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Donna L. Hammond, PhD

Portrait
Vice Chair for Research
Professor of Anesthesia
Professor of Neuroscience and Pharmacology

Contact Information

Primary Office
445 Medical Research Center
501 Newton Road
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-356-2633

Lab
3000 Medical Labs
25 South Grand Avenue
Iowa City, IA 52242
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Education

BS, Biochemical Pharmacology, State University of New York at Buffalo
PhD, Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago
Postdoctoral Fellow, Neurobiology of Pain, Mayo Clinic

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Translational Biomedicine, Medical Scientist Training Program

Center, Program and Institute Affiliations

Pain Research Program

Research Summary

The overall goal of our research is to gain a better understanding of the neurobiology of persistent pain. Our studies emphasize a systems-level approach that uses many different methodologies in concert, including molecular biology, behavioral pharmacology in wild-type or transgenic animals, neuroanatomical tract tracing, immunocytochemical labeling of neurons, measurement of neurotransmitter release by push-pull perfusion or microdialysis, and electrophysiological recordings from neurons in slices of the spinal cord or brainstem. neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of the central and peripheral nervous system pathways that convey pain, as well as the bulbospinal pathways that modulate the transmission of nociceptive information. Our results indicate that peripheral inflammatory or nerve injury can lead to long-term changes in the pharmacology and physiology of both the peripheral and central pathways that convey pain, as well as the bulbospinal pathways that function to either suppress or facilitate pain. These changes have significant consequences for the ability of drugs to produce analgesia and for the body to invoke its own homeostatic mechanisms for the control of pain. Current research in the laboratory is focused on understanding the mechanisms that contribute to the sensory consequences of chemotherapy experienced by patients both during and often after chemotherapy, e.g. numbness, tingling, and shock- and burning-like pain. Having demonstrated that a vitamin B3 precursor of NAD+ suppresses persistent sensory hypersensitivity in rodent models of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, we have advanced our studies to early clinical trials to determine whether it can suppress chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in patients with metastatic disease or in cancer survivors. Preclinical studies are also underway to better define the mechanism by which this drug acts.

Publications

Hamity, M. V., White, S. R., Blum, C., Gibson-Corley, K. N. & Hammond, D. L. (2020). Nicotinamide riboside relieves paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy and enhances suppression of tumor growth in tumor-bearing rats. Pain. PMID: 32433266.

Hamity, M. V., White, S. R., Walder, R. Y., Schmidt, M. S., Brenner, C. & Hammond, D. L. (2017). Nicotinamide riboside, a form of vitamin B3 and NAD+ precursor, relieves the nociceptive and aversive dimensions of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in female rats. Pain, 158(5), 962-972. PMID: 28346814.

Jareczek, F. J., White, S. R. & Hammond, D. L. (2017). Plasticity in brainstem mechanisms of pain modulation by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the rat. eNeuro, 4(1). PMID: 28197544.

Wattiez, A., Walder, R. Y., Sande, C. M., White, S. R. & Hammond, D. L. (2017). [EXPRESS] Peripheral inflammatory injury alters the relative abundance of Ga subunits in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and in the rostral ventromedial medulla of male rats. Mol Pain, 13, 1744806917715210. PMID: 28604220.

Maduka, U. P., Hamity, M. V., Walder, R. Y., White, S. R., Li, Y. & Hammond, D. L. (2016). Changes in the disposition of substance P in the rostral ventromedial medulla after inflammatory injury in the rat. Neuroscience, 317, 1-11. PMID: 26762802.

Walder, R. Y., Wattiez, A., White, S. R., Marquez de Prado, B., Hamity, M. V. & Hammond, D. L. (2014). Validation of four reference genes for quantitative mRNA expression studies in a rat model of inflammatory injury. Mol Pain, 10, 55. PMID: 25187167.

White, S., Marquez de Prado, B., Russo, A. F. & Hammond, D. L. (2014). Heat hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity induced by calcitonin gene-related peptide in a mouse model of neurofibromatosis. PLoS One, 9(9), e106767. PMID: 25184332.

Hamity, M. V., Walder, R. Y. & Hammond, D. L. (2014). Increased neuronal expression of neurokinin-1 receptor and stimulus-evoked internalization of the receptor in the rostral ventromedial medulla of the rat after peripheral inflammatory injury. J Comp Neurol, 522(13), 3037-3051. PMID: 24639151.

Hammond, D. L. (2013). Descending Circuitry, Opioids. In G. F. Gebhart , R. F. Schmidt (Eds.) Encyclopedic Reference of Pain. pp. 897-904. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag LLC. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-28753-4_1050.

Engle, M. P., Merrill, M. A., Marquez De Prado, B. & Hammond, D. L. (2012). Spinal nerve ligation decreases ?-aminobutyric acidB receptors on specific populations of immunohistochemically identified neurons in L5 dorsal root ganglion of the rat. J Comp Neurol, 520(8), 1663-1677. PMID: 22120979.

Hahm, E., Hammond, D. L. & Proudfit, H. K. (2011). Substance P induces the reversible formation of varicosities in the dendrites of rat brainstem neurons. Brain Res, 1369, 36-45. PMID: 21044613.

Zhang, L., Hammond, D. L. (2010). Cellular basis for opioid potentiation in the rostral ventromedial medulla of rats with persistent inflammatory nociception. Pain, 149(1), 107-116. PMID: 20172653.

Hamity, M. V., White, S. R. & Hammond, D. L. (2010). Effects of neurokinin-1 receptor agonism and antagonism in the rostral ventromedial medulla of rats with acute or persistent inflammatory nociception. Neuroscience, 165(3), 902-913. PMID: 19892001.

Aldrich, B. T., Frakes, E. P., Kasuya, J., Hammond, D. L. & Kitamoto, T. (2009). Changes in expression of sensory organ-specific microRNAs in rat dorsal root ganglia in association with mechanical hypersensitivity induced by spinal nerve ligation. Neuroscience, 164(2), 711-723. PMID: 19699278.

Marquez de Prado, B., Hammond, D. L. & Russo, A. F. (2009). Genetic enhancement of calcitonin gene-related Peptide-induced central sensitization to mechanical stimuli in mice. J Pain, 10(9), 992-1000. PMID: 19628434.

Zhang, L., Hammond, D. L. (2009). Substance P enhances excitatory synaptic transmission on spinally projecting neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla after inflammatory injury. J Neurophysiol, 102(2), 1139-1151. PMID: 19494188.

Jongeling, A. C., Johns, M. E., Murphy, A. Z. & Hammond, D. L. (2009). Persistent inflammatory pain decreases the antinociceptive effects of the mu opioid receptor agonist DAMGO in the locus coeruleus of male rats. Neuropharmacology, 56(6-7), 1017-1026. PMID: 19265713.

Price, T. J., Cervero, F., Gold, M. S., Hammond, D. L. & Prescott, S. A. (2009). Chloride regulation in the pain pathway. Brain Res Rev, 60(1), 149-170. PMID: 19167425.

Hamity, M. V., Hammond, D. L., Engle, M., Takenami, T. & Domeyer, A. (2009). Spinal nerve ligation causes a selective upregulation of Alpha2Delta immunoreactivity on small diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Pain, 10(4), S30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2009.01.130.

Sykes, K. T., White, S. R., Hurley, R. W., Mizoguchi, H., Tseng, L. F. & Hammond, D. L. (2007). Mechanisms responsible for the enhanced antinociceptive effects of micro-opioid receptor agonists in the rostral ventromedial medulla of male rats with persistent inflammatory pain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 322(2), 813-821. PMID: 17494863.

Zhang, L., Jongeling, A. C. & Hammond, D. L. (2007). Suitability of the retrograde tracer Dil for electrophysiological studies of brainstem neurons: adverse ramifications for G-protein coupled receptor agonists. J Neurosci Methods, 160(1), 116-121. PMID: 17045656.

Hammond, D. L., Proudfit, H. K. (2007). Descending Circuitry, Opioids. In R. F. Schmidt , W. D. Willis (Eds.) Encyclopedic Reference of Pain. pp. 547-551. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag LLC. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-29805-2_1050.

Zhang, L., Sykes, K. T., Buhler, A. V. & Hammond, D. L. (2006). Electrophysiological heterogeneity of spinally projecting serotonergic and nonserotonergic neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla. J Neurophysiol, 95(3), 1853-1863. PMID: 16338998.

Engle, M. P., Gassman, M., Sykes, K. T., Bettler, B. & Hammond, D. L. (2006). Spinal nerve ligation does not alter the expression or function of GABA(B) receptors in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of the rat. Neuroscience, 138(4), 1277-1287. PMID: 16427742.

Hammond, D. L. (2006). Opioids and Neuropathic Pain. In A. I. Basbaum , R. Dubner , J. N. Campbell , A. Dray , R. H. Dworkin , C. N. Sang (Eds.) Emerging Strategies for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain. pp. 139-59. Seattle, WA: IASP Press.

Hammond, D. L., Ackerman, L., Holdsworth, R. & Elzey, B. (2004). Effects of spinal nerve ligation on immunohistochemically identified neurons in the L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia of the rat. J Comp Neurol, 475(4), 575-589. PMID: 15236238.

Hammond, D. L. (2004). Persistent Inflammatory Nociception and Opioid Actions in the Periphery, Spinal Cord and Brainstem. In H. Handwerker , K. Brune (Eds.) Hyperalgesias – From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Applications. pp. 291-309. Seattle, WA: Pain Research and Management/IASP Press.

Naguib, M., Hammond, D. L., Schmid, 3rd, P. G., Baker, M. T., Cutkomp, J., Queral, L. & Smith, T. (2003). Pharmacological effects of intravenous melatonin: comparative studies with thiopental and propofol. Br J Anaesth, 90(4), 504-507. PMID: 12644425.

Hurley, R. W., Banfor, P. & Hammond, D. L. (2003). Spinal pharmacology of antinociception produced by microinjection of mu or delta opioid receptor agonists in the ventromedial medulla of the rat. Neuroscience, 118(3), 789-796. PMID: 12710986.

Hurley, R. W., Chatterjea, D., Rose Feng, M. R., Taylor, C. P. & Hammond, D. L. (2002). Gabapentin and pregabalin can interact synergistically with naproxen to produce antihyperalgesia. Anesthesiology, 97(5), 1263-1273. PMID: 12411814.

Parra, M. C., Nguyen, T. N., Hurley, R. W. & Hammond, D. L. (2002). Persistent inflammatory nociception increases levels of dynorphin 1-17 in the spinal cord, but not in supraspinal nuclei involved in pain modulation. J Pain, 3(4), 330-336. PMID: 14622757.

Hammond, D. L. (2001). J.J. Bonica Lecture--2001: role of spinal GABA in acute and persistent nociception. Reg Anesth Pain Med, 26(6), 551-557. PMID: 11707795.

Oh, S. B., Tran, P. B., Gillard, S. E., Hurley, R. W., Hammond, D. L. & Miller, R. J. (2001). Chemokines and glycoprotein 120 produce pain hypersensitivity by directly exciting primary nociceptive neurons. J Neurosci, 21(14), 5027-5035. PMID: 11438578.

Ugarte, S. D., Homanics, G. E. & Hammond, D. L. (2001). Effect of embryonic knock-down of GABAA receptors on the levels of monoamines and their metabolites in the CNS of the mouse. Brain Res, 904(2), 290-297. PMID: 11406127.

Ackley, M. A., Hurley, R. W., Virnich, D. E. & Hammond, D. L. (2001). A cellular mechanism for the antinociceptive effect of a kappa opioid receptor agonist. Pain, 91(3), 377-388. PMID: 11275396.

Hurley, R. W., Hammond, D. L. (2001). Contribution of endogenous enkephalins to the enhanced analgesic effects of supraspinal mu opioid receptor agonists after inflammatory injury. J Neurosci, 21(7), 2536-2545. PMID: 11264327.

Hammond, D. L. (2001). GABA(B) receptors: new tricks by an old dog. Curr Opin Pharmacol, 1(1), 26-30. PMID: 11712531.

Hammond, D. L., Donald, M. C., Nguyen, T. & Hurley, R. W. (2001). Upregulation of dynorphin in the rostroventromedial medulla (RVM) after inflammation: Implications for the actions of opioid receptor agonists. (Vols. 2 Supplement). pp. 30. Journal of Pain.

Naguib, M., Hammond, D. L., Baker, M., Cutkomp, J. & Queral, L. (2001). Induction of general anesthesia by melatonin: Comparative dose-effect studies with thiopental and propofol. Anesthesiology.

Graham, B. A., Hammond, D. L. & Proudfit, H. K. (2000). Synergistic interactions between two alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists, dexmedetomidine and ST-91, in two substrains of Sprague-Dawley rats. Pain, 85(1-2), 135-143. PMID: 10692612.

Kaneko, M., Mestre, C., Sánchez, E. H. & Hammond, D. L. (2000). Intrathecally administered gabapentin inhibits formalin-evoked nociception and the expression of Fos-like immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 292(2), 743-751. PMID: 10640314.

Hurley, R. W., Hammond, D. L. (2000). The analgesic effects of supraspinal mu and delta opioid receptor agonists are potentiated during persistent inflammation. J Neurosci, 20(3), 1249-1259. PMID: 10648729.

Ugarte, S. D., Homanics, G. E., Firestone, L. L. & Hammond, D. L. (2000). Sensory thresholds and the antinociceptive effects of GABA receptor agonists in mice lacking the beta3 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor. Neuroscience, 95(3), 795-806. PMID: 10670447.

Tran, P. B., Oh, S. B., Gillard, S. E., Bodner, A., Hurley, R. W. & Hammond, D. L. (2000). Allodynia resulting from the activation of sensory neuron chemokine receptors. (Vols. 26). pp. 1185. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Hurley, R. W., Mizoguchi, H., Tseng, L. F. & Hammond, D. L. (2000). Effects of mu and delta opioid receptor ligands on G-protein activation in the rostral ventromedial medulla of rats with persistent inflammation. (Vols. 26). pp. 1066. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Grabow, T. S., Hurley, R. W., Banfor, P. N. & Hammond, D. L. (1999). Supraspinal and spinal delta(2) opioid receptor-mediated antinociceptive synergy is mediated by spinal alpha(2) adrenoceptors. Pain, 83(1), 47-55. PMID: 10506671.

Hurley, R. W., Grabow, T. S., Tallarida, R. J. & Hammond, D. L. (1999). Interaction between medullary and spinal delta1 and delta2 opioid receptors in the production of antinociception in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 289(2), 993-999. PMID: 10215679.

Grabow, T. S., Hammond, D. L. (1999). Noradrenergic mediation of supraspinal and spinal delta(2) receptor mediated antinociceptive synergy. Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology.

Hurley, R. W., Hammond, D. L. (1999). Delta(2) opioid receptors mediate the enhanced antinociceptive effects of Mu-agonists in rats with persistent nociception. (Vols. 25). pp. 1437. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Ackley, M. A., Hurley, R. W. & Hammond, D. L. (1999). Kappa opioid receptor agonists in the rostral ventromedial medulla modulate synaptic transmission in vitro and are antinociceptive in vivo. (Vols. 25). pp. 1437. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Ugarte, S. D., Seiden, L. S., Vosner, G., Homanics, G. E. & Hammond, D. L. (1999). Development of monoaminergic systems in the mouse in largely unaffected by knock-down of GABA(A) receptors. (Vols. 25). pp. 1789. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Hammond, D. L., Kaneko, M. & Mestre, C. (1998). Pharmacological and neuroanatomical studies of the antinociceptive effects of intrathecally administered gabapentin. Masui, 47 Suppl, S229-S230. PMID: 9921192.

John, J. M., Kaneko, M. & Hammond, D. L. (1998). Intrathecal bicuculline does not increase formalin-induced inflammation. Brain Res, 794(2), 320-324. PMID: 9622664.

Hammond, D. L., Nelson, V. & Thomas, D. A. (1998). Intrathecal methysergide antagonizes the antinociception, but not the hyperalgesia produced by microinjection of baclofen in the ventromedial medulla of the rat. Neurosci Lett, 244(2), 93-96. PMID: 9572593.

Hammond, D. L., Wang, H., Nakashima, N. & Basbaum, A. I. (1998). Differential effects of intrathecally administered delta and mu opioid receptor agonists on formalin-evoked nociception and on the expression of Fos-like immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 284(1), 378-387. PMID: 9435201.

Hurley, R. W., Hammond, D. L. (1998). Enhancement of the antinociceptive effects of supraspinally administered mu and delta opioid receptor agonists under conditions of persistent inflammatory nociception. (Vols. 24). pp. 891. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Hammond, D. L., Hurley, R. W., Grabow, T. S. & Tallarida, R. J. (1998). Characterization of the interaction between supraspinal and spinal delta(1) and delta(2) opioid receptors in the production of antinociception. (Vols. 24). pp. 891. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Ugarte, S. D., Homaniacs, G. E., Quinlan, J. J., Firestone, L. L. & Hammond, D. L. (1998). Sensory thresholds and the antinociceptive effects of GABA receptor agonists in mice lacking the beta-3 subunit of the GABA(B) receptor. (Vols. 24). pp. 641. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Thorat, S. N., Hammond, D. L. (1997). Modulation of nociception by microinjection of delta-1 and delta-2 opioid receptor ligands in the ventromedial medulla of the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 283(3), 1185-1192. PMID: 9399992.

Graham, B. A., Hammond, D. L. & Proudfit, H. K. (1997). Differences in the antinociceptive effects of alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists in two substrains of Sprague-Dawley rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 283(2), 511-519. PMID: 9353364.

Hammond, D. L., Donahue, B. B. & Stewart, P. E. (1997). Role of spinal delta1 and delta2 opioid receptors in the antinociception produced by microinjection of L-glutamate in the ventromedial medulla of the rat. Brain Res, 765(1), 177-181. PMID: 9310411.

Hama, A. T., Fritschy, J. & Hammond, D. L. (1997). Differential distribution of (GABA)A receptor subunits on bulbospinal serotonergic and nonserotonergic neurons of the ventromedial medulla of the rat. J Comp Neurol, 384(3), 337-348. PMID: 9254031.

Kaneko, M., Hammond, D. L. (1997). Role of spinal gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors in formalin-induced nociception in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 282(2), 928-938. PMID: 9262360.

Hammond, D. L., Graham, B. A. (1997). GABAergic Drugs and the Clinical Management of Pain. In J. F. Biebuyck , C. Lynch , M. Maze , L. J. Saidman , T. L. Yaksh , W. M. Zapol (Eds.) Anesthesia: Biologic Foundations. pp. 969-975. New York, NY: Raven Press.

Kaneko, M., Hammond, D. L. (1997). GABA Acting at GABAA Receptors in the Spinal Cord Limits the Second, but Not the First Phase Response to Formalin in the Rat. In T. S. Jensen , J. A. Turner , Z. Wiesenfeld-Hallin (Eds.) Proceedings on the 8th World Congress on Pain. pp. 313-322. Seattle, WA: IASP Press.

Hammond, D. L. (1997). Inhibitory Neurotransmitters and Nociception: Role of GABA and Glycine. In A. Dickenson , J. M. Besson (Eds.) Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology: The Pharmacology of Pain. pp. 361-84. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Iyadomi, I., Hammond, D. L. (1997). Paradoxical effects of the GABA(B) receptor CGP 35348 in the rat formalin test. (Vols. Supplement). pp. A370. Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology.

Kaneko, M., Hammond, D. L. (1997). Pharmacological characterization of the antinociception produced by microinjection of bicuculline into the ventromedial medulla (VMM) of the rat. (Vols. 23). pp. 1813. Neuroscience.

Thorat, S. N., Hammond, D. L. (1997). Role of medullary delta(1) or delta(2) opioid receptors in antinociception: studies with subtype selective antagonists. (Vols. 23). pp. 1019. Neuroscience.

Banfor, P., Thorat, S., Skrocki, L. & Hammond, D. L. (1997). Delta(1) or delta(2) opioid receptor-mediated antinociception: Role of bulbospinal seroto-nergic neurons. (Vols. 23). pp. 1018. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Graham, B. A., Hammond, D. L. & Proudfit, H. K. (1997). Intrathecal dexmedetomidine (DEX) and ST-91 act synergistically to produce antinociception in the rat. (Vols. 23). pp. 1539. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Mason, P., Owens, C. A. & Hammond, D. L. (1996). Antagonism of the antinocifensive action of halothane by intrathecal administration of GABAA receptor antagonists. Anesthesiology, 84(5), 1205-14. PMID: 8624015.

Thomas, D. A., Navarrete, I. M., Graham, B. A., McGowan, M. K. & Hammond, D. L. (1996). Antinociception produced by systemic R(+)-baclofen hydrochloride is attenuated by CGP 35348 administered to the spinal cord or ventromedial medulla of rats. Brain Res, 718(1-2), 129-137. PMID: 8773775.

McKinzie, S. L., Hammond, D. L., Grabau, C. & Tyce, G. M. (1996). Releases of norepinephrine and dopamine in ventriculocisternal perfusions in hepatectomized and laparotomized rats. J Neurochem, 66(2), 569-578. PMID: 8592126.

Iyadomi, I., Hammond, D. L. (1996). Hyperalgesic effect of a low dose of intrathecal baclofen in the rat formalin test is mediated by NMDA receptors. (Vols. 85). (3A), pp. A661. Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology.

Graham, B. A., Hammond, D. L. & Proudfit, H. K. (1996). Differential antinociceptive effects of delta-2 adrenoceptor agonists in substrains of Sprague-Dawley rats. (Vols. 85). (3A), pp. A665. Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology.

Kaneko, M., Hammond, D. L. (1996). Activation of NMDA receptors mediates the enhancement of formalin-induced pain by intrathecal bicuculline. (Vols. 22). pp. 1361. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Hammond, D. L., Gregory, S. A. (1996). Intrathecally administered cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors attenuate carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia in the rat. (Vols. 22). pp. 1814. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Thorat, S. N., Hammond, D. L. (1996). Antinociception produced by microinjection of delta opioid receptor agonists into the ventromedial medulla of the rat. (Vols. 22). pp. 1364. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Thomas, D. A., Hammond, D. L. (1995). Microinjection of morphine into the rat medullary dorsal horn produces a dose-dependent increase in facial scratching. Brain Res, 695(2), 267-270. PMID: 8556343.

Thomas, D. A., McGowan, M. K. & Hammond, D. L. (1995). Microinjection of baclofen in the ventromedial medulla of rats: antinociception at low doses and hyperalgesia at high doses. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 275(1), 274-284. PMID: 7562560.

Hammond, D. L., Stewart, P. E. & Littell, L. (1995). Antinociception and delta-1 opioid receptors in the rat spinal cord: studies with intrathecal 7-benzylidenenaltrexone. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 274(3), 1317-1324. PMID: 7562504.

Graham, B. A., Proudfit, H. K. & Hammond, D. L. (1995). Different adrenoceptor subtypes mediate the antinociceptive effects of delta(2) agonists in different substrains of Sprague-Dawley rats. (Vols. 80). pp. S55. Anesth Analg.

Hammond, D. L., Wang, H., Nakashima, N. & Basbaum, A. I. (1995). Intrathecal deltorphin or DPDPE produces antinociception, but does not suppress fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the rat spinal cord. (Vols. 21). pp. 1170. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Hama, A. T., Fritschy, J. M., Sieghart, W. & Hammond, D. L. (1995). GABA(A) receptor subunits on bulbospinal neurons of the rat. (Vols. 21). pp. 1639. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Graham, B. A., Hammond, D. L. & Proudfit, H. K. (1995). Spinal alpha 2-noradrenergic receptors differ in substrains of Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rat. (Vols. 21). pp. 1416. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Thomas, D. A., Navarette, I. M., Graham, B. A., McGowan, M. K. & Hammond, D. L. (1995). Contribution of spinal and brain stem sites to antinociception reduced by the systemic administration of baclofen. (Vols. 21). pp. 651. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Glaum, S. R., Miller, R. J. & Hammond, D. L. (1994). Inhibitory actions of delta 1-, delta 2-, and mu-opioid receptor agonists on excitatory transmission in lamina II neurons of adult rat spinal cord. J Neurosci, 14(8), 4965-4971. PMID: 8046463.

Pitzele, B. S., Hamilton, R. W., Kudla, K. D., Tsymbalov, S., Stapelfeld, A., Savage, M. A., Clare, M., Hammond, D. L. & Hansen, Jr, D. W. (1994). Enkephalin analogs as systemically active antinociceptive agents: O- and N-alkylated derivatives of the dipeptide amide L-2,6-dimethyltyrosyl-N-(3-phenylpropyl)-D-alaninamide. J Med Chem, 37(7), 888-896. PMID: 7908696.

Stewart, P. E., Hammond, D. L. (1994). Activation of spinal delta-1 or delta-2 opioid receptors reduces carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 268(2), 701-708. PMID: 8113981.

Hammond, D. L., Stapelfeld, A., Drower, E. J., Savage, M. A., Tam, L. & Mazur, R. H. (1994). Antinociception produced by oral, subcutaneous or intrathecal administration of SC-39566, an opioid dipeptide arylalkylamide, in the rodent. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 268(2), 607-615. PMID: 8113971.

Stewart, P. E., Holper, E. M. & Hammond, D. L. (1994). Delta antagonist and kappa agonist activity of Naltriben: evidence for differential kappa interaction with the delta 1 and delta 2 opioid receptor subtypes. Life Sci, 55(4), PL79-84. PMID: 8028443.

Hammond, D. L., Thomas, D. A. & McGowan, M. K. (1994). Microinjection of baclofen in the nucleus raphe magnus of the rat produces antinociception or hyperalgesia. (Vols. 20). pp. 765. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Thomas, D. A., Hammond, D. L. (1994). Morphine microinjected into the medullary dorsal horn produces dose-dependent, naloxone-reversible facial scratching in rats. (Vols. 20). pp. 751. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

McGowan, M. K., Hammond, D. L. (1993). Antinociception produced by microinjection of L-glutamate into the ventromedial medulla of the rat: mediation by spinal GABAA receptors. Brain Res, 620(1), 86-96. PMID: 8104668.

Stewart, P. E., Hammond, D. L. (1993). Evidence for delta opioid receptor subtypes in rat spinal cord: studies with intrathecal naltriben, cyclic[D-Pen2, D-Pen5] enkephalin and [D-Ala2, Glu4]deltorphin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 266(2), 820-828. PMID: 8394918.

Hammond, D. L., Washington, J. D. (1993). Antagonism of L-baclofen-induced antinociception by CGP 35348 in the spinal cord of the rat. Eur J Pharmacol, 234(2-3), 255-262. PMID: 8387011.

McGowan, M. K., Hammond, D. L. (1993). Intrathecal GABAB antagonists attenuate the antinociception produced by microinjection of L-glutamate into the ventromedial medulla of the rat. Brain Res, 607(1-2), 39-46. PMID: 8097668.

Hammond, D. L., Bloss, J. L. (1993). Antinociceptive effects of SC-39566, an opioid dipeptide arylalkylamide, in the Rhesus monkey. Eur J Pharmacol, 231(2), 281-285. PMID: 8095901.

Hammond, D. L. (1993). Pharmacological Mechanisms of Pain Modulation: An Update on Delta Opioid Receptors. In C. R. Chapman , K. M. Foley (Eds.) Current & Emerging Issues in Cancer Pain: Research & Practice. pp. 175-183. New York, NY: Raven Press.

McKinzie, S. L., Hammond, D. L., Grabau, C. & Tyce, G. M. (1993). Catecholamine release from rat brain after hepatectomy. (Vols. 24). pp. 99. Transactions of the American Society for Neurochemistry.

Stewart, P. E., Hammond, D. L. (1993). Opioid agonists on the paw flick test: measures of latency and tissue temperature. (Vols. 19). pp. 1413. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

McGowan, M. K., Hammond, D. L. (1993). Intrathecal benzodiazepines modulate the analgesia produced by intrathecal isoguvacine but not by intrathecal muscimol in the rat. (Vols. 19). pp. 1798. New York, MY: Neuroscience.

Glaum, S. R., Hammond, D. L. & Miller, R. J. (1993). Electrophysiology of mu and delta opioid receptor effects on afferent glutamatergic transmission in adult rat substantia gelatinosa. (Vols. 19). pp. 108. Neuroscience.

Hammond, D. L., Moy, M. L. (1992). Actions of 4-amino-3-(5-methoxybenzo(b)furan-2-yl) butanoic acid and 4-amino-3-benzo(b)furan-2-yl butanoic acid in the rat spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol, 229(2-3), 227-234. PMID: 1337047.

Stapelfeld, A., Hammond, D. L. & Rafferty, M. F. (1992). Antinociception after intracerebroventricular administration of naltrindole in the mouse. Eur J Pharmacol, 214(2-3), 273-276. PMID: 1325358.

Hansen, Jr, D. W., Stapelfeld, A., Savage, M. A., Reichman, M., Hammond, D. L., Haaseth, R. C. & Mosberg, H. I. (1992). Systemic analgesic activity and delta-opioid selectivity in [2,6-dimethyl-Tyr1,D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin. J Med Chem, 35(4), 684-687. PMID: 1311764.

Chandrakumar, N. S., Yonan, P. K., Stapelfeld, A., Savage, M., Rorbacher, E., Contreras, P. C. & Hammond, D. L. (1992). Preparation and opioid activity of analogues of the analgesic dipeptide 2,6-dimethyl-L-tyrosyl-N-(3-phenylpropyl)-D-alaninamide. J Med Chem, 35(2), 223-233. PMID: 1346276.

Hammond, D. L., Presley, R., Gogas, K. R. & Basbaum, A. I. (1992). Morphine or U-50,488 suppresses Fos protein-like immunoreactivity in the spinal cord and nucleus tractus solitarii evoked by a noxious visceral stimulus in the rat. J Comp Neurol, 315(2), 244-253. PMID: 1545011.

Stewart, P. E., Hammond, D. L. (1992). Opioid receptor selectivity of intrathecally administered naltrindole and naltrindole benzofuran in the rat: studies with the carrageenan-inflamed paw flick test. (Vols. 132). pp. 415. NIDA Monograph.

McGowan, M. K., Hammond, D. L. (1992). Intrathecal bicuculline attenuates antinociception produced by microinjection of glutamate into the nucleus raphe magnus in the rat. (Vols. 18). pp. 835. Neuroscience.

Stewart, P. E., Hammond, D. L. (1992). Naltrindole benzofuran is not a Delta-opioid selective antagonist in the rat spinal cord. (Vols. 18). pp. 1512. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Drower, E. J., Stapelfeld, A., Rafferty, M. F., de Costa, B. R., Rice, K. C. & Hammond, D. L. (1991). Selective antagonism by naltrindole of the antinociceptive effects of the delta opioid agonist cyclic[D-penicillamine2-D-penicillamine5]enkephalin in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 259(2), 725-731. PMID: 1658309.

Hammond, D. L., Ruda, M. A. (1991). Developmental alterations in nociceptive threshold, immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P, and fluoride-resistant acid phosphatase in neonatally capsaicin-treated rats. J Comp Neurol, 312(3), 436-450. PMID: 1721077.

Aran, S., Hammond, D. L. (1991). Antagonism of baclofen-induced antinociception by intrathecal administration of phaclofen or 2-hydroxy-saclofen, but not delta-aminovaleric acid in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 257(1), 360-368. PMID: 1850472.

Hammond, D. L. (1991). Do Opioids Relieve Central Pain?. In K. L. Casey (Eds.) Pain and Central Nervous System Disease: The Central Pain Syndromes. pp. 233-241. New York, NY: Raven Press.

Taksh, T. L., Hammond, D. L. & Tiseo, P. J. (1991). Characterization of the dose-dependent antagonism of spinal opioid receptors by naloxone and naltrindole. Further evidence for delta receptor subtypes?. (Vols. 17). pp. 592. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Howard, D. L., Hammond, D. L. (1991). Effect of pentobarbital or diazepam on the antinociceptive actions of GABA(A) agonists in the spinal cord of the rat. (Vols. 75). pp. A579. Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology.

Pitzele, B. S., Hamilton, R. W., Kudla, K. D., Stapelfeld, A., Savage, M. A., Clare, M., Hammond, D. L., Hansen Jr, D. W., Thompson, J. M., Rohrbacher, E., Tam, L. L. & Contreras, P. C. (1991). Enkephalin analogs as systemically active antinociceptive agents: Omicron- and N-Alkylated derivatives of the dipeptide amide. (Vols. 17). pp. 295. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

McGowan, M. K., Hammond, D. L. (1991). Intrathecal phaclofen attenuates analgesia produced by microinjection of glutamate into the nucleus raphe magnus in the rat. (Vols. 17). pp. 1011. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Hammond, D. L. (1990). Neurochemical, neuroendocrine, and immunologic measures in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain. Anesth Prog, 37(2-3), 106-7. PMID: 2085187.

Hammond, D. L. (1990). Role of Serotonergic Systems in Morphine-Induced Antinociception. In J. M. Besson , H. Ollat (Eds.) Serotonin and Pain: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Serotonin and Pain. pp. 251-261. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Hammond, D. L. (1990). Discussions on the Physiological and Pharmacological Bases of the Transmission and Control of Nociceptive Messages. In A. I. Basbaum , J. M. Besson (Eds.) Towards a New Pharmacotherapy of Pain. pp. 107-121. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Ltd..

Hammond, D. L., Aran, S. (1990). Antagonism of baclofen-induced antinociception by intrathecal phaclofen or 2-OH-saclofen, but not Delta-aminovaleric acid. (Vols. 16). pp. 567. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Bloss, J. L., Hammond, D. L. (1989). Intermittent shock titration task in the rhesus monkey and its validity as an analgesiometric procedure. Brain Res, 499(2), 344-56. PMID: 2804681.

Hammond, D. L., Ruda, M. A. (1989). Developmental alterations in thermal nociceptive threshold and the distribution of immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P after neonatal administration of capsaicin in the rat. Neurosci Lett, 97(1-2), 57-62. PMID: 2465514.

Hammond, D. L. (1989). New insights regarding the organization of spinal cord pain pathways. News in Physiological Sciences, 4, 98-101.

Hammond, D. L. (1989). Inferences of Pain and its Modulation from Simple Behaviors. In J. Loeser , C. R. Chapman (Eds.) Issues in Pain Measurement. pp. 69-91. New York, NY: Raven Press.

Rafferty, M. F., Drower, E. J. & Hammond, D. L. (1989). Antagonism of PGE(2)-induced hyperthermia in rats by antinociceptive prostaglandin antagonist. (Vols. 15). pp. 471. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Drower, E. J., Stapelfeld, A., Rafferty, M. F., Hammond, D. L., Rice, K. C. & DeCosta, B. (1989). Specific antagonism of the antinociceptive effects of intrathecal DPDPE by naltrindole in rats. (Vols. 15). pp. 756. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Presley, R., Hammond, D. L., Gogas, K., Levine, J. & Basbaum, A. (1989). Morphine and U-50488H suppress noxious visceral stimulation-evoked expression of c-fos in the rat. (Vols. 15). pp. 155. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Drower, E. J., Hammond, D. L. (1988). GABAergic modulation of nociceptive threshold: effects of THIP and bicuculline microinjected in the ventral medulla of the rat. Brain Res, 450(1-2), 316-324. PMID: 3401715.

Hammond, D. L. (1988). Chapter 22: Intrathecal Administration: Methodological Considerations. In H. L. Fields (Eds.) Progress in Brain Research. pp. 313-320. Amsterdam: Elsevier. PMID: 3064174.

Evans, C., Hammond, D. L. & Frederickson, R. C. (1988). The Opioid Peptides. In G. W. Pasternak (Eds.) The Opiate Receptors. pp. 23-71. New York, NY: Raven Press.

Drower, E. J., Hammond, D. L. (1988). The effect of pentobarbital on GABA-ergic modulation of nociceptive threshold. (Vols. 14). pp. 711. Neuroscience.

Drower, E. J., Stapelfeld, A., Mueller, R. A. & Hammond, D. L. (1987). The antinociceptive effects of prostaglandin antagonists in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol, 133(3), 249-256. PMID: 2881791.

Hammond, D. L., Mazur, R., Hansen, D., Pilipauskas, D., Bloss, J. & Drower, E. (1987). Analgesic activity of SC-39566. (Vols. 30). (Supplement 1), pp. S253. Pain.

Hammond, D. L., Ruda, M. A. (1987). Developmental alterations in thermal nociceptive threshold and the distribution of immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P after neonatal administration of capsaicin in the rat. (Vols. 13). pp. 111. Neuroscience.

Bloss, J. L., Hammond, D. L. (1987). Intermittent shock titration in the rhesus monkey. (Vols. 13). pp. 111. Neuroscience.

Egofske, P. J., Hammond, D. L. (1987). A rapid extraction and ion-pairing HPLCRC method for the quantitation of 3H-inositol phosphates in rat brain. (Vols. 13). pp. 648. Neuroscience.

Hammond, D. L. (1986). Control Systems for Nociceptive Afferent Processing: The Descending Inhibitory Pathways. In T. L. Yaksh (Eds.) Spinal Afferent Processing. pp. 363-390. New York, NY: Plenum Press.

Hammond, D. L. (1986). Biological Effects of Opiates. In G. R. Lenz , S. Evans-Radak , D. E. Walters , A. J. Hopfinger (Eds.) Opiates. pp. 29-44. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Bloss, J. L., Hammond, D. L. (1985). Shock titration in the rhesus monkey: effects of opiate and nonopiate analgesics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 235(2), 423-430. PMID: 4057079.

Barbaro, N. M., Hammond, D. L. & Fields, H. L. (1985). Effects of intrathecally administered methysergide and yohimbine on microstimulation-produced antinociception in the rat. Brain Res, 343(2), 223-229. PMID: 2996695.

Hammond, D. L., Tyce, G. M. & Yaksh, T. L. (1985). Efflux of 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline into spinal cord superfusates during stimulation of the rat medulla. J Physiol, 359, 151-162. PMID: 2582112.

Hammond, D. L. (1985). Pharmacology of Central Pain Modulating Networks. In H. L. Fields , R. Dubner , F. Cervero (Eds.) Advances in Pain Research and Therapy. pp. 499-512. New York, NY: Raven Press.

Bloss, J. L., Hammond, D. L. (1985). Effects of opiate and non-opiate analgesics on shock titration in the rhesus monkey. (Vols. 44). pp. 1724. Federal Proceedings.

Drower, E. J., Hammond, D. L. (1985). Effects on nociceptive threshold of THIP and bicuculline microinjected in the nucleus raphe magnus. (Vols. 11). pp. 1179. Neuroscience.

Hammond, D. L., Drower, E. J. (1984). Effects of intrathecally administered THIP, baclofen and muscimol on nociceptive threshold. Eur J Pharmacol, 103(1-2), 121-125. PMID: 6548190.

Hammond, D. L., Yaksh, T. L. & Tyce, G. M. (1984). Conjugates of dopamine and serotonin in ventriculocisternal perfusates of the cat. J Neurochem, 42(6), 1752-1757. PMID: 6726235.

Hammond, D. L., Yaksh, T. L. (1984). Antagonism of stimulation-produced antinociception by intrathecal administration of methysergide or phentolamine. Brain Res, 298(2), 329-337. PMID: 6326954.

Yaksh, T. L., Hammond, D. L. (1983). Letter to the editor. (Vols. 17). (3), pp. 313-315. Philadelphia, PA: Pain. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(83)90105-7.

Bergstrom, L., Hammond, D. L., Go, V. L. & Yaksh, T. L. (1983). Concurrent measurement of substance P and serotonin in spinal superfusates: failure of capsaicin and p-chloroamphetamine to co-release. Brain Res, 270(1), 181-184. PMID: 6191841.

Schmauss, C., Hammond, D. L., Ochi, J. W. & Yaksh, T. L. (1983). Pharmacological antagonism of the antinociceptive effects of serotonin in the rat spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol, 90(4), 349-357. PMID: 6688398.

Hammond, D. L., Tyce, G. M. & Yaksh, T. L. (1983). Drug-induced alterations in the efflux of 5-hydroxytryptamine and of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid into superfusates of the rat spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol, 87(4), 441-448. PMID: 6189730.

Hammond, D. L., Drower, E. J. (1983). Failure of intrathecally administered THIP to produce analgesia. (Vols. 9). pp. 791. Neuroscience.

Barbaro, N. M., Hammond, D. L. & Fields, H. L. (1983). Antagonism of microstimulation-produced analgesia by intrathecal injection of methysergide and yohimbine. (Vols. 9). pp. 791. Neuroscience.

Yaksh, T. L., Hammond, D. L. (1982). Peripheral and central substrates involved in the rostrad transmission of nociceptive information. Pain, 13(1), 1-85. PMID: 6287384.

Yaksh, T. L., Hammond, D. L. (1982). Putative Transmitters of Descending Systems-Studies of Local Administration and Liberation. In B. Sjolund , A. Bjorklund (Eds.) Brain Stem Control of Spinal Mechanisms. pp. 473-492. New York, NY: Elsevier Biomedical Press.

Hammond, D. L., Tyce, G. M. & Yaksh, T. L. (1982). Release of serotonin and norepinephrine into superfusates of rat spinal cord following electrical magnus. (Vols. 8). pp. 769. New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Tyce, G. M., Hammond, D. L. & Yaksh, T. L. (1982). Presence of dopamine conjugate in ventriculocisternal perfusates of the cat. (Vols. 47). pp. 1706. Federal Proceedings.

Hammond, D. L., Yaksh, T. L. (1982). Intrathecal methysergide and phentolamine antagonize stimulation produced analgesia from the nucleus raphe. (Vols. 8). pp. 769. Neuroscience.

Yaksh, T. L., Hammond, D. L. & Tyce, G. M. (1981). Functional aspects of bulbospinal monoaminergic projections in modulating processing of somatosensory information. Fed Proc, 40(13), 2786-2794. PMID: 6975220.

Hammond, D. L., Yaksh, T. L. & Tyce, G. M. (1981). Presence of conjugated 5-hydroxytryptamine in in vivo superfusates of rat spinal cord. J Neurochem, 37(4), 1068-1071. PMID: 6172561.

Proudfit, H. K., Hammond, D. L. (1981). Alterations in nociceptive threshold and morphine-induced analgesia produced by intrathecally administered amine antagonists. Brain Res, 218(1-2), 393-399. PMID: 6895046.

Hammond, D. L., Yaksh, T. L. (1981). Peripheral and central pathways in pain. Pharmacol Ther, 14(3), 459-475. PMID: 7323138.

Tyce, G. M., Hammond, D. L., Rorie, D. K. & Taksh, T. I. (1981). In Vivo and In Vitro Efflux of Conjugated Amines into Superfusates from Discrete Areas of the Central Nervous System of Cats and Rats. In M. Sandler , E. Usdin (Eds.) Phenosulfo-transferase in Mental Health. pp. 152-163. London, England: MacMillan Publishers, Inc..

Hammond, D. L., Tyce, G. M. & Yaksh, T. L. (1981). Stimulation of the nucleus raphe magnus. (Vols. 7). (532) New York, NY: Neuroscience.

Hammond, D. L., Levy, R. A. & Proudfit, H. K. (1980). Hypoalgesia induced by microinjection of a norepinephrine antagonist in the raphe magnus: reversal by intrathecal administration of a serotonin antagonist. Brain Res, 201(2), 475-479. PMID: 6893423.

Hammond, D. L., Levy, R. A. & Proudfit, H. K. (1980). Hypoalgesia following microinjection of noradrenergic antagonists in the nucleus raphe magnus. Pain, 9(1), 85-101. PMID: 7422339.

Hammond, D. L., Proudfit, H. K. (1980). Effects of locus coeruleus lesions on morphine-induced antinociception. Brain Res, 188(1), 79-91. PMID: 7370762.

Hammond, D. L., Proudfit, H. K. (1980). Effects of intrathecally administered amine antagonists on nociceptive threshold and morphine-induced analgesia. (Vols. 6). pp. 433. Neuroscience.

Hammond, D. L., Tyce, G. M. & Yaksh, T. L. (1980). 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels in spinal superfusates. (Vols. 22). pp. 219. The Pharmacologist.

Hammond, D. L., Levy, R. A. (1979). Analgesia following microinjection of phentolamine in the nucleus raphe magnus. (Vols. 5). pp. 610. Neuroscience.

Hammond, D. L., Proudfit, H. K. (1977). Potentiation of morphine analgesia by lesions of the nucleus locus coeruleus. (Vols. 19). pp. 140. The Pharmacologist.