, B. A., Li, S., Spitz, D. R., Lam, K. S., Wicha, M. S. & Li, J. J. (2012). HER2-associated radioresistance of breast cancer stem cells isolated from HER2-negative breast cancer cells. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 18(24), 6634-47. PMID: 23091114.

Kim, S. Y., Rhee, J. G., Song, X., Prochownik, E. V., Spitz, D. R. & Lee, Y. J. (2012). Breast cancer stem cell-like cells are more sensitive to ionizing radiation than non-stem cells: role of ATM. PLoS One, 7(11), e50423. PMID: PMID:23185620.

Owens, K. M., Aykin-Burns, N., Dayal, D., Coleman, M. C., Domann, F. E. & Spitz, D. R. (2012). Genomic instability induced by mutant succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) is mediated by O2(-•) and H2O2. Free radical biology & medicine, 52(1), 160-6. PMID: 22041456.

Zhou, D., Shao, L. & Spitz, D. R. (2012). Reactive oxygen species in normal and tumor stemcells. Adv Cancer Res, 122, 1-67. PMID: PMID: 24974178.

Osborn-Heaford, H. L., Ryan, A. J., Murthy, S., Racila, A. M., He, C., Sieren, J. C., Spitz, D. R. & Carter, A. B. (2012). Mitochondrial Rac1 GTPase import and electron transfer from cytochrome c are required for pulmonary fibrosis. The Journal of biological chemistry, 287(5), 3301-12. PMID: 22157762.

Goel, A., Spitz, D. R. & Weiner, G. J. (2012). Manipulation of cellular redox parameters for improving therapeutic responses in B-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Journal of cellular biochemistry, 113(2), 419-25. PMID: 21956712.

Zagorodna, O., Martin, S. M., Rutkowski, D. T., Kuwana, T., Spitz, D. R. & Knudson, C. M. (2012). 2-deoxyglucose-induced toxicity is regulated by Bcl-2 family members and is enhanced by antagonizing Bcl-2 in lymphoma cell lines. Oncogene, 31(22), 2738-49. PMID: 21986940.

Tyra, H. M., Spitz, D. R. & Rutkowski, D. T. (2012). Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation enhances oxidative protein folding and protects hepatocytes from endoplasmic reticulum stress. Molecular biology of the cell, 23(5), 811-9. PMID: 22262455.

Sobhakumari, A., Raeburn, A., Fletcher, E. V., Spitz, D. R. & Simons, A. L. (2011). EGFR inhibitor Erlotinib induces autophagy via NOX4 in head and neck cancer cells.

Fletcher, E., Sobhakumari, A., Brown, C. O., Case, A. J., Spitz, D. R., Domann, F. E., Goel, A. & Simons, A. L. (2011). EGFR Inhibition Induces IL6 Expression Via NOX4 in Head and Neck Cancer Cells.

Schickling, B. M., Aykin-Burns, N., Leslie, K. K., Spitz, D. R. & Korovkina, V. P. (2011). An inhibitor of K+ channels modulates human endometrial tumor-initiating cells. Cancer cell international, 11(1), 25. PMID: 21810252.

Mao, G., Jacobus, J., Martin, S., Case, A., Aykin-Burns, N., Mapuskar, K., Coleman, M. C., Knudson, M. C., Gius, D., Domann, F. E. & Spitz, D. R. (2011). Sirtuin 3(-/-) Thymocytes Demonstrate Increased Levels of Superoxide, a Diminished Radiation-Induced Adaptive Response, and Accelerated Bax-Induced Thymic Lymphoma in the C57BL/6 mice.

Aykin-Burns, N., Slane, B. G., Liu, A. T., Owens, K. M., O'Malley, M. S., Smith, B. J., Domann, F. E. & Spitz, D. R. (2011). Sensitivity to low-dose/low-LET ionizing radiation in mammalian cells harboring mutations in succinate dehydrogenase subunit C is governed by mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species. Radiation research, 175(2), 150-8. PMID: 21268708.

Coleman, M. C., Olivier, A. K., Gius, D. & Spitz, D. R. (2011). The Role of Sirtuin 3 in Hepatic Injury and Loss of Cytochrome Oxidase Following Ionizing Radiation.

Park, S. H., Ozden, O., Jiang, H., Cha, Y. I., Pennington, J. D., Aykin-Burns, N., Spitz, D. R., Gius, D. & Kim, H. S. (2011). Sirt3, Mitochondrial ROS, Ageing, and Carcinogenesis. International journal of molecular sciences, 12(9), 6226-39. PMID: 22016654.

Allen, B., Szweda, L., Buatti, J., Bhatia, S., Spitz, D. R. & Fath, M. (2011). Ketogenic Diets Enhance Lung Cancer Response To Therapy.

Orcutt, K. P., Parsons, A. D., Sibenaller, Z. A., Scarbrough, P. M., Zhu, Y., Sobhakumari, A., Wilke, W. W., Kalen, A. L., Goswami, P., Miller, F. J., Spitz, D. R. & Simons, A. L. (2011). Erlotinib-mediated inhibition of EGFR signaling induces metabolic oxidative stress through NOX4. Cancer research, 71(11), 3932-40. PMID: 21482679.

Cullen, J. J., Spitz, D. R. & Buettner, G. R. (2011). Comment on "Pharmacologic ascorbate synergizes with gemcitabine in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer," i.e., all we are saying is, give C a chance. Free radical biology & medicine, 50(12), 1726-7. PMID: 21459141.

Fath, M. A., Ahmad, I. M., Smith, C. J., Spence, J. & Spitz, D. R. (2011). Enhancement of carboplatin-mediated lung cancer cell killing by simultaneous disruption of glutathione and thioredoxin metabolism. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 17(19), 6206-17. PMID: 21844013.

Case, A. J., McGill, J. L., Tygrett, L. T., Shirasawa, T., Spitz, D. R., Waldschmidt, T. J., Legge, K. L. & Domann, F. E. (2011). Elevated mitochondrial superoxide disrupts normal T cell development, impairing adaptive immune responses to an influenza challenge. Free radical biology & medicine, 50(3), 448-58. PMID: 21130157.

He, B. J., Joiner, M. L., Singh, M. V., Luczak, E. D., Swaminathan, P. D., Koval, O. M., Kutschke, W., Allamargot, C., Yang, J., Guan, X., Zimmerman, K., Grumbach, I. M., Weiss, R. M., Spitz, D. R., Sigmund, C. D., Blankesteijn, W. M., Heymans, S., Mohler, P. J. & Anderson, M. E. (2011). Oxidation of CaMKII determines the cardiotoxic effects of aldosterone. Nature medicine, 17(12), 1610-8. PMID: 22081025.

He, C., Murthy, S., McCormick, M. L., Spitz, D. R., Ryan, A. J. & Carter, A. B. (2011). Mitochondrial Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase mediates pulmonary fibrosis by augmenting H2O2 generation. The Journal of biological chemistry, 286(17), 15597-607. PMID: 21393238.

Ozden, O., Park, S. H., Kim, H. S., Jiang, H., Coleman, M. C., Spitz, D. R. & Gius, D. (2011). Acetylation of MnSOD directs enzymatic activity responding to cellular nutrient status or oxidative stress. Aging, 3(2), 102-7. PMID: 21386137.

Spitz, D. R. (2011). Metabolic oxidative stress and low dose radiation responses: are mitochondria involved. Health physics, 100(3), 295. PMID: 21595073.

Westin, E. R., Aykin-Burns, N., Buckingham, E. M., Spitz, D. R., Goldman, F. D. & Klingelhutz, A. J. (2011). The p53/p21(WAF/CIP) pathway mediates oxidative stress and senescence in dyskeratosis congenita cells with telomerase insufficiency. Antioxidants & redox signaling, 14(6), 985-97. PMID: 21087144.

Simons, A. L., Orcutt, K. P., Parsons, A. D., Sibenaller, Z. A., Scarbrough, P. M., Sobhakumari, A., Zhu, Y., Wilke, W. W., Kalen, A. L., Miller, F. J., Goswami, P. & Spitz, D. R. (2010). Inhibition of EGFR signaling induces metabolic oxidative stress in human head and neck cancer cells.

Scarbrough, P. M., Mattson, D., Gius, D., Watson, W. H. & Spitz, D. R. (2010). Inhibitors of glucose and hydroperoxide metabolism potentiate 17-AAG-induced cancer cell killing via oxidative stress.

Sobhakumari, A., Parsons, A., McCormick, M., Spitz, D. R. & Simons, A. (2010). Head and neck cancer cells exhibit an adaptive response to the AKT-inhibitor perifosine characterized by increased glucose metabolism and altered signaling through the AKT pathway.

Simons, A. L., Orcutt, K. P., Parsons, A. D., Sobhakumari, A., Sibenaller, Z., Scarbrough, P. M., Wilke, W. W., Kalen, A., Goswami, P. & Spitz, D. R. (2010). Inhibition of EGFR signaling induces metabolic oxidative stress and radiosensitization in head and neck cancer cells.

Jacobus,, J. A., Duda, C., Martin, S. M., Coleman, M. C., Mapuskar, K., Aykin-Burns, N., Knudson, C. M. & Spitz, D. R. (2010). LET and gender are critical factors in accelerating development of lymphoma in irradiated bax transgenic C57/B6 mice.

Allen, B. G., Fath, M. A., Simons, A. L., Bhatia, S. K., Buatti, J. M. & Spitz, D. R. (2010). Enhancing Tumor Chemo-radio-sensitization using Ketogenic Diets.

Coleman, M. C., Jacobus, J. A., Gius, D. & Spitz, D. R. (2010). SIRT3 regulates mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity following exposure to ionizing radiation.

Jacobus, J. A., Duda, C., Martin, S., Coleman, M., Mapuskar, K., Knudson, C. M. & Spitz, D. R. (2010). LET is a critical factor in accelerating development of lymphoma in irradiated Bax transgenic C57/B6 mice.

Spitz, D. R., Sullivan, S. J. (2010). The generation of stable oxidative stress-resistant phenotypes in Chinese hamster fibroblasts chronically exposed to hydrogen peroxide or hyperoxia. pp. 610:183-99. Methods Mol Biol.. PMID: PMID: 20013179.

Spitz, D. R., Sullivan, S. J. (2010). The generation of stable oxidative stress-resistant phenotypes in Chinese hamster fibroblasts chronically exposed to hydrogen peroxide or hyperoxia. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 610, 183-99. PMID: 20013179.

Zhu, Y., Tasche, K. K., Aykin-Burns, N., Murphy, M. P. & Spitz, D. R. (2010). Decyl-triphenylphosphonium combined with inhibitors of hydroperoxide metabolism selectively enhances breast cancer cell killing via oxidative stress.

Mao, G., Jacobus, J. A., Martin, S. M., Case, A. J., Aykin-Burns, N., Mapuskar, K., Coleman, M. C., Gius, D., Domann, F. E. & Spitz, D. R. (2010). Low dose (10-100 cGy) whole body irradiation increases steady-state levels of superoxide in C57BL/6 thymocytes.

Coleman, M. C., Jacobus, J. A., Gius, D. & Spitz, D. R. (2010). SIRT3 regulates mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity following exposure to ionizing radiation.

Fath, M. A., Simons, A. L., Allen, B., Erickson, J., Anderson, M. E. & Spitz, D. R. (2010). Enhancement of cancer therapy using ketogenic diet.

Chaudhuri, L., Sarsour, E. H., Kalen, A. L., Aykin-Burns, N., Spitz, D. R. & Goswami, P. C. (2010). Polychlorinated biphenyl induced ROS signaling delays the entry of quiescent human breast epithelial cells into the proliferative cycle. Free radical biology & medicine, 49(1), 40-9. PMID: 20307652.

Tan, M., Zhu, Y., Kovacev, J., Zhao, Y., Pan, Z. Q., Spitz, D. R. & Sun, Y. (2010). Disruption of Sag/Rbx2/Roc2 induces radiosensitization by increasing ROS levels and blocking NF-kappaB activation in mouse embryonic stem cells. Free radical biology & medicine, 49(6), 976-83. PMID: 20638939.

Fitzgerald, M. P., Madsen, J. M., Coleman, M. C., Teoh, M. L., Westphal, S. G., Spitz, D. R., Radi, R. & Domann, F. E. (2010). Transgenic biosynthesis of trypanothione protects Escherichia coli from radiation-induced toxicity. Radiation research, 174(3), 290-6. PMID: 20726720.

Lai, I., Chai, Y., Simmons, D., Luthe, G., Coleman, M. C., Spitz, D., Haschek, W. M., Ludewig, G. & Robertson, L. W. (2010). Acute toxicity of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) in male Sprague-Dawley rats: effects on hepatic oxidative stress, glutathione and metals status. Environment international, 36(8), 918-23. PMID: 19969354.

Tao, R., Coleman, M. C., Pennington, J. D., Ozden, O., Park, S. H., Jiang, H., Kim, H. S., Flynn, C. R., Hill, S., Hayes McDonald, W., Olivier, A. K., Spitz, D. R. & Gius, D. (2010). Sirt3-mediated deacetylation of evolutionarily conserved lysine 122 regulates MnSOD activity in response to stress. Molecular cell, 40(6), 893-904. PMID: 21172655.

Bera, S., Greiner, S., Choudhury, A., Dispenzieri, A., Spitz, D. R., Russell, S. J. & Goel, A. (2010). Dexamethasone-induced oxidative stress enhances myeloma cell radiosensitization while sparing normal bone marrow hematopoiesis. Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.), 12(12), 980-92. PMID: 21170263.

Zagorodna, O., Martin, S. M., Kuwana, T., Spitz, D. R. & Knudson, C. M. (2010). 2-deoxyglucose caused toxicity in murine lymphomas is capase independent, but mediated by BH3-only subfamily members.

Dinwiddie, S. H., Spitz, D. (2010). Resident education in electroconvulsive therapy. The journal of ECT, 26(4), 310-6. PMID: 20357669.

Kim, H. S., Patel, K., Muldoon-Jacobs, K., Bisht, K. S., Aykin-Burns, N., Pennington, J. D., van der Meer, R., Nguyen, P., Savage, J., Owens, K. M., Vassilopoulos, A., Ozden, O., Park, S. H., Singh, K. K., Abdulkadir, S. A., Spitz, D. R., Deng, C. X. & Gius, D. (2010). SIRT3 is a mitochondria-localized tumor suppressor required for maintenance of mitochondrial integrity and metabolism during stress. Cancer cell, 17(1), 41-52. PMID: 20129246.

Shutt, D. C., O'Dorisio, M. S., Aykin-Burns, N. & Spitz, D. R. (2010). 2-deoxy-D-glucose induces oxidative stress and cell killing in human neuroblastoma cells. Cancer biology & therapy, 9(11), 853-61. PMID: 20364116.

Festa, A., Mulieri, P. J., Newman, J. S., Spitz, D. J. & Leslie, B. M. (2010). Effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting partial and complete distal biceps tendon rupture. The Journal of hand surgery, 35(1), 77-83. PMID: 19942363.

Sun, W. G., Weydert, C. J., Zhang, Y., Yu, L., Liu, J., Spitz, D. R., Cullen, J. J. & Oberley, L. W. (2010). Superoxide Enhances the Antitumor Combination of AdMnSOD Plus BCNU in Breast Cancer. Cancers, 2(1), 68-87. PMID: 20532186.

Solazzo, S. A., Ahmed, M., Schor-Bardach, R., Yang, W., Girnun, G. D., Rahmanuddin, S., Levchenko, T., Signoretti, S., Spitz, D. R., Torchilin, V. & Goldberg, S. N. (2010). Liposomal doxorubicin increases radiofrequency ablation-induced tumor destruction by increasing cellular oxidative and nitrative stress and accelerating apoptotic pathways. Radiology, 255(1), 62-74. PMID: 20160000.

Hadzic, T., Aykin-Burns, N., Zhu, Y., Coleman, M. C., Leick, K., Jacobson, G. M. & Spitz, D. R. (2010). Paclitaxel combined with inhibitors of glucose and hydroperoxide metabolism enhances breast cancer cell killing via H2O2-mediated oxidative stress. Free radical biology & medicine, 48(8), 1024-33. PMID: 20083194.

Case, A. J., McGill, J. L., Sangster, S. C. & Spitz, D. R. (2009). Heightened susceptibility to influenza mortality in immunodeficient mice caused by a T-cell specific defect in SOD2.

Hill, H. Z., Azzam, E. I., Yang, Z., Galdass, M., de Toledo, S., Spitz, D. R. & Dermody, J. (2009). Effect of ionizing radiation and serum concentration on mitochondrial DNA copies of Chinese hamster cells deficient in electron transport.

Domann, F. E., Fitzgerald, M. P., Madsen, J. M., Westphal, S. G., Coleman, M. C. & Spitz, D. R. (2009). Establishment of the trypanothione biosynthetic pathway in human cells: Implications for protection again radiation and oxidative stress.

Li, L., Scarbrough, P. M. & Spitz, D. R. (2009). Increased cytotoxicity in human cancer cells induced by inhibitors of glucose and thioredoxin metabolism.

Scarbrough, P. M., Mattson, D., Aykin-Burns, N. & Spitz, D. R. (2009). Inhibitors of glucose and hydroperoxide metabolism enhance 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin toxicity in human breast cancer cells.

Lamkin, D. M., Spitz, D. R., Shahzad, M. M., Zimmerman, B., Lenihan, D. J., Degeest, K., Lubaroff, D. M., Shinn, E. H., Sood, A. K. & Lutgendorf, S. K. (2009). Glucose as a prognostic factor in ovarian carcinoma. Cancer, 115(5), 1021-7. PMID: 19156916.

Orcutt, K. P., Wilke, W. W., Scarbrough, P. M., Kalen, A. L., Spitz, D. R. & Simons, A. L. (2009). The role of oxidative stress in the cytotoxic effects of erlotinib in human head and neck cancer cells.

Zhu, Y. M., Aykin-Burns, N., Fath, M. & Spitz, D. R. (2009). The role of Mitochondrial ROS in susceptibility of human breast cancer cells to 2-deoxyglucose combined with paclitaxel.

Zagorodna, O., Martin, S. M. & Spitz, D. R. (2009). Investigating 2DG sensitivity and ER stress in murine T cell lymphoma cells.

Simons, A. L., Parsons, A. D., Foster, K. A., Orcutt, K. P., Fath, M. A. & Spitz, D. R. (2009). Inhibition of glutathione and thioredoxin metabolism enhances sensitivity to perifosine in head and neck cancer cells.

Mateju, E., Duchanová, S., Kovac, P., Moravanský, N. & Spitz, D. J. (2009). Fatal case of Rapunzel syndrome in neglected child. Forensic science international, 190(3-Jan), e5-7. PMID: 19505779.

Holley, A. K., Kiningham, K. K., Spitz, D. R., Edwards, D. P., Jenkins, J. T. & Moore, M. R. (2009). Progestin stimulation of manganese superoxide dismutase and invasive properties in T47D human breast cancer cells. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology, 117(3-Jan), 23-30. PMID: 19563893.

Zhu, Y., Kalen, A. L., Li, L., Lehmler, H. J., Robertson, L. W., Goswami, P. C., Spitz, D. R. & Aykin-Burns, N. (2009). Polychlorinated-biphenyl-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity can be mitigated by antioxidants after exposure. Free radical biology & medicine, 47(12), 1762-71. PMID: 19796678.

Dayal, D., Martin, S. M., Owens, K. M., Aykin-Burns, N., Zhu, Y., Boominathan, A., Pain, D., Limoli, C. L., Goswami, P. C., Domann, F. E. & Spitz, D. R. (2009). Mitochondrial complex II dysfunction can contribute significantly to genomic instability after exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiation research, 172(6), 737-45. PMID: 19929420.

Haak, J. L., Buettner, G. R., Spitz, D. R. & Kregel, K. C. (2009). Aging augments mitochondrial susceptibility to heat stress. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology, 296(3), R812-20. PMID: 19144753.

Du, C., Gao, Z., Venkatesha, V. A., Kalen, A. L., Chaudhuri, L., Spitz, D. R., Cullen, J. J., Oberley, L. W. & Goswami, P. C. (2009). Mitochondrial ROS and radiation induced transformation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cancer biology & therapy, 8(20), 1962-71. PMID: 19738419.

Gupta, A. K., Lee, J. H., Wilke, W. W., Quon, H., Smith, G., Maity, A., Buatti, J. M. & Spitz, D. R. (2009). Radiation response in two HPV-infected head-and-neck cancer cell lines in comparison to a non-HPV-infected cell line and relationship to signaling through AKT. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 74(3), 928-33. PMID: 19480971.

Xie, W., Wu, Q., Kania-Korwel, I., Tharappel, J. C., Telu, S., Coleman, M. C., Glauert, H. P., Kannan, K., Mariappan, S. V., Spitz, D. R., Weydert, J. & Lehmler, H. J. (2009). Subacute exposure to N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol results in the formation of perfluorooctanesulfonate and alters superoxide dismutase activity in female rats. Archives of toxicology, 83(10), 909-24. PMID: 19544052.

von Bergen, N. H., Koppenhafer, S. L., Spitz, D. R., Volk, K. A., Patel, S. S., Roghair, R. D., Lamb, F. S., Segar, J. L. & Scholz, T. D. (2009). Fetal programming alters reactive oxygen species production in sheep cardiac mitochondria. Clinical science (London, England : 1979), 116(8), 659-68. PMID: 19032144.

Fath, M. A., Diers, A. R., Aykin-Burns, N., Simons, A. L., Hua, L. & Spitz, D. R. (2009). Mitochondrial electron transport chain blockers enhance 2-deoxy-D-glucose induced oxidative stress and cell killing in human colon carcinoma cells. Cancer biology & therapy, 8(13), 1228-36. PMID: 19411865.

Simons, A. L., Mattson, D. M., Dornfeld, K. & Spitz, D. R. (2009). Glucose deprivation-induced metabolic oxidative stress and cancer therapy. Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, 5 Suppl 1, S2-6. PMID: 20009288.

Hill, H. Z., Dayal, D., Owens, K., Dermody, J. J., Donnelly, R. J. & Spitz, D. R. (2008). Quantification of total and deleted mitochondrial DNA copies in Chinese hamster fibroblasts expressing mutations in the nuclear genes coding for succinate dehydrogenase (SDH).

Gius, D., Patel, K., Muldoon-Jacobs, Aykin-Burns, N. & Spitz, D. R. (2008). SIRT3 is a Mitochondrial Tumor Suppressor Gene.

Zhu, Y., Mhaskar, A. H., Lehmler, H., Robertson, L. W., Spitz, D. R. & Aykin-Burns, N. (2008). Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)-Induced Oxidative Stress Mediates Cytotoxicity in Human Prostate Epithelial Cells.

Aykin-Burns, N., Cloud, C., Cavazos, L. S., Bickenbach, J. R. & Spitz, D. R. (2008). The Role of Oxygen and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Wound Healing.

Azzam, E. I., Li, M., Galdass, M., Zhang, J., deToledo, S. M., Pain, D. & Spitz, D. R. (2008). In Vitro and in Vivo Effects of Low Dose ?-Radiation on Mitochondrial Physiology: Mitochondrial Protein Import and Aconitase Activity.

Chaudhuri, L., Aykin-Burns, N., Spitz, D. R., Kalen, A. L., Sarsour, E. H. & Goswami, P. C. (2008). MnSOD and Cyclin D1 Facilitate Inter-Organeller Communication Coordinating Cellular Metabolism to DNA Synthesis in PCB Treated MCF10A Cells.

Spitz, D. R. (2008). Evidence of mitochondrial abnormalities in radiation-induced genomically unstable mammalian cells.

Zagorodna, O., Martin, S. M., Spitz, D. R. & Knudson, C. M. (2008). Investigating 2DG Sensitivity and Oxidative Stree in Murin T Cell Lymphoma Cells.

Gius, D., Aykin-Burns, N., Muldoon-Jacobs, K. & Spitz, D. R. (2008). Loss of Mitochondrial Integrity and Function in SIRT3 Knockout Primary Cells.

Aykin-Burns, N., Ahmad, I. M., Zhu, Y., Oberley, L. W. & Spitz, D. R. (2007). Metabolic Oxidative Stress Mediates the Differential Susceptibility of Human Cancer Cells Vs. Normal Cells to Glucose Deprivation-Induced Cytotoxicity.

Zhu, Y., Aykin-Burns, N., Chaudhuri, L., Kalen, A. L., Li, L., Lehmler, H. J., Robertson, L. W., Goswami, P. C. & Spitz, D. R. (2007). Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)-Induced Oxidative Stress Mediates Cytotoxicity in Human Breast Epithelial Cells.

Hadzic, T., Aykin-Burns, N., Coleman, M. C., Jacobson, G. & Spitz, D. R. (2007). Taxol Combined with Inhibitors of Glucose and Hydroperoxide Metabolism Enhances Breast Cancer Cell Killing via H2O2-Mediated Oxidative Stress.

Du, C., Gao, Z., Venkatesha, V., Spitz, D. R., Goswami, P. C. & Oberley, L. W. (2007). Radiation-Induced Increase in ROS Levels, DNA Damage, and Accelerated Exit from G2 are Associated with Increased Transformation Frequency in MnSOD Knockout Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts.

Ahmad, I. M., Mattson, D. M., Aykin-Burns, N., Simons, A. L., Dornfeld, K. J. & Spitz, D. R. (2007). The Enhanced Cytotoxicity of AZT Combined with Cisplatin in Human Head and Neck Cancer Cells can be Augmented by Glutathione Depletion.

Fitzgerald, M. P., Estphal, S., Madsen, J., Hitchler, M. J., Wilson, M. E., Spitz, D. R. & Domann, F. E. (2007). Targeting the Trypanothione Redox Cycle with 2-Deoxyglucose for the Treatment of Leishmaniachagasi.

Slane, B. G., Owens, K. M., Aykin-Burns, N., Liu, A., Oberley, L. W., Domann, F. E. & Spitz, D. R. (2007). Increased Radiosensitivity Seen in Cells with Mutated Succinate Dehydrogenase Subunits C or D (SDHC or SDHD) is Inhibited by Overexpression of MnSOD and Catalase.

Chadhuri, L., Aykin-Burns, N., Spitz, D. R., Kalen, A. L., Sarsour, E. H. & Goswami, P. C. (2007). Catalase Abrogates Polychlorinated Biphenyls-Induced Delays During Quiescent Human Breast Epithelial Cells’ Entry into the Proliferation Cycle.

Hill, H. Z., Spitz, D. R., Dayal, D. & Owens, K. (2007). H2O2 produces a ‘Common Deletion’ in Mitochondrial DNA of Chinese Hamster Cells Defective in Electron Transport.

Scarbrough, P., Mattson, D. M., Aykin-Burns, N., Gius, D. & Spitz, D. R. (2007). 2-Deoxy-Glucose and 17-(Allylamino)-17-Demethoxygeldanamycin Enhances Toxicity as Well as Increases Parameters Indiciative of Oxidative Stress.

Fath, M. A., Mattson, D. M., Ahmad, I. M. & Spitz, D. R. (2007). Enhanced Lung Cancer Cell Killing by Inhibition of Glucose Metabolism in Combination with Carboplatin is Thiol Dependent.

Simons, A. L., Fath, M. A., Mattson, D. M., Smith, B. J., Walsh, S. A., Hichwa, R. D., Graham, M. M., Buatti, J. M., Dornfeld, K. J. & Spitz, D. R. (2007). FDG-PET Predicts Sensitivity of Human Head and neck Cancer Xenografts to Cisplatin Combined with 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose.

Dayal, D., Martin, S. M., Boominathan, A., Pain, D., Goswami, P. C., Knudson, C. M., Limoli, C. L. & Spitz, D. R. (2007). Evidence of Mitochondrial Abnormalities in Radiation-Induced Genomically Unstable Mammalian Cells.

Simons, A. L., Fath, M. A., Mattson, D., Walsh, S. A., Dornfeld, K. J. & Spitz, D. R. (2006). 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) enhances cisplatin cytotoxicity in human head and neck cancer cells via metabolic oxidative stress.

Simons, A. L., Ahmad, I., Mattson, D., Dornfeld, D. J. & Spitz, D. R. (2006). 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose (2DG) Enhances Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in Human Head and Neck Cancer Cells via Metabolic Oxidative Stress.

Hadzic, T., Aykin-Burns, N., Jacobsen, G. & Spitz, D. R. (2006). 2-Deoxy-D_Glucose Sensitized Human Breast Cancer Cells to the Toxicity of Taxol via Increases in Metabolic Oxidative Stress.

Spitz, D. R., Dayal, D., Liu, A., Slane, B. G., Aykin-Burns, N., Limoli, C. L. & Azzam, E. I. (2006). Mitochondrial-Derived Oxidants and Cellular Responses to Low Dose/Low LET Ionizing Radiation.

Xiao, L., Spitz, D. R. & Oberley, L. W. (2006). N-Acetylcysteine Inhibits the Tumor Suppressive Effect of MnSOD and GPx1 on MDA-MB231 Cell Line.

Fath, M. A., Diers, A. R., Aykin-Burns, N. & Spitz, D. R. (2006). Rotenone Enhances 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Induced Oxidative Stress and Cell Killing of Human Colon Carcinoma Cells.

Kiningham, K. K., Spitz, D. R., Cook, C. & Marcelo, A. (2006). Upregulation of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase mRNA, Protein and Activity by All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA): Potential Roles of NF?B and the Retinoic Acid Receptor-?.

Fan, M., Ahmed, K. M., Coleman, M. C., Spitz, D. R. & Li, J. J. (2006). Adaptive responses in low dose irradiated mouse skin epithelial cells.

Ahmad, i. M., Abdalla, M. Y., Aykin-Burns, N. & Spitz, D. R. (2006). O2•- and H2O2 Mediate 2DG/p53-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

Dayal, D., Martin, S. M., Venkataraman, S., Limoli, C. L. & Spitz, D. R. (2006). Hydrogen peroxide significantly contributes to radiation induced genomic instability.

Dayal, D., Martin, S. M., Limoli, C. L. & Spitz, D. R. (2006). Hydrogen Peroxide Governs the Level of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Chinese Hamster Fibroblasts.

Hill, H. Z., de Toledo, S. M., Azzam, E. I., Pogozelski, W. K., Dermody & Spitz, D. R. (2006). Low doses of ionizing radiation cause an increase in copy-number of mitochondrial DNA genomes in a dose-dependent manner.

Liu, A., Slane, B. G., Li, L., Aykin-Burns, N. & Spitz, D. R. (2006). Antioxidant enzyme over expression protects cells with a mutation in succinate dehydrogenase subunit C (SDHC) from low dose irradiation radiation.

Spitz, D. R. (2006). International Symposium on Applications of 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose in the Management of Cancer.

Owens, K. M., Aykin-Burns, N., Domann, F. E. & Spitz, D. R. (2006). Increases in Metabolic Oxidative Stress in Hanster Fibroblasts Expressing a Mutant Succinate Dehydrogenase Subunit D (SDHD) Causes Genetic Instability.

de Toledo, S., Asaad, N., Venatachalam, P., Li, L., Howell, R., Spitz, D. R. & Azzam, E. (2005). Mechanisms underlying ionizing radiation induced adaptive responses in normal human cells grown in three-dimensional architecture.

Azzam, E., de Toledo, S., Asaad, N., Venkatachalam, P., Li, L., Howell, R. & Spitz, D. R. (2005). Mechanisms underlying ionizing radiation induced adaptive responses in normal human cells grown in three-dimensional architecture.

Diers, A. R., Aykin-Burns, N., Walsh, S. A., Coleman, M. C. & Spitz, D. R. (2005). Increased glucose consumption in human colon cancer cells correlates with increases in parameters indicative of oxidative stress and sensitivity to 2DG-induced toxicity.

Pedersen, K., Fitzgerald, M., Aykin-Burns, N., Coleman, M., Venkataraman, S., Spitz, D. R. & Domann, F. E. (2005). SDHD Pseudogene overexpression results in cellular oxidative stress.

Li, J. J., Ahmed, K., Fan, M., Dong, S., Yu, C. & Spitz, D. R. (2005). Adaptive response of mouse skin epithelial cells to low dose ionizing radiation: induction of NF-kappaB, MnSOD, 14-3-3zeta and cyclin B1.

Dayal, D., Martin, S., Owens, K., Limoli, C. & Spitz, D. R. (2005). Genomically unstable cells isolated following ionizing radiation demonstrate increases in parameters indicative of oxidative stress.

Hadzic, T., Li, L., Cheng, N., Walsh, S., Spitz, D. R. & Knudson, M. (2005). The role of low-molecular-weight thiols in T lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 secretion.

Slane, B., Aykin-Burns, N., Domann, F. E. & Spitz, D. R. (2005). Chinese hamster fibroblasts containing mutations in succinate dehydrogenase subunit C (SDHC) demonstrate increased sensitivity to low dose ionizing radiation.

Owens, K., Aykin-Burns, N., Venkataraman, S., Martin, S., Domann, F. & Spitz, D. R. (2005). Expression of mutant succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDH-D) causes increased superoxide production and genetic instability in Chinese hamster fibroblasts.

Toledo, S., Perumal, V., Li, L., Gardner, J., Neti, P., Howell, R., Spitz, D. R. & Azzam, E. (2004). Biological responses to low dose/very low dose-rate ?-radiation in human cells grown in 3-dimensional architecture.

Toledo, S., Perumal, V., Li, L., Spitz, D. R., Howell, R. & Azzam, E. (2004). Bystander responses and their persistence in co-cultures of tritiated thymidine labeled and unlabeled human fibroblasts.

Diers, A. R., Aykin-Burns, N. & Spitz, D. R. (2004). 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose induced oxidative stress and cell killing is enhanced by antimycin a in human colon carcinoma cells.

Perumal, P., Toledo, S., Li, L., Little, J., Spitz, D. R. & Azzam, E. (2004). Flavin-oxidases regulate cell cycle transititions in human fibroblasts: The modulating effect of ionizing radiation.

Ozeki, M., Tamae, D., Hu, P., Spitz, D. R. & Li, J. J. (2004). Regulation of stress responsive genes by transcription factor NF-kappaB and Mitochondrial antioxidant MnSOD after ionizing radiation.

Andringa, K. K., Coleman, M. C., Aykin-Burns, N., Walsh, S. A. & Spitz, D. R. (2004). Enhancement of 2DG-induced chemosensitization by inhibition of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL0 in human breast carcinoma cells.

Slane, B. G., Campbell, K. J. & Spitz, D. R. (2004). Chinese hamster fibroblasts containing mutations in succinate dehydrogenase complex C (SDHC) demonstare increased sensitivity to low dose ionizing radiation.

Aykin-Burns, N., Ahmad, I. M., Diers, D. R. & Spitz, D. R. (2004). Increased prooxidant and sensitivity to 2-Deoxyglucose in normal versus cancerous colon epithelial cells.

Li, L., Spitz, D. R. (2003). Increased radiation sensitivity in human cancer cells induced by inhibitors of glucose and glutathione metabolism.

Aykin-Burns, N., Kirsch, J. D., Slane, B. G., Domann, F. E., Goswami, P. C. & Spitz, D. R. (2003). Increased superoxide production in cancerous versus normal colon epithelial cells.

Kalen, A., Oberley, L. W., Goswami, P. C., Spitz, D. R. & Raghuveer, T. (2003). Differential antioxidant enzyme activities in surfactant preparations.

Aykin-Burns, N., Domann, F. & Spitz, D. R. (2003). Succinate dehydrogenase subunit C (SDH-C) deficient Chinese hamster fibroblasts demonstrate increased steady state levels of superoxide production.

Ahmad, I., Walsh, S., Domann, F., Oberley, L. W. & Spitz, D. R. (2003). Enhanced cell killing of prostate carcinoma cells treated with 2-deoxyglucose with increased glucose utilization.

Ough, M., Lewis, A., Hinkhouse, M., Li, L., Spitz, D. R., Oberley, L. W. & Cullen, J. (2003). A role for oxidative stress in the potent inhibition of pancreatic tumor growth by 2-deoxy-d-glucose plus dicumarol.

Coleman, M., Andringa, K., Walsh, S. & Spitz, D. R. (2003). Development of a simple high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) based assay for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthase (GGCS) activity with maleimide derivatives.

Andringa, K., Li, L., Coleman, M., Walsh, S. & Spitz, D. R. (2003). 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Causes upregulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GGCS) activity in breast carcinoma cells.

Brown, K., Mathas, M., Broadhurst, K. & Spitz, D. R. (2003). Activated human and rat hepatic stellate cells express components of a superoxide-generating nadph oxidase.

Ianzini, F., Coleman, M., Kosmacek, E., Mackey, M. & Spitz, D. R. (2003). Detection and quantification of reactive oxygen species in living cells using the large scale digital cell analysis system.

Spitz, D. R. (2002). Redox regulation of signal transduction following exposure to ionizing radiation.

Sekhar, K. R., Spitz, D. R., Meredith, M. J., Holt, J. T., Guis, D., Marnett, L. J., Summar, M. L. & Freeman, M. L. (2002). Redox sensitive interactions between Nrf2 and KIAAO132 (the human homolog of Keap1) regulate expression of GCLC, the catalytic subunit for gamma glutamylcysteine synthetase, the rate limiting enzyme for the synthesis of glutathione.

Ridnour, L. A., Dennery, P., Goswami, P. C. & Spitz, D. R. (2002). Stimulation of proteolysis by nitric oxide.

Andringa, K. K., Weydert, C. J., Walsh, S. A., Peters, S. S., Oberley, L. W., Salvemini, D., Riley, D. P. & Spitz, D. R. (2002). SOD mimics as adjuvants to chemotherapy protocols involving adriamycin.

Azzam, E. I., deToledo, S. M., Spitz, D. R. & Little, J. B. (2002). Oxidative metabolism mediates bystander effects in a-particle-irradiated normal human fibroblast cultures.

Goswami, P. C., Spitz, D. R., Coleman, M., Menon, S. & Walsh, S. (2002). Differential susceptibility of nonmalignant human breast epithelial cells and breast cancer cells to thiol antioxidant-induced G1-delay.

Guo, G., Yan-Sanders, Y., Lyn-Cook, B. D., Long, J. A., Spitz, D. R., Oberley, L. W. & Li, J. (2002). Genes responsive to MnSOD expression are involved in radiation response.

Guo, G., Wang, T., Tamas, D., Chen, T., Huang, T. T., Ogi, J., Spitz, D. R., Oberley, L. W. & Li, J. J. (2002). NF-kappa B mediated manganese super-oxide dismutase in radiation induced adaptive responses.

Li, L., Walsh, S. A., Flanagan, S. W., Oberley, L. W. & Spitz, D. R. (2002). Enhancement of oxidative stress and cancer cell death by inhibitors of glucose metabolism and hydroperoxide detoxification.

Ahmad, I. M., Oberley, L. W., Flanagan, S. W., Mackey, M. A. & Spitz, D. R. (2002). Mitochondrial O2•- and H2O2 mediate glucose deprivation-induced oxidative stress in human cancer cells.

Penn, M. S., Brennan, M. L., Sim, J. E., Heinecke, J. W., Spitz, D. R. & Hazen, S. L. (2002). Myeloperoxidase generates cytotoxic aldehydes as products of amino acid oxidation in vivo.

Lee, Y. J., Chen, J. C., Amoscato, A. A., Bennouna, J., Spitz, D. R., Suntharalingam, M. & Rhee, J. G. (2001). Protective role of Bcl-2 in metabolic oxidative stress-induced cell death.

Azzam, E. I., deToledo, S. M., Spitz, D. R. & Little, J. B. (2001). Oxidative metabolism mediates bystander effects in ?-particle-irradiated normal human fibroblast cultures.

Suzuki, T., Spitz, D. R., Gandhi, P. & Crawford, D. R. (2001). The genetic basis of mammalian resistance to oxidative stress.

Strum, M., Walsh, S., Spitz, D. R. & Goswami, P. C. (2001). Redox-signaling early in the cell cycle activates the G1-regulatory proteins in mouse embryo fibroblast cells.

Bradbury, C. M., Spitz, D. R. & Gius, D. (2001). Thioredoxin reductase is a novel cytoplasmic signaling factor regulating radiation-induced AP-1 DNA-binding activity and gene expression via active cysteine residues.

Zoberi, I., Bradbury, C. M., Spitz, D. R. & Gius, D. (2001). The role of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase in the regulation of AP-1 DNA-binding and gene expression in response to ionizing radiation, in Mini-symposium 14 “Signaling II/Apoptosis.

Ahmad, I., Sim, J. E., Walsh, S. A., Venkataraman, S., Buettner, G. R. & Spitz, D. R. (2001). Mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species contributes to glucose deprivation-induced oxidative stress.

Robbins, M. E., Zhao, W., Spitz, D. R. & Oberley, L. W. (2001). Redox modulation of the pro-fibrogenic mediator plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

Morgan, W. F., Tuttle, S., Lehnert, B. E., Spitz, D. R., Limoli, C. L., Singh, K. K., He, T. K. & Denko, N. C. (2001). Alterations in intracellular oxidative/reduction reactions and genomic instability, in “Oxidative Stress and Normal Tissue Fibrosis Symposia.

Peters, S. S., Spitz, D. R. & Oberley, L. W. (2001). Accumulation of immunoreactive HIF-1? protein induced by cobalt chloride is inhibited by an SOD mimic.

Goswami, P. C., Sherer, J., Higashikubo, R., Gius, D. & Spitz, D. R. (2001). A redox-sensitive p53-independent G1-checkpoint in mouse embryo fibroblast cells, in Symposia on “Redox Regulation of Cellular Processes.”.

Khaletskiy, A., Yan-Sanders, Y., Lun-Cook, B. D., Longmate, J. A., Spitz, D. R., Oberley, L. W. & Li, J. (2001). Genes responsive to MnSOD regulation are involved in tumor resistance to radiation and cis-platin.

Preuss, M. A., Weydert, C. J., Spitz, D. R., Oberley, L. W., Moore, S. A. & Robbins, M. E. (2001). Adaptation of superoxide dismutase enzymatic activity assay to a microtiter plate.

Andringa, K. K., Spitz, D. R. (2001). Clonogenic inactivation of human tumor cells by an SOD mimic is dependent on glucose concentration.

Lin, X., Spitz, D. R. & Gius, D. (2001). Cytotoxic and radiosensitizing effects of 2-deoxy-d-glucose on HeLa cells involves oxidative stress.

VanderWaal, R. P., Higashikubo, R., Xu, M., Spitz, D. R., Wright, W. D. & Roti Roti, J. (2001). Cytometric methods to analyze thermal effects. In Z. Darzynkiewicz , H. A. Crissman , J. P. Robinson (Eds.) In Methods In Cell Biology. pp. 64:269-286. Academic Press; San Diego CA,.

Li, L., Walsh, S. A. & Spitz, D. R. (2001). Disruption in glutathione metabolism and enhanced tumor cell killing with a combination of 2-deoxy-D-glucose and dehydroisoandrosterone.

Bradbury, C. M., Wei, J., Botero, A. C., Spitz, D. R. & Gius, D. R. (2000). Thioredoxin nuclear localization and interaction with Ref-1 induces AP-1 DNA-binding by IR.

Sherer, J., Sim, J. E., Ridnour, L. A., Spitz, D. R. & Goswami, P. C. (2000). Ionizing radiation-induced accumulation of p21WAF1 mRNA is dependent on inceased mRNA stability in cells expressing wild type p53 and is inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine.

Rene, L., Bradbury, C. M., Locke, J., Spitz, D. R. & Gius, D. (2000). AP-1, c-Fos and c-Jun overexpression in H2O2-resistant cell lines contributes to resistance to thermal radiosensitization.

Spitz, D. R., Walsh, S. A., Ahmad, I., Sim, J. E., Riley, D. P. & Salvemini, D. (2000). Inhibition of transformed cell growth by a SOD mimic.

Goswami, P. C., Sheren, J., Higashikubo, R. & Spitz, D. R. (2000). A redox-sensitive p53-independent G1-checkpoint in mouse embryo fibroblast cells.

Hsu, J. S., Huang, C. J., Yin, J. H., Semenza, G. L., Hsu, C. Y., Spitz, D. R. & Chao, K. (2000). Hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) modulates chemotherapy resistance of malignant glioma under hypoxia.

Ridnour, L. A., Goswami, P. C., Hunt, C. R., Parsian, A. J., Sim, J. E. & Spitz, D. R. (1999). Mechanisms of nitric oxide induced resistance to oxidative stress.

Ridnour, L. A., Sim, J. E., Goswami, P. C., Higashikubo, R. & Spitz, D. R. (1999). Nitrix oxide-induced accumulation of p21 mRNA is associated with a G2 cell cycle arrest.

Ridnour, L. A., Goswami, P. C., Albee, L., Hunt, C. R., Parsian, A. J., Sim, J. E. & Spitz, D. R. (1999). Mechanisms of resistance to oxidative stress induce by exposure to nitric oxide.

Gius, D., Wei, J., Botero, A. & Spitz, D. R. (1999). Thioredoxin nuclear localization and interaction with REF-1 induces AP-1 DNA-binding following IR.

Spitz, D. R., Blackburn, R. V., Liu, X., Galoforo, S. S., Sim, J. E., Ridnour, L. A., Chen, J. C., Davis, B. H., Corry, P. M. & Lee, Y. J. (1999). Glucose deprivation-induced oxidative stress.

Goswami, P. C., Albee, L., Parsian, A., Sheren, J., Higashikubo, R., Hunt, C. R. & Spitz, D. R. (1999). Cell cycle regulation of topoisomerase II mRNA by redox sensitive protein binding in the 3’-UTR.

Spitz, D. R., Sim, J. E., Sullivan, S. J., Featherstone, T., Golden, W., Von Kapp-Herr, C., Hock, R. A., Gomez, R. A., Parsian, A. J. & Hunt, C. R. (1999). Genomic Instability and Gene Amplification Induced by Chronic Oxidative Stress.

Bradbury, C. M., Wei, S. J., Locke, J. E., Spitz, D. R. & Gius, D. (1999). AP-1 overexpression in H2O2-resistant cells contributes to resistance to thermal radiosensitization.

Sim, J. E., Worley, L. A., Mahajan, S. T., Higashikubo, R., Pham, T. & Spitz, D. R. (1999). Electron transport chain inhibitors enhance glucose deprivation-induced oxidative stress.

Spitz, D. R., Sim, J. E., Ridnour, L. A., Choi, J., Forman, H. J., Corry, P. M., Galoforo, S. S. & Lee, Y. j. (1999). Dominant-negative JNK-1 inhibits metabolis oxidative stress during glucose deprivation.

Curry, H. A., Clemens, R. A., Spitz, D. R., Botero, A., Lofrem, S. & Gius, D. (1998). Heat shock inhibits radiation-induced activation of DNA-binding and nuclear localization of NF-?B.

Spitz, D. R., Blackburn, R. V., Liu, X., Galaforo, S., Sim, J. E., Ridnour, L. A., Chen, J., Davis, B., Corry, P. & Yee, Y. J. (1998). Glucose deprivation-induced oxidative stress.

Gius, D., Diamond, D. A., Curry, H. A., Clemens, R. A., Botero, A., Lofrem, S. & Spitz, D. R. (1998). Redox regulation of AP-1 DNA-binding in HeLa and NIH 3T3 cells in response to heat.

Sim, J. E., Worley, L. A., Ridnour, L. A. & Spitz, D. R. (1998). Enhanced susceptibility of transformed fibroblasts to glucose deprivation-induced oxidative stress.

Ridnour, L. A., Sim, J. E., Wink, D. A. & Spitz, D. R. (1998). and partial characterization of NO-resistant cells following chronic exposure to DEA/NO. Isolation.

Ercal, N., Gurer, H., Ozgunes, H. & Spitz, D. R. (1998). Antioxidant effects of N-acetylcysteine and succimer in lead-exposed red blood cells.

Hazen, S. L., Sim, J. E., Heinecke, J. W. & Spitz, D. R. (1997). Reactive aldehydes generated by myeloperoxidase-dependent oxidation of amino acids exert potent cytotoxic effects.

Ridnour, L. A., Sim, J. E. & Spitz, D. R. (1997). Nitric oxide-induced resistance to oxidative stress is mediated by a glutathione dependent process.

Ridnour, L. A., Goswami, P. C., Albee, L., Hunt, C. R., Parsian, A. J., Sim, J. E. & Spitz, D. R. (1997). Mechanisms of resistance to oxidative stress induced by exposure to nitric oxide.

Spitz, D. R., Higashikubo, R., Mackey, M. A., Sim, J. E., Ridnour, L. A. & Zang, X. F. (1997). Increased prooxidant production induced by exposure to 41.5oC hyperthermia.

Ridnour, L. A., Sim, J. E., Wink, D. A., Martin, S. M., Buettner, G. R. & Spitz, D. R. (1997). A rapid spectrophotometric method for quantification of nitric oxide, nitrite and nitrate in cell culture media.

Sim, J. E., Xu, M., Roti Roti, J. L. & Spitz, D. R. (1997). Alterations in cellular antioxidants in 41.1°C-resistant human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

Ridnour, L. A., Sim, J. E. & Spitz, D. R. (1996). Nitric oxide induced resistance to oxidative stress.

Sim, J. E., Day, B. W. & Spitz, D. R. (1996). Possible role of glutathione in 3-nitrotyrosine formation following exposure of endothelial cells to nitric oxide.

Bojes, H. K., Mills, E. M., Spitz, D. R. & Kehrer, J. P. (1996). Bcl-xl Expression and resistance to H2O2 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

Ridnour, L. A., Sim, J. E. & Spitz, D. R. (1996). Nitric oxide induced H2O2-resistance.

Spitz, D. R., Sim, J. E., Sullivan, S. J., Featherstone, T., Von Kapp-Herr, C., Golden, W. & Hunt, C. R. (1996). Catalase gene amplification in H2O2- and O2-resistant Chinese hamster fibroblasts.

Spitz, D. R., Sim, J. E. & Walker, M. W. (1995). Modification of nitric oxide-induced cytotoxicity by alterations in cellular antioxidants.

Spitz, D. R., Sullivan, S. J., Kinter, M. T., Adams, D. T., Sherman, C. M. & Roberts, R. J. (1995). Mechanisms of resistance to oxidative stress in O2-resistant cells. In K. J. Davies , F. Ursini (Eds.) In The Oxygen Paradox. pp. 405-412. University Press; Padova, Italy, CLEUP.

Spitz, D. R., Sim, J. E., Schriner, K., Barker, H. W., Kubo, N. A. & Mackey, M. A. (1995). The cytotoxicity of anticancer agents in H2O2-resistant hamster fibroblasts.

Sim, J. E., Mackey, M. A. & Spitz, D. R. (1995). Isolation and partial characterization of H2O2-resistant human glioma-derived cell lines.

Zhang, X. F., Sim, J., Winters, R., Ercal, N., Spitz, D. R. & Mackey, M. A. (1995). Alteration in antioxidants during long duration moderate hyperthermia and heat-induced radiosensitization.

Spitz, D. R. (1995). Cellular mechanisms of resistance to nitric oxide-mediated toxicity.

Spitz, D. R., Phillips, J. W., Adams, D. T., Sherman, C. M., Deen, D. F. & Li, G. C. (1994). Cellular resistance to oxidative stress is accompanied by resistance to cisplatin: the significance of increased catalase activity and total glutathione in hydrogen peroxide-resistant fibroblasts.

Spitz, D. R., Sullivan, S. J., Kinter, M. T., Adams, D. T., Sherman, C. M. & Roberts, R. J. (1994). Mechanisms of resistance to oxidative stress in H2O2- and O2-resistant cell lines.

Walker, M. W., Kinter, M. T., Roberts, R. J. & Spitz, D. R. (1993). Mechanisms of resistance to oxidative stress protect against nitric oxide induced toxicity.

Walker, M. W., Walker, R. J. & Spitz, D. R. (1993). The role of glutathione in nitric oxide induced toxicity. pp. 33(4):59A. Pediat. Res.

Spitz, D. R., Sullivan, S. J., Kinter, M. T., Adams, D. T., Sherman, C. M. & Roberts, R. J. (1993). Mechanisms of resistance to oxidative stress in H2O2-resistant cells.

Spitz, D. R., Sullivan, S. J., Roberts, R. J., Gomez, R. A., Von Kapp-Herr, C., Golden, W., Beitz, J. S. & Hock, R. A. (1993). catalase gene amplification in H2O2-resistant fibroblasts. Stable Radiat. Res.

Rogers, K. L., Spitz, D. R. (1993). Kainate results in peroxidative damage to rat cortical neurons in vitro.

Kinter, M. T., Spitz, D. R. & Roberts, R. J. (1993). Effects of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids on oxygen toxicity.

Kinter, M. T., Spitz, D. R., Cotthran, D. S. & Roberts, R. J. (1993). Effects of oleic acid on lipid peroxidation and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal formation. pp. 33(4):65A. Pediat. Res.

Walker, M. W., Kinter, M. T., Roberts, R. J. & Spitz, D. R. (1993). itric oxide induces acute cell injury in vitro. Investigation into mechanisms of effect. pp. 33(4):70A. N Pediat. Res.

Spitz, D. R., Kinter, M. T., Sherman, C. M. & Roberts, R. J. (1992). The effect of unsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic or docosahexaenoic acid, on O2-toxicity and TBARS production in cultured cells. pp. 31(4):66A. Pediat. Res.

Spitz, D. R., Sullivan, S. J., Roberts, R. J., Gomez, R. A., Von Kapp-Herr, C., Golden, W., Beitz, J. S. & Hock, R. A. (1992). Stable catalase gene amplification in H2O2-resistant fibroblasts. pp. 31(4):53A. Pediat. Res.

Sullivan, S. J., Hock, R. A., Beitz, J. S., Roberts, R. J. & Spitz, D. R. (1992). Isolation and characterization of an O2-resistant cell line containing extra copies of the catalase gene. pp. 31(4):54A. Pediat. Res.

Sullivan, S. J., Hock, R. A., Roberts, R. J. & Spitz, D. R. (1992). Isolation and characterization of an O2-resistant cell line containing extra copies of the catalase gene.

Spitz, D. R., Sullivan, S. J., Roberts, R. J., Gomez, R. A., Von Kapp-Herr, C., Golden, W., Beitz, J. S. & Hock, R. A. (1992). Stable catalase gene amplification in H2O2-resistant fibroblasts.

Sullivan, S. J., Adams, D. T., Roberts, R. J. & Spitz, D. R. (1992). Relative contribution of increased catalase activity to the O2-resistant phenotype expressed by a CHO cell line. pp. 31(4):67A. Pediat. Res.

Kinter, M. T., Sullivan, S. J., Roberts, R. J. & Spitz, D. R. (1991). Trace quantitation of schiff base-bound 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal as its oxime, bis-T-butyldimethysilyl derivative using 3-hydroxynonanal as an internal standard.

Spitz, D. R., Kinter, M. T., Kehrer, J. P., Adams, D. T., Sherman, M. C. & Roberts, R. J. (1991). The effect of unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic or eicosapentaenoic acid, on O2-toxicity in cultured cells. pp. 29:331A. Pediat. Res.

Spitz, D. R., Kinter, M. T., Adams, D. T., Rodig, S., Sherman, C. M. & Roberts, R. J. (1991). The effect of glutathione depletion on resistance to O2-toxicity and accumulation of protein bound 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in cells. pp. 29:66A. Pediat. Res.

Sullivan, S. J., Adams, D. T., Sherman, C. M., Roberts, R. J. & Spitz, D. R. (1991). Cytotoxicity and metabolism of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in an O2-resistant cell line. pp. 29:52A. Pediat. Res.

Sullivan, S. J., Adams, D. T., Oberley, T. D., Roberts, R. J. & Spitz, D. R. (1991). Isolation and characterization of an O2-resistant cell line. pp. 29:52A. Pediat. Res.

Spitz, D. R., Sullivan, S. J., Malcolm, R. R. & Roberts, R. J. (1991). Cellular resistance to and metabolism of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal: A role for glutathione and glutathione transferase. In K. J. Davies (Eds.) In Oxidative Damage and Repair: Chemical, Biological and Medical Aspects,. pp. 624-628. Pergamon Press; New York.

Spitz, D. R., Kinter, M. T. & Roberts, R. J. (1991). GSH depletion sensitizes cells to O2-toxicity and increases protein bound 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal.

Spitz, D. R., Sullivan, S. J., Malcolm, R. R. & Roberts, R. J. (1990). sensitivity to and metabolism of lipid peroxidation derived aldehyde (4-hydroxynonenal) following glutathione depletion. pp. 27(4):65A. Cell Pediat. Res..

Sullivan, S. J., Spitz, D. R., Malcolm, R. R. & Roberts, R. J. (1990). The effect of glutathione depletion on cellular sensitivity to hyperoxia. pp. 27(4):319A. Pediat. Res.

Elwell, J. H., Oberley, L. W., Wong, G. H., Goeddel, D. V. & Spitz, D. R. (1990). role of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) induction in the resistance to tumor necrosis factor cytotoxicity.

Spitz, D. R., Sullivan, S. J., Malcolm, R. R. & Roberts, R. J. (1990). 4-Hydroxynonenal is detoxified by reaction with glutathione and glutathione transferase.

Spitz, D. R., Sullivan, S. J., Malcolm, R. R. & Roberts, R. J. (1990). Detoxification of the lipid peroxidation derived aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal by reaction with glutathione and glutathione transferase. pp. 27(4):65A. Pediat. Res.

Spitz, D. R., Sullivan, S. J., Malcolm, R. R. & Roberts, R. J. (1990). Cellular resistance to and metabolism of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal: A role for glutathione and glutathione transferase. pp. 9:128, 1990. Free Radic. Biol. Med.

Sullivan, S. J., Roberts, R. J., Adams, D. T., Sherman, C. M. & Spitz, D. R. (1990). Cytotoxicity and metabolism of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in O2-resistant cell lines. pp. 9:111. Free Radic. Biol. Med.

Kinter, M. T., Pearson, L., Roberts, R. J. & Spitz, D. R. (1990). Desulphurization of glutathione and cysteine conjugates for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using Raney nickel.

Spitz, D. R., Mackey, M. A., Li, G. C., Elwell, J. H., McCormick, M. L. & Oberley, L. W. (1989). The relationship between ploidy changes and resistance to hydrogen peroxide.

Spitz, D. R., Malcolm, R. R. & Roberts, R. J. (1989). H2O2-resistant mammalian cells are resistant to the cytotoxic effects of lipid peroxidation derived aldehydes. pp. 25(4): 327A. Pediat. Res.

Sullivan, S. J., Spitz, D. R. & Roberts, R. J. (1989). The effect of culture conditions on O2-toxicity in mammalian cells. pp. 25(4):328A. Pediat. Res.

Spitz, D. R., Elwell, J. H., Sun, Y., Oberley, L. W. & Roberts, R. J. (1989). A mammalian cell culture model for studies of oxygen toxicity. pp. 25(4):327A. Pediat. Res.

Spitz, D. R., Li, G. C., McCormick, M. L., Sun, Y. & Oberley, L. W. (1988). The isolation and partial characterization of stable H2O2-resistant variants of Chinese hamster fibroblasts. In M. G. Simic , K. A. Taylor , J. F. Ward , C. Von Sonntag (Eds.) In Oxygen Radicals in Biology and Medicine. pp. 549-552. Plenum Press; New York.

Spitz, D. R., Phillips, J. W., Deen, D. F. & Li, G. C. (1988). Hydrogen peroxide resistant cells are resistant to cisplatin cytotoxicity.

Prenninger, S. W., Spitz, D. R. & Li, G. C. (1987). Reaction of H2O2 and cysteamine: Impact on cell survival studies in vitro.

Spitz, D. R., Li, G. C. (1987). Cell killing by hydrogen peroxide or hyperthermia in cells made resistant to chronic exposure to hydrogen peroxide.

Spitz, D. R., Oberley, L. W., McCormick, M., Sun, Y. & Li, G. C. (1987). isolation and partial characterization of stable H2O2-resistant variants of Chinese hamster fibroblasts.

Spitz, D. R., Li, G. C. (1987). Cadmium pretreatment induces resistance to hydrogen peroxide cytotoxicity in HA-1 cells.

Spitz, D. R., Li, G. C. (1986). The effect of pretreatment with oxidizing agents on cell killing by hyperthermia.

Oberley, L. W., Spitz, D. R. (1985). Assay of superoxide dismutase using nitroblue tetrazolium. In R. A. Greenwald (Eds.) In Handbook of Methods for Oxygen Radical Research. pp. 217-221. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Spitz, D. R., Oberley, L. W., Guernsey, D. C., Li, G. C. & Ridnour, L. A. (1985). Oxygen radicals and their scavengers: Are they involved in heat-shock, anoxia or cellular responses to these stresses?.

Spitz, D. R., Oberley, L. W. & Riley, E. F. (1984). The measurement of superoxide dismutase activity in normal and neoplastic breast tissue from rats and humans.

Oberley, L. W., Spitz, D. R. (1984). Assay of SOD activity in tumor tissue. In In Methods in Enzymology. pp. 105:457-461. Academic Press.

Spitz, D. R., Oberley, L. W. & Riley, E. F. (1983). SOD activity in normal and neoplastic breast tissues from rats and humans. In R. A. Greenwald , G. Cohen (Eds.) In Oxygen Radicals and Their Scavenger Systems. pp. 186-289. Vol. II Elsevier.

Oberley, L. W., Spitz, D. R., Loven, D. P., Kasemset, D. & Leuthauser, S. W. (1982). Superoxide dismutase activities of cancer cells.

Riley, E. F., Imbra, R. J., Spitz, D. R. & Stern, M. A. (1981). Tumor development in female Sprague-Dawley rats given X-radiation and/or melphalan. pp. 87:452. Radiat. Res.