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Parakeratosis causing laryngeal leukoplakia

last modified on: Fri, 01/05/2024 - 12:12

Return to: Laryngeal leukoplakia white plaques on vocal cords

 Go to: Hyperkeratosis causing laryngeal leukoplakia

The laryngeal squamous mucosa typically does not contain a layer of parakeratotic surface cells. Parakeratosis occurs when there is retention of nuclei in squamous cells at the upper most layers of the mucosa. This abnormality can be seen with exposure to irritants, especially cigarette smoke.

Examples of parakeratosis


Several keratohyaline granules (arrows) within this parakeratotic mucosa.

Exposure to inhalational irritants is one mechanism that may lead to surface nuclear retention (arrows).

This biopsy shows thick parakeratosis as well as some atypia along the basal zone sufficient for a diagnosis of mild squamous dysplasia.

Case Example - Endoscopic Resection of Leukoplakia 02 16 2011