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Richard K. Shields, PT, PhD, FAPTA

Portrait
Chair & Department Executive Officer, Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science
Gary L. Soderberg Endowed Professor in Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science
Professor of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science

Contact Information

Primary Office
1-254 Medical Education Building (MEB)
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-335-9803

Department
1-252 Medical Education Building (MEB)
500 Newton Rd
Iowa City, IA 52240
319-335-9791

Education

BS, Biology, Catawba College
Certificate, Physical Therapy, Mayo Clinic of Health Related Sciences
MA, Exercise Physiology, The University of Iowa
PhD, Exercise Physiology, The University of Iowa

Licensure and Certifications

Physical Therapy #00991 - Iowa Department of Public Health Bureau of Professional Licensure (Board of Physical and Occupational Therapy)

Research Summary

Central Research Theme: Prescribed Activity (Exercise) is medicine.

1) Neuro-musculoskeletal adaptation to various “activity based” interventions in humans with spinal cord injury: muscle molecular and physiological adaptations, segmental and central reflex adaptations, and trabecular bone image adaptations.

2) Neuromuscular control of movement in humans after acute and chronic perturbations from reduced activity (Age, ACL injury, muscle fatigue, CNS injury).

3) Acute responses to passive heat stress on extra-cellular proteins (HSP70, hormones), motor cortical excitability, and motor learning. Funding: NIH, Private Foundations, Industry.

Publications

Chang, Y., Liu, Y., Hsu, M., Fang, C., Wong, A. M., DeJong, S. L. & Shields, R. K. (2020). Novel human models for elucidating mechanisms of rate-sensitive H-reflex depression. Biomed J, 43(1), 44-52. PMID: 32200955.

Shields, R. K., Lee, J., Buelow, A., Petrie, M. A., Dudley-Javoroski, S., Cross, S., Guttmann, L. & Nopoulos, P. C. (2020). Myotonic dystrophy type 1 alters muscle twitch properties, spinal reflexes, and perturbation-induced trans-cortical reflexes. Muscle Nerve, 61(2), 205-212. PMID: 31773755.

Petrie, M. A., Sharma, A., Taylor, E. R., Suneja, M. & Shields, R. K. (2020). Impact of short- and long-term electrically induced muscle exercise on gene signaling pathways, gene expression, and PGC1a methylation in men with spinal cord injury. Physiol Genomics, 52(2), 71-80. PMID: 31869286.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Lee, J. & Shields, R. K. (2020). Cognitive function, quality of life, and aging: relationships in individuals with and without spinal cord injury. Physiother Theory Pract, 1-10. PMID: 31914347.

Shaffer, M. A., Kestel, L. L., Wolf, B. R. & Shields, R. K. (2020). Modified Outpatient Physical Therapy Improvement in Movement Assessment Log (mOPTIMAL): A responsive and reliable tool for patients with non-operative shoulder pain. Iowa Orthop J, 40(1), 91-99. PMID: 32742214.

Cole, K. R., Yen, C. L., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2019). NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery in Young and Older Adults: Reliability and Relationship to Adiposity and Physical Activity. J Geriatr Phys Ther, 10.1519/JPT.0000000000000244. Online ahead of print.. PMID: 31567883.

Cole, K. R., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2019). Hybrid stimulation enhances torque as a function of muscle fusion in human paralyzed and non-paralyzed skeletal muscle. J Spinal Cord Med, 42(5), 562-570. PMID: 29923814.

Sharma, A., Oonthonpan, L., Sheldon, R. D., Rauckhorst, A. J., Zhu, Z., Tompkins, S. C., Cho, K., Grzesik, W. J., Gray, L. R., Scerbo, D. A., Pewa, A. D., Cushing, E. M., Dyle, M. C., Cox, J. E., Adams, C., Davies, B. S., Shields, R. K., Norris, A. W., Patti, G., Zingman, L. V. & Taylor, E. B. (2019). Impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial pyruvate uptake rewires glucose metabolism to drive whole-body leanness. Elife, 8, e45873. PMID: 31305240.

Oza, P. D., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2019). Sustained submaximal contraction yields biphasic modulation of soleus post-activation depression in healthy humans. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 29(7), 944-951. PMID: 30892718.

Lee, J., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2019). Motor demands of cognitive testing may artificially reduce executive function scores in individuals with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med, 1-9. PMID: 30943119.

Cole, K. R., Shields, R. K. (2019). Age and cognitive stress influences motor skill acquisition, consolidation, and dual-task effect in humans. J Mot Behav, 51(6), 622-639. PMID: 30600778.

Tseng, S. C., Shields, R. K. (2018). Limb Segment Load Inhibits the Recovery of Soleus H-Reflex After Segmental Vibration in Humans. J Mot Behav, 50(6), 631-642. PMID: 29140761.

Woefel, J. R., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2018). Precision physical therapy: Exercise, the epigenome, and the heritability of environmentally-modified traits. Phys Ther, 98(11), 946-954. PMID: 30388254.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S., Sass, K. J. & Becker, M. (2018). Benchmarking the Academic Physical Therapy Environment to Understand the Student Experience. Phys Ther, 98(8), 658-669. PMID: 29684180.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. (2018). Physiotherapy education is a good financial investment, up to a certain level of student debt: an inter-professional economic analysis. J Physiother, 64(3), 183-191. PMID: 29914805.

Kimball, A. L., McCue, P. M., Petrie, M. A. & Shields, R. K. (2018). Whole body heat exposure modulates acute glucose metabolism. Int J Hyperthermia, 35(1), 644-651. PMID: 30303421.

Gollie, J. M., Herrick, J. E., Keyser, R. E., Chin, L. M., Collins, J. P., Shields, R. K., Panza, G. S. & Guccione, A. A. (2017). Fatigability, oxygen uptake kinetics and muscle deoxygenation in incomplete spinal cord injury during treadmill walking. Eur J Appl Physiol, 117(10), 1989-2000. PMID: 28744558.

Shields, R. K. (2017). Turning Over the Hourglass. Phys Ther, 97(10), 949-963. PMID: 29029555.

Oza, P. D., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2017). Dynamic Fatigue Does Not Alter Soleus H-Reflexes Conditioned by Homonymous or Heteronymous Pathways. Motor Control, 21(3), 345-358. PMID: 27736308.

Woelfel, J. R., Kimball, A. L., Yen, C. L. & Shields, R. K. (2017). Low-Force Muscle Activity Regulates Energy Expenditure after Spinal Cord Injury. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 49(5), 870-878. PMID: 28009786.

Gollie, J. M., Herrick, J. E., Keyser, R. E., Collins, J. P., Shields, R. K., Chin, L. M. & Guccione, A. A. (2017). Fatigability and VO2 on-kinetics in Adults with Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 49(5S), 642. DOI: 10.1249/01.mss.0000518689.83230.d0.

Yen, C. L., McHenry, C. L., Petrie, M. A., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2017). Vibration training after chronic spinal cord injury: Evidence for persistent segmental plasticity. Neurosci Lett, 647, 129-132. PMID: 28315725.

Tseng, S. C., Cole, K. R., Shaffer, M. A., Petrie, M. A., Yen, C. L. & Shields, R. K. (2017). Speed, resistance, and unexpected accelerations modulate feed forward and feedback control during a novel weight bearing task. Gait Posture, 52, 345-353. PMID: 28043056.

Becker, M., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2017). Professionalism Values in Health Science Education: Self- and Peer-Assessment of Faculty, Staff, and Students. J Allied Health, 46(3), 178-184. PMID: 28889168.

Oza, P. D., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2017). Modulation of H-Reflex Depression with Paired-Pulse Stimulation in Healthy Active Humans. Rehabil Res Pract, 2017, 5107097. PMID: 29225972.

Abode-Iyamah, K. O., Viljoen, S. V., McHenry, C. L., Petrie, M. A., Stoner, K. E., Dahdaleh, N. S., Grosland, N. M., Howard, M. A. & Shields, R. K. (2016). Effect of Surgery on Gait and Sensory Motor Performance in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy. Neurosurgery, 79(5), 701-707. PMID: 27258765.

Petrie, M. A., Kimball, A. L., McHenry, C. L., Suneja, M., Yen, C. L., Sharma, A. & Shields, R. K. (2016). Distinct Skeletal Muscle Gene Regulation from Active Contraction, Passive Vibration, and Whole Body Heat Stress in Humans. PloS One, 11(8), e0160594. PMID: 27486743.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Petrie, M. A., McHenry, C. L., Amelon, R. E., Saha, P. K. & Shields, R. K. (2016). Bone architecture adaptations after spinal cord injury: impact of long-term vibration of a constrained lower limb. Osteoporos Int, 27(3), 1149-60. PMID: 26395887.

Littmann, A. E., Shields, R. K. (2016). Whole body heat stress increases motor cortical excitability and skill acquisition in humans. Clin Neurophysiol, 127(2), 1521-1529. PMID: 26616546.

Abode-Iyamah, K. O., Stoner, K. E., Grossbach, A. J., Vijoen, S. V., McHenry, C. L., Petrie, M. A., Dahdaleh, N. S., Grosland, N. M., Shields, R. K. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2016). Effects of brain derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. J Clin Neurosci, 24, 117-121. PMID: 26461908.

Zhorne, R., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2016). Skeletal muscle activity and CNS neuro-plasticity. Neural Regen Res, 11(1), 69-70. PMID: 26981083.

Shields, R. K., Pizzimenti, M. A., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Schwinn, D. A. (2015). Fostering interprofessional teamwork in an academic medical center: Near-peer education for students during gross medical anatomy. Anat Sci Educ, 8(4), 331-337. PMID: 24888728.

Petrie, M., Suneja, M. & Shields, R. K. (2015). Low-frequency stimulation regulates metabolic gene expression in paralyzed muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985), 118(6), 723-31. PMID: 25635001.

Petrie, M. A., Suneja, M., Faidley, E. & Shields, R. K. (2014). A minimal dose of electrically induced muscle activity regulates distinct gene signaling pathways in humans with spinal cord injury. PloS One, 9(12), e115791. PMID: 25531450.

McHenry, C. L., Wu, J. & Shields, R. K. (2014). Potential regenerative rehabilitation technology: implications of mechanical stimuli to tissue health. BMC Res Notes, 7, 334. PMID: 24894666.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Amelon, R., Liu, Y., Saha, P. K. & Shields, R. K. (2014). High bone density masks architectural deficiencies in an individual with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med, 37(3), 349-354. PMID: 24621022.

Petrie, M. A., Suneja, M., Faidley, E. & Shields, R. K. (2014). Low force contractions induce fatigue consistent with muscle mRNA expression in people with spinal cord injury. Physiol Rep, 2(2), e00248. PMID: 24744911.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. (2013). Fatigue modulates synchronous but not asynchronous soleus activation during stimulation of paralyzed muscle. Clin Neurophysiol, 124(9), 1853-60. PMID: 23673062.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Shields, R. K. (2013). Active-resisted stance modulates regional bone mineral density in humans with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med, 36(3), 191-199. PMID: 23809588.

Tseng, S. C., Shields, R. K. (2013). Limb compressive load does not inhibit post activation depression of soleus H-reflex in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. Clin Neurophysiol, 124(5), 982-990. PMID: 23168355.

Littmann, A. E., McHenry, C. L. & Shields, R. K. (2013). Variability of motor cortical excitability using a novel mapping procedure. J Neurosci Methods, 214(2), 137-143. PMID: 23357026.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Saha, P. K., Liang, G., Li, C., Gao, Z. & Shields, R. K. (2012). High dose compressive loads attenuate bone mineral loss in humans with spinal cord injury. Osteoporos Int, 23(9), 2335-2346. PMID: 22187008.

Tseng, S. C., Shields, R. K. (2012). Limb segment load inhibits post activation depression of soleus H-reflex in humans. Clin Neurophysiol, 123(9), 1836-1845. PMID: 22418592.

McHenry, C. L., Shields, R. K. (2012). A biomechanical analysis of exercise in standing, supine, and seated positions: implications for individuals with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med, 35(3), 140-147. PMID: 22507023.

Iguchi, M., Littmann, A. E., Chang, S. H., Webster, L. A., Knipper, J. S. & Shields, R. K. (2012). Heat stress and cardiovascular, hormonal, and heat shock proteins in humans. J Athletic Train, 47(2), 184-90. PMID: 22488284.

Chang, S. H., Tseng, S. C., McHenry, C. L., Littmann, A. E., Suneja, M. & Shields, R. K. (2012). Limb segment vibration modulates spinal reflex excitability and muscle mRNA expression after spinal cord injury. Clin Neurophysiol, 123(3), 558-568. PMID: 21963319.

Iguchi, M., Shields, R. K. (2012). Cortical and segmental excitability during fatiguing contractions of the soleus muscle in humans. Clin Neurophysiol, 123(2), 335343. PMID: 21802985.

Littmann, A. E., Iguchi, M., Madhavan, S., Kolarik, J. L. & Shields, R. K. (2012). Dynamic-position-sense impairment's independence of perceived knee function in woman with ACL reconstruction. J Sport Rehabil, 21(1), 44-53. PMID: 22100530.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Shields, R. K. (2012). Regional cortical and trabecular bone loss after spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev, 49(9), 1365-1376. PMID: 23408218.

Chang, S. H., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2011). Gravitational force modulates muscle activity during mechanical oscillation of the tibia in humans. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 21(5), 847-853. PMID: 21708472.

Goldstein, M. S., Scalzitti, D. A., Bohmert, J. A., Brennan, G. P., Craik, R. L., Delitto, A., Field-Fote, E. C., Magistro, C. M., Powers, C. M. & Shields, R. K. (2011). Vitalizing Practice through Research and Research through Practice: The Outcomes of a Conference to Enhance the Delivery of Care. Phys Ther, 91(8), 1275-1284. PMID: 21659467.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Oza, P. D. (2011). Low-frequency H-reflex depression in trained human soleus after spinal cord injury. Neurosci Lett, 499(2), 88-92. PMID: 21640787.

Iguchi, M., Shields, R. K. (2011). Prior heat stress effects fatigue recovery of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle Nerve, 44(1), 115-125. PMID: 21674526.

Kunkel, S. D., Suneja, M., Ebert, S. M., Bongers, K. S., Fox, D. K., Malmberg, S. E., Alipour, F., Shields, R. K. & Adams, C. M. (2011). mRNA expression signatures of human skeletal muscle atrophy identify a natural compound that increases muscle mass. Cell Metab, 13(6), 627-638. PMID: 21641545.

Chang, Y. J., Shields, R. K. (2011). Doublet Electrical Stimulation Enhances Torque Production in People with Spinal Cord Injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 25(5), 423-432. PMID: 21304018.

Madhavan, S., Shields, R. K. (2011). Neuromuscular responses in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament repair. Clin Neurophysiol, 122(5), 997-1004. PMID: 20884289.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Littmann, A. E., Chang, S. H., McHenry, C. L. & Shields, R. K. (2011). Enhancing muscle force and femur compressive loads via feedback-controlled stimulation of paralyzed quadriceps in humans. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 92(2), 242-249. PMID: 21272720.

Goldstein, M. S., Scalzitti, D. A., Craik, R. L., Dunn, D. L., Irion, J. M., Irrgang, J., Kolobe, T. H., McDonough, C. M. & Shields, R. K. (2011). The revised research agenda for physical therapy. Phys Ther, 91(2), 165-174. PMID: 21169424.

Adams, C. M., Suneja, M., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2011). Altered mRNA expression after long-term soleus electrical stimulation training in humans with paralysis. Muscle Nerve, 43(1), 65-75. PMID: 21171097.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., McMullen, T., Borgwardt, M. R., Peranich, L. M. & Shields, R. K. (2010). Reliability and responsiveness of musculoskeletal ultrasound in subjects with and without spinal cord injury. Ultrasound Med Biol, 36(10), 1594-1607. PMID: 20800961.

Ballantyne, B. T., Shields, R. K. (2010). Quadriceps fatigue alters human muscle performance during a novel weight bearing task. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(9), 1712-1722. PMID: 20164810.

Iguchi, M., Shields, R. K. (2010). Quadriceps low-frequency fatigue and muscle pain are contraction-type-dependent. Muscle Nerve, 42(2), 230-238. PMID: 20544933.

Meszaros, A. J., Iguchi, M., Chang, S. H. & Shields, R. K. (2010). Repetitive eccentric muscle contractions increase torque unsteadiness in the human triceps brachii. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 20(4), 619-626. PMID: 20060317.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Shields, R. K. (2010). Longitudinal changes in femur bone mineral density after spinal cord injury: effects of slice placement and peel method. Osteoporosis Int, 21(6), 985-995. PMID: 19707702.

Cai, Z., Bai, E. W. & Shields, R. K. (2010). Fatigue and non-fatigue mathematical muscle models during functional electrical stimulation of paralyzed muscle. Biomed Signal Process Control, 5(2), 87-93. PMID: 23667385.

Shields, R. K. (2009). Above board: clear bylaws support the research mission of the Foundation for Physical Therapy. (Vols. 89). (10), pp. 1010-1012. Phys Ther. PMID: 19797306.

Reese, D., Shivapour, E. T., Wahls, T. L., Dudley-Javoroski, S. D. & Shields, R. K. (2009). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and dietary interventions to reduce oxidatiave stress in a secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patient leads to marked gains in function: A case report. Cases J,(2), 7601. PMID: 19918474.

Madhavan, S., Burkart, S., Baggett, G., Nelson, K., Teckenburg, T., Zwanzinger, M. & Shields, R. K. (2009). Influence of age on neuromuscular control during a dynamic weight-bearing task. J Aging Phys Act, 17(3), 327-343. PMID: 19799103.

Madhavan, S., Shields, R. K. (2009). Movement accuracy changes muscle-activation strategies in female subjects during a novel single-leg weight-bearing task. PM R, 1(4), 319-328. PMID: 19627914.

Bai, E. W., Cai, Z., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2009). Identification of a Modified Wiener-Hammerstein System and Its Application in Electrically Stimulated Paralyzed Skeletal Muscle Modeling. Automatica (Oxf.), 45(3), 736-743. PMID: 23467426.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. (2009). Chapter 3: Musculoskeletal Plasticity after Spinal Cord Injury: A Conceptual Framework Based on Plasticity, Adaptation, and Outcome. In E. C. Field-Fote (Eds.) Rehabilitation after Spinal Cord Injury. F.A. Davis Company.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Shields, R. K. (2008). Asymmetric bone adaptations to soleus mechanical loading after spinal cord injury. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact, 8(3), 277-38. PMID: 18799855.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Littmann, A. E., Iguchi, M. & Shields, R. K. (2008). Doublet stimulation protocol to minimize musculoskeletal stress during paralyzed quadriceps muscle testing. J Appl Phys (1985), 104(6), 1574-1582. PMID: 18436697.

Iguchi, M., Baldwin, K., Boeyink, C., Engle, C., Kehoe, M., Ganju, A., Messaros, A. J. & Shields, R. K. (2008). Low frequency fatigue in human quadriceps is fatigue dependent and not task dependent. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 18(2), 308-316. PMID: 17157533.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Shields, R. K. (2008). Dose estimation and surveillance of mechanical loading interventions for bone loss after spinal cord injury. Phys Ther, 88(3), 387-396. PMID: 18202080.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Shields, R. K. (2008). Muscle and bone plasticity after spinal cord injury: Review of adaptations to disuse and to electrical muscle stimulation. J Rehabil Res Dev, 45(2), 283-296. PMID: 18566946.

Shields, R. K. (2007). Neuroimaging in rehabilitation: a resource for clinicians. Phys Ther, 87(6), 639-640. PMID: 17504824.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. (2007). Musculoskeletal adaptations in chronic spinal cord injury: Effects of long-term soleus electrical stimulation training. Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 21(2), 169-179. PMID: 17312092.

Madhavan, S., Shields, R. K. (2007). Weight-bearing exercise accuracy influences muscle activation strategies of the knee. J Neur Phys Ther, 31(1), 15-19. PMID: 17419885.

Frey-Law, L. A., Shields, R. K. (2007). Mathematical models of human paralyzed muscle after long-term training. J Biomech, 40(12), 2587-2595. PMID: 17316653.

Madhavan, S., Shields, R. K. (2007). RE: Sensory-specific balance training in older adults: Effect on position, movement, and velocity sense at the ankle (Westlake KP, Wu Y, Culham EG). (Vols. 87). (5), pp. 569 - 570. Physical Therapy. DOI: 10.2522/ptj.20060262.ic.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. (2007). Chapter 30: Rehabilitation after Spinal Cord Injury. In In: Musculoskeletal Plasticity after Spinal Cord Injury. FA Davis.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Cole, K. R. (2006). Feedback-Controlled Stimulation Enhances Human Paralyzed Muscle Performance. J Appl Physiol (1985), 101(5), 1312-1319. PMID: 16809630.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S., Boaldin, K. M., Corey, T. A., Fog, D. B. & Ruen, J. M. (2006). Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography: Measurement sensitivity in persons with and without spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 87(10), 1376-1381. PMID: 17023249.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Littmann, A. E. (2006). Post fatigue potentiation of the paralyzed soleus muscle: evidence for adaptation with long-term electrical stimulation training. J Appl Physiol, 101(2), 556-565. PMID: 16575026.

Shields, R. K., Chang, Y. J., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Lin, C. (2006). Predictive model of muscle fatigue after spinal cord injury in humans. Muscle Nerve, 34(1), 84-91. PMID: 16634064.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. (2006). Musculoskeletal plasticity after acute spinal cord injury: effects of long-term neuromuscular electrical stimulation training. J Neurophysiol, 95(4), 2380-2390. PMID: 16407424.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Frey-Law, L. A. (2006). Electrically–induced muscle contractions influence bone density decline after spinal cord injury. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 31(5), 548-553. PMID: 16508550.

Frey-Law, L. A., Shields, R. K. (2006). Predicting human chronically paralyzed muscle force: a comparison of three mathematical models. J Appl Physiol (1985), 100(3), 1027-1036. PMID: 16306255.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Shields, R. K. (2006). Assessment of physical function and secondary complications after complete spinal cord injury. Disabil Rehabil, 28(2), 103-110. PMID: 16393840.

Shields, R. K., Schlechte, J., Dudley-Jovoroski, S., Zwart, B., Clark, S. D., Grant, S. A. & Mattiace, V. M. (2005). Bone mineral density after spinal cord injury: a reliable method for knee measurement. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 86(10), 1969-1973. PMID: 16213240.

Shields, R. K., Madhavan, S. M., Gregg, E., Leitch, J., Petersen, B., Salata, S. & Wallerich, S. (2005). Neuromuscular control of the knee during a resisted single-limb squat exercise. Am J Sports Med, 33(10), 1520-1526. PMID: 16009991.

Madhavan, S. M., Shields, R. K. (2005). Influence of age on dynamic position sense: evidence using a sequential movement task. Exp Brain Res, 164(1), 18-28. PMID: 15776224.

Shields, R. K., Madhaven, S. & Cole, K. (2005). Sustained muscle activity minimally influences dynamic position sense of the ankle. J Ortho Sports Phys Ther, 35(7), 443-451. PMID: 16108585.

Frey Law, L. A., Shields, R. K. (2005). Mathematical models using varying parameter strategies to represent paralyzed muscle force properties: a sensitivity analysis. J Neuroengineering Rehabil, 31, 2-12. PMID: 15927064.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. (2005). Monitoring standing wheelchair use after spinal cord injury: A case report. Disabil Rehabil, 27(3), 142-146. PMID: 15823996.

Elokda, A. S., Shields, R. K. & Nielsen, D. H. (2005). Effects of a maximal graded exercise test on glutathione as a marker of acute oxidative stress. J Cardiopulm Rehabil, 25(4), 215-219. PMID: 16056068.

Shields, R. K., Madhaven, S., Cole, K. R., Brostad, J. D., Demeulenaere, J. l., Eggers, C. D. & Otten, P. H. (2005). Proprioceptive coordination of movement sequences in humans. Clin Neurophysiol, 116(1), 87-92. PMID: 15589187.

Deshpande, P. J., Shields, R. K. (2004). Soleus motor neuron excitability before and after standing. Electromyo Clin Neurophysiol, 44(5), 259-264. PMID: 15378863.

Schindler-Ivens, S. M., Shields, R. K. (2004). Comparison of linear regression and probit analysis for detecting H-reflex threshold in individuals with and without spinal cord injury. Electromyo Clin Neurophysiol, 44(3), 153-163. PMID: 15125055.

Schindler-Ivens, S. M., Shields, R. K. (2004). Soleus H-reflex recruitment is not altered in persons with chronic spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 85(5), 840-847. PMID: 15129411.

Frey-Law, L., Shields, R. K. (2004). Femoral loads during passive, active and active-resistive stance after spinal cord injury: a mathematical model. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 19, 313-321. PMID: 15003348.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. (2003). Musculoskeletal deterioration and hemicorporectomy after spinal cord injury: A case report. Phys Ther, 83(3), 263-275. PMID: 12620090.

Chang, Y. J., Shields, R. K. (2002). Within-train neuromuscular propagation varies with torque in paralyzed human muscle. Muscle Nerve, 26, 673-680. PMID: 12402290.

Shields, R. K. (2002). Muscular, skeletal, and neural adaptations following spinal cord injury. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 32(2), 65-74. PMID: 11838582.

Heiss, D. G., Shields, R. K. & Yack, H. J. (2002). Balance loss when lifting a heavier-than-expected load: effects of lifting technique. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 83(1), 48-59. PMID: 11782833.

Ludewig, P., Cook, T. M. & Shields, R. K. (2002). Comparison of surface sensor and bone-fixed measurement of humeral motion. J Appl Biomech, 18(2), 163-170. DOI: org/10.1123/jab.18.2.163.

Heiss, D. G., Shields, R. K. & Yack, H. J. (2001). Anticipatory control of vertical lifting force and momentum during the squat lift with expected and unexpected loads. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 31(12), 708 - 723; discussion 724 -729. PMID: 11767247.

Schindler-Ivens, S., Shields, R. K. (2000). Low frequency depression of H-reflexes in humans with acute and chronic spinal cord injury. Exp Brain Res, 133(2), 233-241. PMID: 10968224.

Elokda, A., Nielsen, D. H. & Shields, R. K. (2000). Effect of functional neuromuscular stimulation on postural related orthostatic stress in individuals with acute spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev, 37(5), 535-542. PMID: 11322152.

Shields, R. K., Leo, K. C., Messaros, A. J., Somers, V. K. & Mark, A. M. (1999). Effects of repetitive handgrip training on endurance, specificity, and cross education. Phys Ther, 79(5), 467-475. PMID: 10331750.

Shields, R. K., Enloe, L. J. & Leo, K. C. (1999). Health-related quality of life in patients with total hip or knee replacement. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 80(5), 572-579. PMID: 10326924.

Shields, R. K., Ruhland, J. L., Ross, M., Saehler, M. M., Smith, K. B. & Heffner, M. L. (1998). Analysis of health-related quality of life and muscle impairment in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using the medical outcome survey and the tufts quantitative neuromuscular exam. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 79(7), 855-862. PMID: 9685105.

Shields, R. K., Chang, Y. J. & Ross, M. (1998). Neuromuscular propagation after fatiguing contractions of the paralyzed soleus muscle in humans. Muscle Nerve, 21(6), 776-787. PMID: 9585332.

Ruhland, J. L., Shields, R. K. (1997). The effects of a home exercise program on impairment and health-related quality of life in persons with chronic peripheral neuropathies. Phys Ther, 77(10), 1026-1039. PMID: 9327818.

Enloe, L. J., Shields, R. K. (1997). Evaluation of health-related quality of life in individuals with vestibular dysfunction using disease-specific and general outcome measures. Phys Ther, 77(9), 890-903. PMID: 9291947.

Shields, R. K., Heiss, D. G. (1997). An electromyographic comparison of abdominal muscle synergies during curl and double straight leg lowering exercise with control of the pelvic position. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 22(16), 1873-1879. PMID: 9280023.

Shields, R. K., Frey Law, L., Reiling, B., Sass, K. & Wilwert, J. (1997). Effects of electrically induced fatigue on the twitch and tetanus of paralyzed soleus muscle in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985), 82(5), 1499-1507. PMID: 9134899.

Shields, R. K., Chang, Y. J. (1997). The effects of fatigue on the torque-frequency curve of the human paralyzed soleus muscle. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 7(1), 3-13. PMID: 20719687.

Enloe, L., Shields, R. K., Leo, K. C., Miller, B. & Smith, K. (1996). Total hip and knee replacement treatment programs: A report using consensus of experts. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 23(1), 3-11. PMID: 8749744.

Shields, R. K. (1995). Fatigability, relaxation properties, and electromyographic responses of the human paralyzed soleus muscle. J Neurophysiol, 73(6), 2195-2206. PMID: 7666132.

Shields, R. K., Enloe, L. J., Evans, R. E., Smith, K. B. & Steckel, S. D. (1995). Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of functional tests in patients with total joint replacement. Phys Ther, 75(3), 169-179; discussion 176-179. PMID: 7870749.

Shields, R. K., Leo, K., Dostal, W., Miller, B. & Barr, R. (1994). An acute care physical therapy clinical practice database for outcomes research. Phys Ther, 74(5), 463-470. PMID: 8171108.

Yuh, W., Fisher, D., Shields, R. K., Ehrhardt, J. & Shellock, F. (1992). Phantom limb pain induced in an amputee by strong magnetic fields. J Magn Reson Imaging, 2(2), 221-223. PMID: 1562774.

Somers, V., Leo, K., Shields, R. K., Clay, M. & Mark, A. (1992). Forearm endurance training attenuates the sympathetic nerve response to isometric handgrip in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985), 72(3), 1039-1043. PMID: 1568957.

Shields, R. K., Cook, T. (1992). Lumbar support thickness: effect on seated buttock pressure in individuals with and without spinal cord injury. Phys Ther, 72(3), 218-226. PMID: 1584855.

Shields, R. K., Cook, T. (1988). Effect of seat angle and lumbar support on seated buttock pressure. Phys Ther, 68(11), 1682-1686. PMID: 3186795.