Richard K. Shields, PT, PhD, FAPTA

Portrait
Chair & Departmental Executive Officer, Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science
Professor of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science

Contact Information

Primary Office
1-254 MEB
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-335-9803

Education

BS, Biology, Catawba College
Certificate, Physical Therapy, Mayo Clinic of Health Related Sciences
MA, Exercise Physiology, The University of Iowa
PhD, Exercise Physiology, The University of Iowa

Research Summary

Central Research Theme: Prescribed Activity (Exercise) is medicine.

1) Neuro-musculoskeletal adaptation to various “activity based” interventions in humans with spinal cord injury: muscle molecular and physiological adaptations, segmental and central reflex adaptations, and trabecular bone image adaptations.

2) Neuromuscular control of movement in humans after acute and chronic perturbations from reduced activity (Age, ACL injury, muscle fatigue, CNS injury).

3) Acute responses to passive heat stress on extra-cellular proteins (HSP70, hormones), motor cortical excitability, and motor learning. Funding: NIH, Private Foundations, Industry.

Publications

Kimball, A. L., McCue, P. M., Petrie, M. A. & Shields, R. K. (2018). Whole body heat exposure modulates acute glucose metabolism. International journal of hyperthermia : the official journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group, 1-8. PMID: 30303421.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. (2018). Physiotherapy education is a good financial investment, up to a certain level of student debt: an inter-professional economic analysis. Journal of Physiotherapy, 64(3), 183-191. PMID: 29914805.

Cole, K. R., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2018). Hybrid stimulation enhances torque as a function of muscle fusion in human paralyzed and non-paralyzed skeletal muscle. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 1-9. PMID: 29923814.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S., Sass, K. J. & Becker, M. (2018). Benchmarking the Academic Physical Therapy Environment to Understand the Student Experience. Physical Therapy. PMID: 29684180.

Woefel, J. R., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2018). Precision physical therapy: Exercise, the epigenome, and the heritability of environmentally-modified traits. Physical Therapy, 98(11), 946-954. PMID: 30388254.

Tseng, S. C., Shields, R. K. (2017). Limb Segment Load Inhibits the Recovery of Soleus H-Reflex After Segmental Vibration in Humans. Journal of motor behavior, 1-12. PMID: 29140761.

Woelfel, J. R., Kimball, A. L., Yen, C. L. & Shields, R. K. (2017). Low-Force Muscle Activity Regulates Energy Expenditure after Spinal Cord Injury. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 49(5), 870-878. PMID: 28009786.

Gollie, J. M., Herrick, J. E., Keyser, R. E., Collins, J. P., Shields, R. K., Chin, L. M. & Guccione, A. A. (2017). Fatigability and VO2 on-kinetics in Adults with Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 49(5S), 642. PMID: 28744558.

Yen, C. L., McHenry, C. L., Petrie, M. A., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2017). Vibration training after chronic spinal cord injury: Evidence for persistent segmental plasticity. Neuroscience letters, 647, 129-132. PMID: 28315725.

Tseng, S. C., Cole, K. R., Shaffer, M. A., Petrie, M. A., Yen, C. L. & Shields, R. K. (2017). Speed, resistance, and unexpected accelerations modulate feed forward and feedback control during a novel weight bearing task. Gait & posture, 52, 345-353. PMID: 28043056.

Gollie, J. M., Herrick, J. E., Keyser, R. E., Chin, L. M., Collins, J. P., Shields, R. K., Panza, G. S. & Guccione, A. A. (2017). Fatigability, oxygen uptake kinetics and muscle deoxygenation in incomplete spinal cord injury during treadmill walking. European journal of applied physiology, 117(10), 1989-2000. PMID: 28744558.

Becker, M., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2017). Professionalism Values in Health Science Education: Self- and Peer-Assessment of Faculty, Staff, and Students. Journal of allied health, 46(3), 178-184. PMID: 28889168.

Shields, R. K. (2017). Turning Over the Hourglass. Physical therapy, 97(10), 949-963. PMID: 29029555.

Oza, P. D., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2017). Modulation of H-Reflex Depression with Paired-Pulse Stimulation in Healthy Active Humans. Rehabilitation research and practice, 2017, 5107097. PMID: 29225972.

Abode-Iyamah, K. O., Viljoen, S. V., McHenry, C. L., Petrie, M. A., Stoner, K. E., Dahdaleh, N. S., Grosland, N. M., Howard, M. A. & Shields, R. K. (2016). Effect of Surgery on Gait and Sensory Motor Performance in Patients With Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy. Neurosurgery, 79(5), 701-707. PMID: 27258765.

Oza, P. D., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2016). Dynamic Fatigue Does Not Alter Soleus H-Reflexes Conditioned by Homonymous or Heteronymous Pathways. Motor control, 21(3), 345-358. PMID: 27736308.

Petrie, M. A., Kimball, A. L., McHenry, C. L., Suneja, M., Yen, C. L., Sharma, A. & Shields, R. K. (2016). Distinct Skeletal Muscle Gene Regulation from Active Contraction, Passive Vibration, and Whole Body Heat Stress in Humans. PloS one, 11(8), e0160594. PMID: 27486743.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Petrie, M. A., McHenry, C. L., Amelon, R. E., Saha, P. K. & Shields, R. K. (2016). Bone architecture adaptations after spinal cord injury: impact of long-term vibration of a constrained lower limb. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, 27(3), 1149-60. PMID: 26395887.

Littmann, A. E., Shields, R. K. (2016). Whole body heat stress increases motor cortical excitability and skill acquisition in humans. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, 127(2), 1521-9. PMID: 26616546.

Abode-Iyamah, K. O., Stoner, K. E., Grossbach, A. J., Vijoen, S. V., McHenry, C. L., Petrie, M. A., Dahdaleh, N. S., Grosland, N. M., Shields, R. K. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2016). Effects of brain derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. J Clin Neurosci, 24, 117-21. PMID: 26461908.

Zhorne, R., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2016). Skeletal muscle activity and CNS neuro-plasticity. Neural regeneration research, 11(1), 69-70. PMID: 26981083.

Shields, R. K., Pizzimenti, M. A., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Schwinn, D. A. (2015). Fostering interprofessional teamwork in an academic medical center: Near-peer education for students during gross medical anatomy. Anat Sci Educ., 8(4), 331-7. PMID: 24888728.

Petrie, M., Suneja, M. & Shields, R. K. (2015). Low-frequency stimulation regulates metabolic gene expression in paralyzed muscle. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. :1985), 118(6), 723-31. PMID: 25635001.

McHenry, C. L., Wu, J. & Shields, R. K. (2014). Potential regenerative rehabilitation technology: implications of mechanical stimuli to tissue health. BMC Res Notes, 7, 334. PMID: 24894666.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Amelon, R., Liu, Y., Saha, P. K. & Shields, R. K. (2014). High bone density masks architectural deficiencies in an individual with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord, 37(3), 349-354. PMID: 24621022.

Petrie, M. A., Suneja, M., Faidley, E. & Shields, R. K. (2014). Low force contractions induce fatigue consistent with muscle mRNA expression in people with spinal cord injury. Physiol Rep, 2(2). PMID: 24744911.

Petrie, M. A., Suneja, M., Faidley, E. & Shields, R. K. (2014). A minimal dose of electrically induced muscle activity regulates distinct gene signaling pathways in humans with spinal cord injury. PloS one, 9(12), e115791. PMID: 25531450.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. (2013). Fatigue modulates synchronous but not asynchronous soleus activation during stimulation of paralyzed muscle. Clin Neurophysiol, 124(9), 1853-60. PMID: 23673062.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Shields, R. K. (2013). Active-resisted stance modulates regional bone mineral density in humans with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med., 36(3), 191-199. PMID: 23809588.

Tseng, S. C., Shields, R. K. (2013). Limb compressive load does not inhibit post activation depression of soleus H-reflex in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. Clin Neurophysiol, 124(5), 982-990. PMID: 23168355.

Littmann, A. E., McHenry, C. L. & Shields, R. K. (2013). Variability of motor cortical excitability using a novel mapping procedure. J Neurosci Methods, 214(2), 137-143. PMID: 23357026.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Shields, R. K. (2012). Regional cortical and trabecular bone loss after spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev, 49(9), 1365-1376. PMID: 23408218.

Iguchi, M., Littmann, A. E., Chang, S. H., Webster, L. A., Knipper, J. S. & Shields, R. K. (2012). Heat stress and cardiovascular, hormonal, and heat shock proteins in humans. J Athletic Train, 47(2), 184-90. PMID: 22488284.

Tseng, S. C., Shields, R. K. (2012). Limb segment load inhibits post activation depression of soleus H-reflex in humans. Clin Neurophysiol, 124(5), 982-90. PMID: 23168355.

Chang, S. H., Tseng, S. C., McHenry, C. L., Littmann, A. E., Suneja, M. & Shields, R. K. (2012). Limb segment vibration modulates spinal reflex excitability and muscle mRNA expression after spinal cord injury. Clin Neurophysiol, 123(3), 558-568. PMID: 21963319.

Littmann, A. E., Iguchi, M., Madhavan, S., Kolarik, J. L. & Shields, R. K. (2012). Dynamic-position-sense impairment's independence of perceived knee function in woman with ACL reconstruction. J Sport Rehabil, 21(1), 44-53. PMID: 22100530.

McHenry, C. L., Shields, R. K. (2012). A biomechanical analysis of exercise in standing, supine, and seated positions: implications for individuals with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med, 35(3), 140-147. PMID: 22507023.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Saha, P. K., Liang, G., Li, C., Gao, Z. & Shields, R. K. (2011). High dose compressive loads attenuate bone mineral loss in humans with spinal cord injury. Osteoporos Int. PMID: 22187008.

Goldstein, M. S., Scalzitti, D. A., Bohmert, J. A., Brennan, G. P., Craik, R. L., Delitto, A., Field-Fote, E. C., Magistro, C. M., Powers, C. M. & Shields, R. K. (2011). Vitalizing Practice through Research and Research through Practice: The Outcomes of a Conference to Enhance the Delivery of Care. Phys Ther, 91(8), 1275-1284. PMID: 21659467.

Iguchi, M., Shields, R. K. (2011). Cortical and segmental excitability during fatiguing contractions of the soleus muscle in humans. Clin Neurophysiol. PMID: 21802985.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Oza, P. D. (2011). Low-frequency H-reflex depression in trained human soleus after spinal cord injury. Neurosci Lett, 499(2), 88-92. PMID: 21640787.

Iguchi, M., Shields, R. K. (2011). Prior heat stress effects fatigue recovery of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle Nerve, 44(1), 115-125. PMID: 21674526.

Chang, S. H., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2011). Gravitational force modulates muscle activity during mechanical oscillation of the tibia in humans. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 21(5), 847-853. PMID: 21708472.

Kunkel, S. D., Suneja, M., Ebert, S. M., Bongers, K. S., Fox, D. K., Malmberg, S. E., Alipour, F., Shields, R. K. & Adams, C. M. (2011). mRNA expression signatures of human skeletal muscle atrophy identify a natural compound that increases muscle mass. Cell Metab, 13(6), 627-638. PMID: 21641545.

Chang, Y. J., Shields, R. K. (2011). Doublet Electrical Stimulation Enhances Torque Production in People with Spinal Cord Injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 25(5), 423-432. PMID: 21304018.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Littmann, A. E., Chang, S. H., McHenry, C. L. & Shields, R. K. (2011). Enhancing muscle force and femur compressive loads via feedback-controlled stimulation of paralyzed quadriceps in humans. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 92(2), 242-249. PMID: 21272720.

Goldstein, M. S., Scalzitti, D. A., Craik, R. L., Dunn, D. L., Irion, J. M., Irrgang, J., Kolobe, T. H., McDonough, C. M. & Shields, R. K. (2011). The revised research agenda for physical therapy. Phys Ther, 91(2), 165-174. PMID: 21169424.

Adams, C. M., Suneja, M., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2011). Altered mRNA expression after long-term soleus electrical stimulation training in humans with paralysis. Muscle Nerve, 43(1), 65-75. PMID: 21171097.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., McMullen, T., Borgwardt, M. R., Peranich, L. M. & Shields, R. K. (2010). Reliability and responsiveness of musculoskeletal ultrasound in subjects with and without spinal cord injury. Ultrasound Med Biol, 36(10), 1594-1607. PMID: 20800961.

Madhavan, S., Shields, R. K. (2010). Neuromuscular responses in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament repair. Clin Neurophysiol, 122(5), 997-1004. PMID: 20884289.

Ballantyne, B. T., Shields, R. K. (2010). Quadriceps fatigue alters human muscle performance during a novel weight bearing task. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(9), 1712-1722. PMID: 20164810.

Iguchi, M., Shields, R. K. (2010). Quadriceps low-frequency fatigue and muscle pain are contraction-type-dependent. Muscle Nerve, 42(2), 230-238. PMID: 20544933.

Meszaros, A. J., Iguchi, M., Chang, S. H. & Shields, R. K. (2010). Repetitive eccentric muscle contractions increase torque unsteadiness in the human triceps brachii. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 20(4), 619-626. PMID: 20060317.

Cai, Z., Bai, E. W. & Shields, R. K. (2010). Fatigue and non-fatigue mathematical muscle models during functional electrical stimulation of paralyzed muscle. Biomed Signal Process Control, 5(2), 87-93. PMID: 23667385.

Shields, R. K. (2009). Above board: clear bylaws support the research mission of the Foundation for Physical Therapy. Phys Ther, 89(10), 1010-1012. PMID: 19797306.

Reese, D., Shivapour, E. T., Wahls, T. L., Dudley-Javoroski, S. D. & Shields, R. K. (2009). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and dietary interventions to reduce oxidatiave stress in a secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patient leads to marked gains in function: A case report. PMID: 19918474.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Shields, R. K. (2009). Longitudinal changes in femur bone mineral density after spinal cord injury: effects of slice placement and peel method. Osteoporosis Int, 26(6), 985-995. PMID: 19707702.

Madhavan, S., Burkart, S., Baggett, G., Nelson, K., Teckenburg, T., Zwanzinger, M. & Shields, R. K. (2009). Influence of age on neuromuscular control during a dynamic weight-bearing task. J Aging Phys Act, 17(3), 327-343. PMID: 19799103.

Madhavan, S., Shields, R. K. (2009). Movement accuracy changes muscle-activation strategies in female subjects during a novel single-leg weight-bearing task. PM R, 1(4), 319-328. PMID: 19627914.

Bai, E. W., Cai, Z., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Shields, R. K. (2009). Identification of a Modified Wiener-Hammerstein System and Its Application in Electrically Stimulated Paralyzed Skeletal Muscle Modeling. Automatica (Oxf.), 45(3), 736-743. PMID: 23467426.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. (2009). Chapter 3: Musculoskeletal Plasticity after Spinal Cord Injury: A Conceptual Framework Based on Plasticity, Adaptation, and Outcome. In E. C. Field-Fote (Eds.) Rehabilitation after Spinal Cord Injury. F.A. Davis Company.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Shields, R. K. (2008). Asymmetric bone adaptations to soleus mechanical loading after spinal cord injury. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact, 8(3), 277-38. PMID: 18799855.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Littmann, A. E., Iguchi, M. & Shields, R. K. (2008). Doublet stimulation protocol to minimize musculoskeletal stress during paralyzed quadriceps muscle testing. J Appl Phys, 104(6), 1574-1582. PMID: 18436697.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Shields, R. K. (2008). Dose estimation and surveillance of mechanical loading interventions for bone loss after spinal cord injury. Phys Ther, 88(3), 387-396. PMID: 18202080.

Iguchi, M., Baldwin, K., Boeyink, C., Engle, C., Kehoe, M., Ganju, A., Messaros, A. J. & Shields, R. K. (2008). Low frequency fatigue in human quadriceps is fatigue dependent and not task dependent. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 18(2), 308-316. PMID: 17157533.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Shields, R. K. (2008). Muscle and bone plasticity after spinal cord injury: Review of adaptations to disuse and to electrical muscle stimulation. J Rehabil Res Dev, 45(2), 283-296. PMID: 18566946.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. (2007). Musculoskeletal adaptations in chronic spinal cord injury: Effects of long-term soleus electrical stimulation training. Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 21(2), 169-179. PMID: 17312092.

Frey-Law, L. A., Shields, R. K. (2007). Mathematical models of human paralyzed muscle after long-term training. J Biomech, 40(12), 2587-2595. PMID: 17316653.

Shields, R. K. (2007). Neuroimaging in rehabilitation: a resource for clinicians. Phys Ther, 87(6), 639-640. PMID: 17504824.

Madhavan, S., Shields, R. K. (2007). Weight-bearing exercise accuracy influences muscle activation strategies of the knee. J Neur Phys Ther, 31(1), 15-19. PMID: 17419885.

Madhavan, S., Shields, R. K. (2007). Sensory-specific balance training in older adults: Effect on position, movement, and velocity sense at the ankle. (Vols. 87). (5), pp. 569 - 570. Physical Therapy. DOI: 10.2522/ptj.20060262.ic.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. (2007). Chapter 30: Rehabilitation after Spinal Cord Injury. In In: Musculoskeletal Plasticity after Spinal Cord Injury. FA Davis.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Cole, K. R. (2006). Feedback-Controlled Stimulation Enhances Human Paralyzed Muscle Performance. J Appl Physiol, 101(5), 1312-1319. PMID: 16809630.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S., Boaldin, K. M., Corey, T. A., Fog, D. B. & Ruen, J. M. (2006). Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT): Measurement sensitivity in persons with and without spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 87(10), 1376-1381. PMID: 17023249.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Littmann, A. E. (2006). Post fatigue potentiation of the paralyzed soleus muscle: evidence for adaptation with long-term electrical stimulation training. J Appl Physiol, 101(2), 556-565. PMID: 16575026.

Shields, R. K., Chang, Y. J., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Lin, C. (2006). Predictive model of muscle fatigue after spinal cord injury in humans. Muscle Nerve, 34(1), 84-91. PMID: 16634064.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. (2006). Musculoskeletal plasticity after acute spinal cord injury: effects of long-term neuromuscular electrical stimulation training. J Neurophysiol, 95(4), 2380-2390. PMID: 16407424.

Dudley-Javoroski, S., Shields, R. K. (2006). Assessment of physical function and secondary complications after complete spinal cord injury. Disabil Rehabil, 28(2), 103-110. PMID: 16393840.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. & Frey-Law, L. A. (2006). Electrically–induced muscle contractions influence bone density decline after spinal cord injury. Spine, 31(5), 548-553. PMID: 16508550.

Frey-Law, L. A., Shields, R. K. (2006). Predicting human chronically paralyzed muscle force: a comparison of three mathematical models. J Appl Physiol, 100(3), 1027-1036. PMID: 16306255.

Shields, R. K., Schlechte, J., Dudley-Jovoroski, S., Zwart, B., Clark, S. D., Grant, S. A. & Mattiace, V. M. (2005). Bone mineral density after spinal cord injury: a reliable method for knee measurement. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 86(10), 1969-1973. PMID: 16213240.

Elokda, A. S., Shields, R. K. & Nielsen, D. H. (2005). Effects of a maximal graded exercise test on glutathione as a marker of acute oxidative stress. J Cardiopulm Rehabil, 25(4), 215-219. PMID: 16056068.

Madhavan, S. M., Shields, R. K. (2005). Influence of age on dynamic position sense: evidence using a sequential movement task. Exp Brain Res, 164(1), 18-28. PMID: 15776224.

Frey Law, L. A., Shields, R. K. (2005). Mathematical models using varying parameter strategies to represent paralyzed muscle force properties: a sensitivity analysis. J Neuroengineering Rehabil, 31, 2-12. PMID: 15927064.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. (2005). Monitoring standing wheelchair use after spinal cord injury: A case report. Disabil Rehabil, 27(3), 142-146. PMID: 15823996.

Shields, R. K., Madhavan, S. M., Gregg, E., Leitch, J., Petersen, B., Salata, S. & Wallerich, S. (2005). Neuromuscular control of the knee during a resisted single-limb squat exercise. Am J Sports Med, 33(10), 1520-1526. PMID: 16009991.

Shields, R. K., Madhaven, S., Cole, K. R., Brostad, J. D., Demeulenaere, J. l., Eggers, C. D. & Otten, P. H. (2005). Proprioceptive coordination of movement sequences in humans. Clin Neurophysiol, 116(1), 87-92. PMID: 15589187.

Shields, R. K., Madhaven, S. & Cole, K. (2005). Sustained muscle activity minimally influences dynamic position sense of the ankle. J Ortho Sports Phys Ther, 35(7), 443-451. PMID: 16108585.

Schindler-Ivens, S. M., Shields, R. K. (2004). Soleus H-reflex recruitment is not altered in persons with chronic spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 85(5), 840-847. PMID: 15129411.

Schindler-Ivens, S. M., Shields, R. K. (2004). Comparison of linear regression and probit analysis for detecting H-reflex threshold in individuals with and without spinal cord injury. Electromyo Clin Neurophysiol, 44(3), 153-163. PMID: 15125055.

Frey-Law, L., Shields, R. K. (2004). Femoral loads during passive, active and active-resistive stance after spinal cord injury: a mathematical model. Clin Biomech, 19, 313-321. PMID: 15003348.

Deshpande, P. J., Shields, R. K. (2004). Soleus motor neuron excitability before and after standing. Electromyo Clin Neurophysiol, 44(5), 259-264. PMID: 15378863.

Schindler-Ivens, S. M., Shields, R. K. (2004). Soleus H-reflex recruitment is not altered in persons with chronic spinal cord injury. (Vols. 85). (5), pp. 840-847. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. PMID: 15129411.

Shields, R. K., Dudley-Javoroski, S. (2003). Musculoskeletal deterioration and hemicorporectomy after spinal cord injury: A case report. Phys Ther, 83(3), 263-275. PMID: 12620090.

Shields, R. K. (2002). Muscular, skeletal, and neural adaptations following spinal cord injury. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 32(2), 65-74. PMID: 11838582.

Heiss, D. G., Shields, R. K. & Yack, H. J. (2002). Balance loss when lifting a heavier-than-expected load: effects of lifting technique. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 83(1), 48-59. PMID: 11782833.

Ludewig, P., Cook, T. M. & Shields, R. K. (2002). Comparison of surface sensor and bone-fixed measurement of humeral motion. J Appl Biomech, 18, 163-170. DOI: org/10.1123/jab.18.2.163.

Chang, Y. J., Shields, R. K. (2002). Within-train neuromuscular propagation varies with torque in paralyzed human muscle. Muscle Nerve, 26, 673-680. PMID: 12402290.

Heiss, D. G., Shields, R. K. & Yack, H. J. (2001). Anticipatory control of vertical lifting force and momentum during the squat lift with expected and unexpected loads. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 31(12), 708 - 723; discussion 724 -729. PMID: 11767247.

Schindler-Ivens, S., Shields, R. K. (2000). Low frequency depression of H-reflexes in humans with acute and chronic spinal cord injury. Exp Brain Res, 133(2), 233-241. PMID: 10968224.

Elokda, A., Nielsen, D. H. & Shields, R. K. (2000). Effect of functional neuromuscular stimulation on postural related orthostatic stress in individuals with acute spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev, 37(5), 535-542. PMID: 11322152.

Shields, R. K., Leo, K. C., Messaros, A. J., Somers, V. K. & Mark, A. M. (1999). Effects of repetitive handgrip training on endurance, specificity, and cross education. Phys Ther, 79(5), 467-475. PMID: 10331750.

Shields, R. K., Enloe, L. J. & Leo, K. C. (1999). Health-related quality of life in patients with total hip or knee replacement. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 80(5), 572-579. PMID: 10326924.

Shields, R. K., Ruhland, J. L., Ross, M., Saehler, M. M., Smith, K. B. & Heffner, M. L. (1998). Analysis of health-related quality of life and muscle impairment in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using the medical outcome survey and the tufts quantitative neuromuscular exam. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 79(7), 855-862. PMID: 9685105.

Shields, R. K., Chang, Y. J. & Ross, M. (1998). Neuromuscular propagation after fatiguing contractions of the paralyzed soleus muscle in humans. Muscle Nerve, 21(6), 776-787. PMID: 9585332.

Ruhland, J. L., Shields, R. K. (1997). The effects of a home exercise program on impairment and health-related quality of life in persons with chronic peripheral neuropathies. Phys Ther, 77(10), 1026-1039. PMID: 9327818.

Enloe, L. J., Shields, R. K. (1997). Evaluation of health related quality of life in individuals with vestibular dysfunction using disease-specific and general outcome measures. Phys Ther, 77(9), 890-903. PMID: 9291947.

Shields, R. K., Frey Law, L., Reiling, B., Sass, K. & Wilwert, J. (1997). Effects of electrically induced fatigue on the twitch and tetanus of paralyzed soleus muscle in humans. J Appl Physiol, 82(5), 1499-1507. PMID: 9134899.

Shields, R. K., Chang, Y. J. (1997). The effects of fatigue on the torque-frequency curve of the human paralyzed soleus muscle. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 7(1), 3-13. PMID: 20719687.

Shields, R. K., Heiss, D. G. (1997). An electromyographic comparison of abdominal muscle synergies during curl and double straight leg lowering exercise with control of the pelvic position. Spine, 22(16), 1873-1879. PMID: 9280023.

Enloe, L., Shields, R. K., Leo, K. C., Miller, B. & Smith, K. (1996). Total hip and knee replacement treatment programs: A report using consensus of experts. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 23(1), 3-11. PMID: 8749744.

Shields, R. K. (1995). Fatigability, relaxation properties, and electromyographic responses of the human paralyzed soleus muscle. J Neurophysiol, 73(6), 2195-2206. PMID: 7666132.

Shields, R. K., Enloe, L. J., Evans, R. E., Smith, K. B. & Steckel, S. D. (1995). Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of functional tests in patients with total joint replacement. Phys Ther, 75(3), 169-179; discussion 176-179. PMID: 7870749.

Shields, R. K., Leo, K., Dostal, W., Miller, B. & Barr, R. (1994). An acute care physical therapy clinical practice database for outcomes research. Phys Ther, 74(5), 463-470. PMID: 8171108.

Shields, R. K., Cook, T. (1992). Lumbar support thickness: effect on seated buttock pressure in individuals with and without spinal cord injury. Phys Ther, 72(3), 218-226. PMID: 1584855.

Yuh, W., Fisher, D., Shields, R. K., Ehrhardt, J. & Shellock, F. (1992). Phantom limb pain induced in an amputee by strong magnetic fields. J Magn Reson Imaging, 2(2), 221-223. PMID: 1562774.

Somers, V., Leo, K., Shields, R. K., Clay, M. & Mark, A. (1992). Forearm endurance training attenuates the sympathetic nerve response to isometric handgrip in humans. J Appl Physiol, 72(3), 1039-1043. PMID: 1568957.

Shields, R. K., Cook, T. (1988). Effect of seat angle and lumbar support on seated buttock pressure. Phys Ther, 68(11), 1682-1686. PMID: 3186795.