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Franklin Dexter, MD, PhD, FASA

Portrait
Director, Division of Management Consulting
Professor of Anesthesia
Professor of Health Management and Policy

Contact Information

Primary Office
8466 JCP
200 Hawkins Drive
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-621-6360

Education

BSc, Applied Mathematics-Biology, Brown University
MS, Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University
PhD, Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University
MD, Medicine, Case Western Reserve University
Resident, Anesthesia, University of Iowa

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Informatics

Publications

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F., Heitz, J. W. & McNulty, S. E. (2020). Implications of anesthesiology resident availability on first-case staffing. Perioper Care Oper Room Manag, 21, 100098. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcorm.2020.100098.

Elhakim, M., Dexter, F. & Fahy, B. G. (2020). Changes in current employment positions after taking an operating room management course content by physicians and non-physicians and potential use of the content. Perioper Care Oper Room Manag, 20, 100097. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcorm.2020.100097.

Dexter, F., Elhakim, M., Loftus, R. W., Seering, M. S. & Epstein, R. H. (2020). Strategies for daily operating room management of ambulatory surgery centers following resolution of the acute phase of the COVID-19. J Clin Anesth, 64, 109854. PMID: 32371331.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Podgorski, 3rd, E. M. & Pearson, A. C. (2020). Appropriate operating room time allocations and half-day block time for low caseload proceduralists, including anesthesiologist pain medicine physicians in the State of Florida. J Clin Anesth, 64, 109817. PMID: 32353806.

Dexter, F., Ledolter, J., Wall, R. T., Datta, S. & Loftus, R. W. (2020). Sample sizes for surveillance of S. aureus transmission to monitor effectiveness and provide feedback on intraoperative infection control including for COVID-19. Perioper Care Oper Room Manag, 20, 100115. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcorm.2020.100115.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Gostine, A. L., Penning, D. H. & Loftus, R. W. (2020). Benefit of systematic selection of pairs of cases matched by surgical specialty for surveillance of bacterial transmission in operating rooms. Am J Infect Control, 48(6), 682-687. PMID: 31679749.

Schmidt, E. L., Dexter, F., Herrmann, J., Godding, J. D., Hadder, B. A. & Loftus, R. W. (2020). Assessment of anesthesia machine redesign on cleaning of the anesthesia machine using surface disinfection wipes. Am J Infect Control, 48(6), 675-681. PMID: 31733809.

Hangsan Ahn, P., Dexter, F., Fahy, B. G. & Van Swol, L. M. (2020). Demonstrability of analytics solutions and shared knowledge of statistics and operating room management improves expected performance of small teams in correctly solving problems and making good decisions. Perioper Care Oper Room Manag, 19, 100090. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcorm.2020.100090.

Dexter, F., Ledolter, J., Epstein, R. H. & Loftus, R. W. (2020). Importance of operating room case scheduling on analyses of observed reductions in surgical site infections from the purchase and installation of capital equipment in operating rooms. Am J Infect Control, 48(5), 566-572. PMID: 31640892.

Dexter, F., Bayman, E. O., Wong, C. A. & Hindman, B. J. (2020). Reliability of ranking anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists using leniency-adjusted clinical supervision and work habits scores. J Clin Anesth, 61, 109639. PMID: 31735571.

Falempin, A., Pereira, B., Gonnu-Levallois, S., de Chazeron, I., Dexter, F., Bazin, J. & Dualé, C. (2020). Transcultural validation of a French version of the Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale (ISAS-F). Can J Anaesth, 67(5), 541-549. PMID: 31898775.

Kraus, M. B., Dexter, F., Patel, P. V., Dodd, S. E., Thomson, H. M., Girardo, M. E., Hertzberg, L. B. & Pearson, A. C. (2020). Motherhood and anesthesiology: a survey of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Anesth Analg, 130(5), 1296-1302. PMID: 31923001.

Tsai, M. H., Dexter, F. (2020). Time is money: punctuality is priceless. (Vols. 230). (5), pp. 838-839. New York, NY: J Am Coll Surg. PMID: 32173253.

Thenuwara, K. N., Dexter, F., Ituk, U. S. & Weetman, D. (2020). Case series of adaptive changes in clinical practice and trainee education for cesarean delivery due to drug shortages of 0.75% hyperbaric nupivacaine in 2018. A A Pract, 14(7), e01214. PMID: 32371821.

Dexter, F., Hadlandsmyth, K., Pearson, A. C. & Hindman, B. J. (2020). Reliability and validity of performance evaluations of pain medicine clinical faculty by residents and fellows using a supervision scale. Anesth Analg. PMID: 32332292.

Dexter, F. (2020). Bland-Altman analysis for bias in estimates of scheduled versus actual times of operating room entry. New York, NY: Can J Anaesth. PMID: 32291629.

Loftus, R. W., Dexter, F., Parra, M. C. & Brown, J. R. (2020). Importance of oral and nasal decontamination for patients undergoing anesthetics during the COVID-19 era. Philadelphia, PA: Anesth Analg. PMID: 32250978.

Loftus, R. W., Dexter, F., Goodheart, M. J., McDonald, M., Keech, J., Noiseux, N., Pugely, A., Sharp, W., Sharafuddin, M., Lawrence, W. T., Fisher, M., McGonagill, P., Shanklin, J., Skeete, D., Tracy, C., Erickson, B., Granchi, T., Evans, L. C., Schmidt, E. L., Godding, J., Brenneke, R. A., Persons, D., Herber, A., Yeager, M., Hadder, B. A. & Brown, J. R. (2020). The effect of improving basic preventive measures in the perioperative arena on Staphylococcus aureus transmission and surgical site infections: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Netw Open, 3(3), e201934. PMID: 32219407.

Dexter, F., Parra, M. C., Brown, J. R. & Loftus, R. W. (2020). Perioperative COVID-19 defense: an evidence-based approach for optimization of infection control and operating room management. Anesth Analg. PMID: 32217947.

Dexter, F., Ledolter, J., Epstein, R. H. & Loftus, R. W. (2020). Futility of cluster designs at individual hospitals to study surgical site infections and interventions involving the installation of capital equipment in operating rooms. J Med Syst, 44(4), 82. PMID: 32146529.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F., Cajigas, I., Mahavadi, A. K., Shah, A. H., Abitbol, N. & Komotar, R. J. (2020). Prolonged tracheal extubation time after glioma surgery was associated with lack of familiarity between the anesthesia provider and the operating neurosurgeon: a retrospecitve, observational study. J Clin Anesth, 60, 118-124. PMID: 31669746.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. & Wanderer, J. P. (2020). Surgical volume estimates using national or state databases can reasonably disregard missing cases from patients undergoing multiple surgeries on the same day other than for cardiac, vascular, and trauma cases. Perioper Care Oper Room Manag, 18, 100084. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcorm.2019.100084.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. & Penning, D. H. (2020). Late first-case of the day starts do not cause greater minutes of over-utilized time at an endoscopy suite with 8-hour workdays and late running rooms: a historical cohort study. J Clin Anesth, 59, 18-25. PMID: 31195226.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. & Rodriguez, L. I. (2020). Decline of pediatric ambulatory surgery cases performed at Florida general hospitals between 2010 and 2018: an historical cohort study. Anesth Analg. PMID: 32022746.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. & Diez, C. (2020). The distributions of weekday discharge times at acute care hospitals in the state of Florida were static from 2010 to 2018. J Med Syst, 44(2), 47. PMID: 31900595.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. & Pearson, A. C. (2020). Pain medicine board certification status among physicians performing interventional pain procedures in the state of Florida between 2010 and 2016. Pain Physician, 23(1), E7-E18. PMID: 32013284.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2020). Re: The role of patient and procedure specific factors in urology operating room perioperative times: D. J. Kozminski, M. J. Cerf, D. Loman, P. J. Feustel and B. A. Kogan Urol Pract 2019; 6: 6-12. (Vols. 7). (1), pp. 82. New York, NY: Urol Pract. DOI: 10.1097/UPJ.0000000000000111.

Dexter, F., Park, S., Epstein, R. H., Sun, E. & O'Neill, L. (2019). Hospitals with greater diversities of physiologically complex procedures do not achieve greater production of such inpatient surgical procedures. Perioper Care Oper Room Manag, 17, 100079. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcorm.2019.100079.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2019). Fifteen years of research on surgical case duration prediction by combining preoperatively available service and surgeon data. (Vols. 229). (6), pp. 633-634. New York, NY: J Am Coll Surg. PMID: 31767057.

Dexter, F. (2019). Predictors listed of prolonged extubation after general anesthesia. (Vols. October). (2019), pp. 45, 47. New York, NY: Anesthesiology News.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F., Podgorski, 3rd, E. M. & Pearson, A. C. (2019). Annual number of spinal cord stimulation procedures performed in the state of Florida during 2018: implications for establishing neuromodulation centers of excellence. Neuromodulation. PMID: 31710405.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F., Diez, C. & Potnuru, P. (2019). Determination of geolocations for anesthesia specialty coverage and standby call allowing return to the hospital within a specified amount of time. Anesth Analg, 129(5), 1265-1272. PMID: 29596100.

Dexter, F., Ledolter, J., Wong, C. A., O'Brien, M. K. & Hindman, B. J. (2019). Nurse anesthetists' preferences for anesthesiologists' participation in patient care at a large teaching hospital. J Clin Anesth, 57, 131-138. PMID: 31003146.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2019). Prior research in anesthesia-controlled times, operating room entrance to positioning (or incision) plus dressing on patient to room exit. New York, NY: Urol Pract. DOI: 10.1097/UPJ.0000000000000111.

Chadha, R. M., Dexter, F. & Brull, S. J. (2019). Lack of recall after sedation for cataract surgery and its effect on validity of measuring patient satisfaction. Korean J Anesthesiol. PMID: 31612692.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2019). Opportunity cost of mean 1.7 minutes of tardiness of late first case of the day starts. New York, NY: Am J Surg. PMID: 31629463.

Robinson, A. D., Dexter, F., Renkor, V., Reddy, S. & Loftus, R. W. (2019). Operating room PathTrac analysis of current intraoperative Staphylococcus aureus transmission dynamics. Am J Infect Control, 47(10), 1240-1247. PMID: 31036398.

Daniels, J. R., Dexter, F., Espy, J. L. & Brull, S. J. (2019). Quantitative assessment of statistical reviews of patient safety research articles. J Patient Saf, 15(3), 184-190. PMID: 28590949.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. & Rodriquez, L. I. (2019). Throughout the United States, pediatric patients undergoing ambulatory surgery enter the operating room and are discharged earlier in the day than are adults. Perioper Care Oper Room Manag, 16, 100076. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcorm.2019.100076.

O'Connell, C., Dexter, F., Mauler, D. J. & Sun, E. C. (2019). Trends in direct hospital payments to anesthesia groups: a retrospective cohort study of nonacademic hospitals in California. Anesthesiology, 131(3), 534-542. PMID: 31283739.

Vasilopoulos, T., Dexter, F., Van Swol, L. M. & Fahy, B. G. (2019). Trust improves during one-day resident operating room management course preceded by directed study of required statistical content. J Clin Anesth, 55, 43-49. PMID: 30594680.

Pearson, A. C., Dexter, F. & Epstein, R. H. (2019). Heterogeneity among hospitals in the percentages of all lumbosacral epidural steroid injections where the patient had received 4 or more in the previous year. Anesth Analg, 129(2), 493-499. PMID: 31166229.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. & O'Neill, L. (2019). Development and validation of an algorithm to classify as equivalent the procedures in ICD-10-PCS that differ only by laterality. Anesth Analg, 128(6), 1138-1144. PMID: 31094780.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2019). Economic savings from changing anesthetic agent purchasing must include costs associated with expected changes in case times known from meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials. (Vols. 128). (6), pp. e120. Anesth Analg. PMID: 31094814.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2019). Postanesthesia care unit costs are heterogeneous among hospitals, principally determined by delays in patient admission from operating rooms. (Vols. 128). (6), pp. 1065-1067. Anesth Analg. PMID: 31094768.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. (2019). Unintended consequences of clinical decision support. (Vols. 128). (6), pp. e124. Anesth Analg. PMID: 31094818.

Barad, M., Sturgeon, J. A., Fish, S., Dexter, F., Mackey, S. & Flood, P. D. (2019). Response to BotulinumtoxinA in a migraine cohort with multiple comorbidities and widespread pain. Reg Anesth Pain Med, 44(6), 660-668. PMID: 31101743.

Dexter, F., Osman, B. M. & Epstein, R. H. (2019). Improving intraoperative handoffs for ambulatory anesthesia: challenges and solutions for the anesthesiologist. Local Reg Anesth, 12, 37-46. PMID: 31213889.

O'Neill, L., Dexter, F. & Epstein, R. H. (2019). Limited intragenerational mobility of surgical caseload of Iowa hospitals. J Med Syst, 43(7), 187. PMID: 31104154.

Elhakim, M., Dexter, F. & Pearson, A. C. (2019). US critical access hospitals' listings of pain medicine physicians and other clinicians performing interventional pain procedures. J Clin Anesth, 58, 52-54. PMID: 31077934.

O'Brien, M. K., Dexter, F., Kreiter, C. D., Slater-Scott, C. & Hindman, B. J. (2019). Nurse anesthetists' evaluations of anesthesiologists' operating room performance are sensitive to anesthesiologists' years of postgraduate practice. J Clin Anesth, 54, 102-110. PMID: 30415149.

Pearson, A. C., Dexter, F. (2019). Observational study of the distribution and diversity of interventional pain procedures among hospitals in the State of Iowa. Pain Physician, 22(3), E157-E170. PMID: 31151339.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. & Smaka, T. J. (2019). Obtaining and modeling variability in travel times from off-site satellite clinics to hospitals and surgery centers for surgeons and proceduralists seeing office patients in the morning and performing a to-follow list of cases in the afternoon. Anesth Analg. PMID: 30998561.

Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F. (2019). Anesthetic management of emergency endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, part 2: integrating and applying observational reports and randomized clinical trials. Anesth Analg, 128(4), 706-717. PMID: 30883416.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. & Schwenk, E. S. (2019). Provider access to legacy electronic anesthesia records following implementation of an electronic health record system. J Med Syst, 43(5), 105. PMID: 30879188.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2019). Device implantation rates during inpatient surgery differ among payers at critical access versus other hospitals. Perioperative Care and Operating Room Management, 14, 5-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcorm.2018.12.002.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. & Maratea, E. A. (2019). Unscheduled absences in a cohort of nurse anesthetists during a 3-year period: Statistical implications for the identification of outlier personnel. J Clin Anesth, 52, 1-5. PMID: 30149226.

Dexter, F., Jarvie, C. & Epstein, R. H. (2018). Lack of a substantive effect of insurance and the national US payment system on the relative distribution of surgical cases among hospitals in the State of Iowa: a retrospective, observational, cohort study. J Clin Anesth, 51, 98-107. PMID: 30099349.

Dexter, F. (2018). Use and scoring of the Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale. (Vols. 10). pp. 7. Cairo: Aim-Shams J Anesthesiol. DOI: 10.1186/s42077-018-0003-9.

Dexter, F., Bayman, E. O., Pattillo S., J., Schwenk, E. S. & Epstein, R. H. (2018). Influence of parameter uncertainty on the tardiness of the start of a surgical case following a preceding surgical case performed by a different surgeon. Perioperative Care and Operating Room Management, 13, 12-17. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcorm.2018.11.001.

Thenuwara, K. N., Yoshimura, T., Nakata, Y. & Dexter, F. (2018). Time to recovery after general anesthesia at hospitals with and without a phase I post-anesthesia care unit: a historical cohort study. Can J Anaesth, 65(12), 1296-1302. PMID: 30209784.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2018). Influence of annual meetings of the American Society of Anesthesiologists and of large national surgical societies on caseloads of major therapeutic procedures. J Med Syst, 42(12), 259. PMID: 30421241.

Ward, D. S., Williams, M. R., Berkenbosch, J. W., Bhatt, M., Carlson, D., Chappell, P., Clark, R. M., Constant, I., Conway, A., Cravero, J., Dahan, A., Dexter, F., Dionne, R., Dworkin, R. H., Gan, T. J., Gozal, D., Green, S., Irwin, M. G., Karan, S., Kochman, M., Lerman, J., Lightdale, J. R., Litman, R. S., Mason, K. P., Miner, J., O'Connor, R. E., Pandharipande, P., Riker, R. R., Roback, M. G., Sessler, D. I., Sexton, A., Tobin, J. R., Turk, D. C., Twersky, R. S., Urman, R. D., Weiss, M., Wunsch, H. & Zhao-Wong, A. (2018). Evaluating patient-centered outcomes in clinical trials of procedural sedation, part 2 safety: sedation consortium on endpoints and procedures for treatment, education, and research recommendations. Anesth Analg, 127(5), 1146-1154. PMID: 29782404.

Loftus, R. W., Dexter, F., Robinson, A. D. & Horswill, A. R. (2018). Desiccation tolerance is associated with Staphylococcus aureus hypertransmissibility, resistance and infection development in the operating room. J Hosp Infect, 100(3), 299-308. PMID: 29966756.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2018). Chapter 8: Influence of Operating Room Staffing and Scheduling on Operating Room Productivity. In A. D. Kaye , R. D. Urman , C. J. Fox III (Eds.) Operating Room Leadership and Perioperative Practice Management. (2), pp. 56-77. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/9781108178402.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. & Schwenk, E. S. (2018). Tardiness of starts of surgical cases is not substantively greater when the preceding surgeon in an operating room is of a different versus the same specialty. J Clin Anesth, 53, 20-26. PMID: 30290278.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2018). Implications of variation by time of day in post-anaesthesia care unit length of stay for rational nurse staffing. (Vols. 121). (4), pp. 697-700. Br J Anaesth. PMID: 30236230.

Loftus, R. W., Dexter, F. & Robinson, A. D. (2018). High-risk Staphylococcus aureus transmission in the operating room: a call for widespread improvements in perioperative hand hygiene and patient decolonization practices. Am J Infect Control, 46(10), 1134-1141. PMID: 29907449.

Khorasanian, D., Dexter, F. & Moslehi, G. (2018). Analyses of the phase I postanesthesia care unit baseline capacity and effect of disruptions to its beds or nurse availability on operating room workflow. International Journal of Planning and Scheduling, 2(4), 350-372. DOI: 10.1504/IJPS.2018.10016582.

Dexter, F., Jarvie, C. & Epstein, R. H. (2018). Heterogeneity among hospitals statewide in percentage shares of the annual growth of surgical caseloads of inpatient and outpatient major therapeutic procedures. J Clin Anesth, 49, 126-130. PMID: 29678556.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Ledolter, J. & Wanderer, J. P. (2018). Interchangeability of counts of cases and hours of cases for quantifying a hospital's change in workload among four-week periods of 1?year. J Clin Anesth, 49, 118-125. PMID: 29778415.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2018). Comparing anesthesia durations among hospitals based on statistical methods described in previous publications in Anesthesia & Analgesia. (Vols. 127). (2), pp. e33-e34. Anesth Analg. PMID: 29905614.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2018). Treating surgical turnover times as statistically independent events when testing interventions and mobile applications. (Vols. 4). pp. 23. Mhealth. PMID: 30148138.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Thenuwara, K. & Lubarsky, D. A. (2018). Large variability in the diversity of physiologically complex surgical procedures exists nationwide among all hospitals including among large teaching hospitals. Anesth Analg, 127(1), 190-197. PMID: 29210785.

Poterack, K. A., Epstein, R. H. & Dexter, F. (2018). The anesthesiologist-informatician: a survey of physicians board-certified in both Anesthesiology and clinical informatics. Anesth Analg, 127(1), 115-117. PMID: 29533261.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. (2018). Database quality and access issues relevant to research using anesthesia information management system data. Anesth Analg, 127(1), 105-114. PMID: 29596094.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Jarvie, C. & Thenuwara, K. N. (2018). At all hospitals in the State of Iowa over a decade, the number of cases performed during weekends or holidays increased approximately proportionally to the total caseload. J Clin Anesth, 50, 27-32. PMID: 29958124.

Elhag, D., Dexter, F., Elhakim, M. & Epstein, R. H. (2018). Many US hospital-affiliated freestanding ambulatory surgery centers are located on hospital campuses, relevant to interpretation of studies involving ambulatory surgery. J Clin Anesth, 49, 88-91. PMID: 29913394.

Bayman, E. O., Dexter, F. (2018). Relative importance of strategies for improving the sample size selection and reporting of small randomized clinical trials in anesthesiology. (Vols. 65). (6), pp. 607-610. Can J Anaesth. PMID: 29556936.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Ledolter, J., Dasovich, S. M., Herman, J. H., Maga, J. M. & Schwenk, E. S. (2018). Validation of a new method to automatically select cases with intraoperative red blood cell transfusion for audit. Anesth Analg, 126(5), 1654-1661. PMID: 29116967.

Loftus, R. W., Dexter, F. & Robinson, A. D. (2018). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has greater risk of transmission in the operating room than methicillin-sensitive S aureus. Am J Infect Control, 46(5), 520-525. PMID: 29307750.

Logvinov, I. I., Dexter, F., Dexter, E. U. & Brull, S. J. (2018). Patient survey of referral from one surgeon to another to reduce maximum waiting time for elective surgery and hours of overutilized operating room time. Anesth Analg, 126(4), 1249-1256. PMID: 28704249.

Rahimi, S. A., Dexter, F. & Gu, X. (2018). Prioritizations of individual surgeons’ patients waiting for elective procedures: a systematic review and future directions. Perioper Care Oper Room Manag, 10, 14-17. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcorm.2017.12.002.

Dexter, F., Jarvie, C. & Epstein, R. H. (2018). Years versus days between successive surgeries, after an initial outpatient procedure, for the median patient versus the median surgeon in the state of Iowa. Anesth Analg, 126(3), 787-793. PMID: 29309322.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2018). Reductions in average lengths of stays for surgical procedures between the 2008 and 2014 United States national inpatient samples were not associated with greater incidences of use of postacute care facilities. Anesth Analg, 126(3), 983-987. PMID: 28857794.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F., Hofer, I. S., Rodriguez, L. I., Schwenk, E. S., Maga, J. M. & Hindman, B. J. (2018). Perioperative temperature measurement considerations relevant to reporting requirements for national quality programs using data from anesthesia information management systems. Anesth Analg, 126(2), 478-486. PMID: 28598914.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. & Ehrenfeld, J. M. (2018). Differences in the incidence and timing of reintubation in the postanesthesia care unit among large teaching hospitals. (Vols. 46). pp. 74. J Clin Anesth. PMID: 29414624.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. & Lubarsky, D. A. (2018). Hospitals with greater diversities of physiologically complex procedures do not achieve greater surgical growth in a market with stable numbers of such procedures. J Clin Anesth, 46, 67-73. PMID: 29414623.

O'Leary, J. D., Dexter, F., Faraoni, D. & Crawford, M. W. (2018). Incidence of non-physiologically complex surgical procedures performed in children: an Ontario population-based study of health administrative data. Can J Anaesth, 65(1), 23-33. PMID: 29150783.

Dexter, F. (2018). Analysis of perioperative antibiotic administration in electronic medical records: correlations among patients addressed by analyzing control chart data using the batch means method. (Vols. 65). (1), pp. 131-132. Can J Anaesth. PMID: 28916941.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2018). Analyses of time to recovery including time to tracheal extubation need to be performed while incorporating their probability distribution. (Vols. 28). (1), pp. 259-260. Obes Surg. PMID: 29082454.

Gadomski, B. C., Shetye, S. S., Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F., Santoni, B. G., Todd, M. M., Traynelis, V. C., From, R. P., Fontes, R. B. & Puttlitz, C. M. (2018). Intubation biomechanics: validation of a finite element model of cervical spine motion during endotracheal intubation in intact and injured conditions. J Neurosurg Spine, 28(1), 10-22. PMID: 29053084.

Pattillo S., J., Dexter, F. (2018). Enfrentando el dilema de las suspensiones: características e incidencia de las suspensiones quirúrgicas en un centro académico en Chile. Revista Chilena de Cirugía, 70(4), 322-328.

Dexter, F., Ledolter, J. & Hindman, B. J. (2017). In reply: Clinical supervision: what does it mean to be better?. (Vols. 64). (12), pp. 1273-1274. Can J Anaesth. PMID: 28864926.

Dexter, F., Bayman, E. O. & Dexter, E. U. (2017). Monte Carlo simulations comparing Fisher Exact Test and unequal variances t test for analysis of differences between groups in brief hospital lengths of stay. Anesth Analg, 125(6), 2141-2145. PMID: 28961563.

Dexter, F., Jarvie, C. & Epstein, R. H. (2017). Lack of generalizability of observational studies' findings for turnover time reduction and growth in surgery based on the State of Iowa, where from one year to the next, most growth was attributable to surgeons performing only a few cases per week. J Clin Anesth, 44, 107-113. PMID: 29175752.

O'Neill, L., Dexter, F., Park, S. H. & Epstein, R. H. (2017). Discharges with surgical procedures performed less often than once per month per hospital account for two-thirds of hospital costs of inpatient surgery. J Clin Anesth, 41, 99-103. PMID: 28802622.

O'Neill, L., Dexter, F., Park, S. H. & Epstein, R. H. (2017). Uncommon combinations of ICD10-PCS or ICD-9-CM operative procedure codes account for most inpatient surgery at half of Texas hospitals. J Clin Anesth, 41, 65-70. PMID: 28802614.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2017). Previous scientific findings in block time by surgeon and in releasing allocated operating room time. (Vols. 8). pp. 5. Iowa City: Perioperative Care and Operating Room Management. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcorm.2017.06.001.

Dexter, F., Jarvie, C. & Epstein, R. H. (2017). At most hospitals in the state of Iowa, most surgeons' daily lists of elective cases include only 1 or 2 cases: Individual surgeons' percentage operating room utilization is a consistently unreliable metric. J Clin Anesth, 42, 88-92. PMID: 28843944.

Dexter, F., Ledolter, J. & Hindman, B. J. (2017). Validity of using a work habits scale for the daily evaluation of nurse anesthetists' clinical performance while controlling for the leniencies of the rating anesthesiologists. J Clin Anesth, 42, 63-68. PMID: 28825987.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Fahy, B. G. & Van Swol, L. M. (2017). With directed study before a 4-day operating room management course, trust in the content did not change progressively during the classroom time. J Clin Anesth, 42, 57-62. PMID: 28822884.

Dexter, F. (2017). Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale for emergency medicine procedures. (Vols. 29). (4), pp. 477. Emerg Med Australas. PMID: 28449394.

Logvinov, I. I., Dexter, F., Hindman, B. J. & Brull, S. J. (2017). Erratum to "Anesthesiologists' perceptions of minimum acceptable work habits of nurse anesthetists" [J Clin Anesth 38 (2017) 107-110]. J Clin Anesth, 40, 86. PMID: 28625457.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. (2017). Workload, efficiency, and productivity following open access scheduling in a gastrointestinal endoscopy suite. (Vols. 40). pp. 88-90. J Clin Anesth. PMID: 28625459.

Ward, D. S., Williams, M. R., Turk, D. C., Dworkin, R. H., Sessler, D. I. & Dexter, F. (2017). Recommendations for procedural sedation clinical trials. (Vols. 125). (2), pp. 703-704. Anesth Analg. PMID: 28737521.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F., Gratch, D. M. & Lubarsky, D. A. (2017). Intraoperative handoffs among anesthesia providers increase the incidence of documentation errors for controlled drugs. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf, 43(8), 396-402. PMID: 28738985.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. (2017). Development and validation of a structured query language implementation of the Elixhauser comorbidity index. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 24(4), 845-850. PMID: 28339644.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. & Schwenk, E. S. (2017). Hypotension during induction of anaesthesia is neither a reliable nor a useful quality measure for comparison of anaesthetists' performance. Br J Anaesth, 119(1), 106-114. PMID: 28974070.

Laur, J., Dexter, F. (2017). Chapter 67: Regional anesthesia: Cost, operating room, and personnel management. In A. Hadzic (Eds.) Hadzic's Textbook of Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management. (2), pp. 1148-1156. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Thomas, J., Dexter, F. & Todd, M. M. (2017). In response. (Vols. 8). (12), pp. 338. A A Case Rep. PMID: 28306582.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Sun, E. C., Lubarsky, D. A. & Dexter, E. U. (2017). Readmissions to different hospitals after common surgical procedures and consequences for implementation of perioperative surgical home programs. Anesth Analg. PMID: 28598923.

Dexter, F., Ledolter, J. & Hindman, B. J. (2017). Measurement of faculty anesthesiologists' quality of clinical supervision has greater reliability when controlling for the leniency of the rating anesthesia resident: a retrospective cohort study. Can J Anaesth, 64(6), 643-655. PMID: 28349314.

Dexter, F. (2017). Importance of relying on examples for both anesthesiologists and other physicians to assign unbiased American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classifications. (Vols. 39). pp. 118-119. J Clin Anesth. PMID: 28494885.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2017). For assessment of changes in intraoperative red blood cell transfusion practices over time, the pooled incidence of transfusion correlates highly with total units transfused. J Clin Anesth, 39, 53-56. PMID: 28494908.

Dexter, F., Szeluga, D. & Hindman, B. J. (2017). Content analysis of resident evaluations of faculty anesthesiologists: supervision encompasses some attributes of the professionalism core competency. Can J Anaesth, 64(5), 506-512. PMID: 28211001.

Logvinov, I. I., Dexter, F., Hindman, B. J. & Brull, S. J. (2017). Anesthesiologists' perceptions of minimum acceptable work habits of nurse anesthetists. J Clin Anesth, 38, 107-110. PMID: 28372645.

Naguib, M., Dexter, F. & Brull, S. J. (2017). Neuromuscular monitoring as the art of probability. (Vols. 124). (5), pp. 1400-1402. Anesth Analg. PMID: 28426584.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F., Schwenk, E. S. & Witkowski, T. A. (2017). Bypass of an anesthesiologist-directed preoperative evaluation clinic results in greater first-case tardiness and turnover times. J Clin Anesth. PMID: 28438362.

Dexter, F. (2017). Factors substantively influencing numbers of surgical cases performed at a research hospital. Annals of Research Hospitals, 2, 6. DOI: 10.21037/arh.2017.04.13.

Dexter, F., Ledolter, J., Epstein, R. H. & Hindman, B. J. (2017). Operating room anesthesia subspecialization is not associated with significantly greater quality of supervision of anesthesia residents and nurse anesthetists. Anesth Analg, 124(4), 1253-1260. PMID: 28098571.

Dexter, F., Hindman, B. J. (2017). Letter by Dexter and Hindman regarding article, "Anesthesia Technique and Outcomes of Mechanical Thrombectomy in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke". (Vols. 48). (4), pp. e117. Stroke. PMID: 28292866.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2017). In response. (Vols. 124). (4), pp. 1376. Anesth Analg. PMID: 28319557.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2017). Chapter 8: Improving operating room efficiency: the importance of decisions made months before the day of surgery. In M. K. Eskandari , W. H. Pearce , J. S. Yao (Eds.) Current Vascular Surgery: Northwestern Vascular Symposium. (1), pp. 55-67. Eurospan.

Williams, M. R., Ward, D. S., Carlson, D., Cravero, J., Dexter, F., Lightdale, J. R., Mason, K. P., Miner, J., Vargo, J. J., Berkenbosch, J. W., Clark, R. M., Constant, I., Dionne, R., Dworkin, R. H., Gozal, D., Grayzel, D., Irwin, M. G., Lerman, J., O'Connor, R. E., Pandharipande, P., Rappaport, B. A., Riker, R. R., Tobin, J. R., Turk, D. C., Twersky, R. S. & Sessler, D. I. (2017). Evaluating patient-centered outcomes in clinical trials of procedural sedation, part 1 efficacy: sedation consortium on endpoints and procedures for treatment, education, and research recommendations. Anesth Analg, 124(3), 821-830. PMID: 27622720.

Dexter, F., Shafer, S. L. (2017). Narrative review of statistical reporting checklists, mandatory statistical editing, and rectifying common problems in the reporting of scientific articles. Anesth Analg, 124(3), 943-947. PMID: 27676281.

Sun, E. C., Dexter, F., Miller, T. R. & Baker, L. C. (2017). "Opt Out" and access to anesthesia care for elective and urgent surgeries among U.S. Medicare beneficiaries. Anesthesiology, 126(3), 461-471. PMID: 28106610.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Dexter, E. U., Lubarsky, D. A. & Sun, E. C. (2017). Hospitals with briefer than average lengths of stays for common surgical procedures do not have greater odds of either re-admission or use of short-term care facilities. Anaesth Intensive Care, 45(2), 210-219. PMID: 28267943.

Bayman, E. O., Dexter, F. & Ledolter, J. (2017). Mixed effects logistic regression modeling of daily evaluations of nurse anesthetists’ work habits adjusting for leniency of the rating anesthesiologists. Perioperative Care and Operating Room Management, 6, 14-19. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcorm.2017.02.001.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2017). In response: definitions of emergency, urgent, and elective (scheduled) surgery. Anesth Analg. PMID: 28212210.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2017). Effect of monetary incentives on first-case of the day starts. (Vols. 37). pp. 108. J Clin Anesth. PMID: 28235494.

Dexter, F. (2017). Predicting odds of prolonged operative times. (Vols. 213). (1), pp. 202. Am J Surg. PMID: 27692793.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2017). Chapter 96: The economics of operating room anesthesia practice. In D. E. Longnecker , D. L. Brown , M. F. Newman , W. M. Zapol (Eds.) Anesthesiology. (2), pp. 1570-1580. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Dutton, R. P., Kordylewski, H., Ledolter, J., Rosenberg, H. & Hindman, B. J. (2016). Diversity and similarity of anesthesia procedures in the United States during and among regular work hours, evenings, and weekends. Anesth Analg, 123(6), 1567-1573. PMID: 27611808.

Dexter, F., Hindman, B. J. (2016). Do not use hierarchical logistic regression models with low-incidence outcome data to compare anesthesiologists in your department. (Vols. 125). (6), pp. 1083-1084. Anesthesiology. PMID: 27662400.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Campos, J. & Dutton, R. P. (2016). US national anesthesia workload on Saturday and Sunday mornings. Anesth Analg, 123(5), 1297-1301. PMID: 27607479.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2016). In response. (Vols. 123). (3), pp. 791-792. Anesth Analg. PMID: 27341445.

Thomas, J., Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E. & Todd, M. M. (2016). Growth in an anesthesiologist- and nurse anesthetist-supervised sedation nurse program using propofol and dexmedetomidine. A A Case Rep, 6(12), 402-410. PMID: 27301058.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F., Gratch, D. M., Perino, M. & Magrann, J. (2016). Controlled substance reconciliation accuracy improvement using near real-time drug transaction capture from automated dispensing cabinets. Anesth Analg, 122(6), 1841-1855. PMID: 27111643.

Dexter, F. (2016). Factors affecting pre-operative assessment times. (Vols. 71). (6), pp. 733-734. Anaesthesia. PMID: 27159005.

Dexter, F., Van Swol, L. M. (2016). Influence of data and formulas on trust in information from journal articles in an operating room management course. A A Case Rep, 6(11), 329-334. PMID: 27166745.

O'Neill, L., Dexter, F. & Zhang, N. (2016). The risks to patient privacy from publishing data from clinical anesthesia studies. Anesth Analg, 122(6), 2017-2027. PMID: 27172145.

Sun, E., Dexter, F. & Miller, T. R. (2016). The effect of "Opt-Out" regulation on access to surgical care for urgent cases in the United States: evidence from the national inpatient sample. Anesth Analg, 122(6), 1983-1991. PMID: 27195640.

Dexter, F., Szeluga, D., Masursky, D. & Hindman, B. J. (2016). Written comments made by anesthesia residents when providing below average scores for the supervision provided by the faculty anesthesiologist. Anesth Analg, 122(6), 2000-2006. PMID: 27195642.

Dexter, F. (2016). Caroline Palmer and the history of operating room management. Anesth Analg, 122(6), 2066. PMID: 27195650.

Stepaniak, P. S., Dexter, F. (2016). Constraints on the scheduling of urgent surgical cases: surgeon, equipment, and anesthesiologist availability. Perioper Care Oper Room Manag, 3, 6-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcorm.2016.02.001.

Ledolter, J., Dexter, F. (2016). On the reciprocity of connections in weighted and unweighted networks. Commun Stat - Theory Methods, 46, 5728-5737. DOI: 10.1080/03610926.2015.1085570.

Dexter, F., Masursky, D., Szeluga, D. & Hindman, B. J. (2016). Work habits are valid components of evaluations of anesthesia residents based on faculty anesthesiologists' daily written comments about residents. Anesth Analg, 122(5), 1625-1633. PMID: 26962711.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F., Maguire, D. P., Agarwalla, N. K. & Gratch, D. M. (2016). Economic and environmental considerations during low fresh gas flow volatile agent administration after change to a nonreactive carbon dioxide absorbent. Anesth Analg, 122(4), 996-1006. PMID: 26735317.

Chen, Y., Cai, A., Dexter, F., Pryor, K. O., Jacobsohn, E. M., Glick, D. B., Willingham, M. D., Escallier, K., Winter, A. & Avidan, M. S. (2016). Amnesia of the operating room in the B-Unaware and BAG-RECALL clinical trials. Anesth Analg, 122(4), 1158-1168. PMID: 26859877.

Dexter, F. (2016). Statistical analysis of differences in turnover times among operating theatres. BMJ Qual Saf. PMID: 26965958.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E. & Epstein, R. H. (2016). Decreasing the hours that anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists work late by making decisions to reduce the hours of over-utilized operating room time. Anesth Analg, 122(3), 831-842. PMID: 26891395.

Dexter, F. (2016). Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale for regional anesthesia. (Vols. 28). pp. 81-82. J Clin Anesth. PMID: 26251279.

Bayman, E. O., Dexter, F. & Todd, M. M. (2016). Prolonged operative time to extubation is not a useful metric for comparing the performance of individual anesthesia providers. Anesthesiology, 124(2), 322-338. PMID: 26545101.

Shi, P., Dexter, F. & Epstein, R. H. (2016). Comparing policies for case scheduling within 1 day of surgery by Markov chain models. Anesth Analg, 122(2), 526-538. PMID: 26797556.

Dexter, F., De Oliveira, Jr, G. S. & McCarthy, R. J. (2016). First job search of residents in the United States: a survey of anesthesiology trainees' interest in academic positions in cities distant from previous residences. A A Case Rep, 6(2), 34-38. PMID: 26422456.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2016). Observational study of prolonged times to tracheal extubation. (Vols. 63). (1), pp. 115-116. Can J Anaesth. PMID: 26394777.

Williams, M. R., McKeown, A., Dexter, F., Miner, J. R., Sessler, D. I., Vargo, J., Turk, D. C. & Dworkin, R. H. (2016). Efficacy outcome measures for procedural sedation slinical trials in adults: An ACTTION systematic review. Anesth Analg, 122(1), 152-170. PMID: 26678470.

Dexter, F., Ledolter, J. & Hindman, B. J. (2016). Quantifying the diversity and similarity of surgical procedures among hospitals and anesthesia providers. Anesth Analg, 122(1), 251-263. PMID: 26678472.

Dexter, F., Dutton, R. P., Kordylewski, H. & Epstein, R. H. (2015). Anesthesia workload nationally during regular workdays and weekends. Anesth Analg, 121(6), 1600-1603. PMID: 25923436.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2015). Associated roles of perioperative medical directors and anesthesia: hospital agreements for operating room management. Anesth Analg, 121(6), 1469-1478. PMID: 26579655.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E., Todd, M. M. & Hindman, B. J. (2015). The "Fourth Mission": The time commitment of anesthesiology faculty for management is comparable to their time commitments to education, research, and indirect patient care. A A Case Rep, 5(11), 206-211. PMID: 26595329.

Flood, P., Dexter, F., Ledolter, J. & Dutton, R. P. (2015). Large heterogeneity in mean durations of labor analgesia among hospitals reporting to the American Society of Anesthesiologists' Anesthesia Quality Institute. Anesth Analg, 121(5), 1283-1289. PMID: 26284432.

Mueller, R. N., Dexter, F., Truong, V. & Wachtel, R. E. (2015). Case sequencing of diagnostic imaging studies performed under general anesthesia or monitored anesthesia care during nights and weekends. A A Case Rep, 5(9), 162-166. PMID: 26417915.

Sun, E. C., Dexter, F., Macario, A., Miller, T. R. & Baker, L. C. (2015). No significant association between anesthesia group concentration and private insurer payments in the United States. Anesthesiology, 123(3), 507-514. PMID: 26192028.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. & Patel, N. (2015). Influencing anesthesia provider behavior using Anesthesia Information Management System data for near real-time alerts and post hoc reports. Anesth Analg, 121(3), 678-692. PMID: 26262500.

Prahl, A., Dexter, F., Swol, L. V., Braun, M. T. & Epstein, R. H. (2015). E-mail as the appropriate method of communication for the decision-maker when soliciting advice for an intellective decision task. Anesth Analg, 121(3), 669-677. PMID: 26287297.

Dexter, F. (2015). Relative risk of prolonged operative times from inconsistent surgical teams. (Vols. 39). (8), pp. 2100. World J Surg. PMID: 25651964.

Hsia, I. K., Dexter, F., Logvinov, I., Tankosic, N., Ramakrishna, H. & Brull, S. J. (2015). Survey of the national drug shortage effect on anesthesia and patient safety: a patient perspective. Anesth Analg, 121(2), 502-506. PMID: 26197376.

Dexter, F., Hindman, B. J. (2015). Quality of supervision as an independent contributor to an anesthesiologist's individual clinical value. Anesth Analg, 121(2), 507-513. PMID: 26197377.

Dexter, F. (2015). Statistical analysis of PACU fast-tracking bypass. (Vols. 30). (4), pp. 268. J Perianesth Nurs. PMID: 26210554.

Dexter, F., Rosenberg, H., Epstein, R. H., Semo, J. J. & Litman, R. S. (2015). Implications of national anesthesia workload on the staffing of a call center: the Malignant Hyperthermia Consultant Hotline. A A Case Rep, 5(3), 43-46. PMID: 26230307.

Eisen, S. H., Hindman, B. J., Bayman, E. O., Dexter, F. & Hasan, D. M. (2015). Elective endovascular treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms: a management case series of patient outcomes after institutional change to admit patients principally to postanesthesia care unit rather than to intensive care. Anesth Analg, 121(1), 188-197. PMID: 25806401.

Dexter, F. (2015). Statistical analysis methods for meta-analysis of times to emergence. (Vols. 32). (7), pp. 506. Eur J Anaesthesiol. PMID: 25822752.

Dexter, F. (2015). Use of historical case duration data for estimating the duration of future cases. (Vols. 22). (5), pp. 917. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. PMID: 25850070.

Bayman, E. O., Dexter, F. & Todd, M. M. (2015). Assessing and comparing anesthesiologists' performance on mandated metrics using a Bayesian approach. Anesthesiology, 123(1), 101-115. PMID: 25906338.

Carlisle, J. B., Dexter, F., Pandit, J. J., Shafer, S. L. & Yentis, S. M. (2015). Calculating the probability of random sampling for continuous variables in submitted or published randomised controlled trials. Anaesthesia, 70(7), 848-858. PMID: 26032950.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. (2015). Management implications for the perioperative surgical home related to inpatient case cancellations and add-on case scheduling on the day of surgery. Anesth Analg, 121(1), 206-218. PMID: 26086516.

Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F. & Smith, T. C. (2015). Anesthesia residents' global (departmental) evaluation of faculty anesthesiologists' supervision can be less than their average evaluations of individual anesthesiologists. Anesth Analg, 120(1), 204-208. PMID: 25268395.

De Oliveira, Jr, G. S., Dexter, F., Bialek, J. M. & McCarthy, R. J. (2015). Reliability and validity of assessing subspecialty level of faculty anesthesiologists' supervision of anesthesiology residents. Anesth Analg, 120(1), 209-213. PMID: 25268396.

Dexter, F., Masursky, D. & Hindman, B. J. (2015). Reliability and validity of the anesthesiologist supervision instrument when certified registered nurse anesthetists provide scores. Anesth Analg, 120(1), 214-219. PMID: 25625263.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F., Lopez, M. G. & Ehrenfeld, J. M. (2014). Anesthesiologist staffing considerations consequent to the temporal distribution of hypoxemic episodes in the postanesthesia care unit. Anesth Analg, 119(6), 1322-1333. PMID: 25185590.

Shafer, S. L., Dexter, F. & Brull, S. J. (2014). Deadly heat: economics of continuous temperature monitoring during general anesthesia. (Vols. 119). (6), pp. 1235-1237. Anesth Analg. PMID: 25405681.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E. (2014). Ophthalmologic surgery is unique in operating room management. (Vols. 119). (6), pp. 1243-1245. Anesth Analg. PMID: 25405684.

Dexter, F., Ledolter, J., Smith, T. C., Griffiths, D. & Hindman, B. J. (2014). Influence of provider type (nurse anesthetist or resident physician), staff assignments, and other covariates on daily evaluations of anesthesiologists' quality of supervision. Anesth Analg, 119(3), 670-678. PMID: 24978083.

Dexter, F., Ledolter, J. & Hindman, B. J. (2014). Bernoulli Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) control charts for monitoring of anesthesiologists' performance in supervising anesthesia residents and nurse anesthetists. Anesth Analg, 119(3), 679-685. PMID: 25137002.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E. (2014). Scheduling for anesthesia at geographic locations remote from the operating room. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol, 27(4), 426-430. PMID: 24785118.

Dexter, F. (2014). High-quality operating room management research. (Vols. 26). (5), pp. 341-342. J Clin Anesth. PMID: 25086484.

Dexter, F., O'Neill, L. (2014). Observed/expected ratio analysis for hospital surgical efficiency instead of data envelopment analysis. (Vols. 20). (3), pp. 294. J Eval Clin Pract. PMID: 24423051.

Dexter, F. (2014). Use of the Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale. (Vols. 82). (3), pp. 175. AANA J. PMID: 25109152.

Dexter, F., Maxbauer, T., Stout, C., Archbold, L. & Epstein, R. H. (2014). Relative influence on total cancelled operating room time from patients who are inpatients or outpatients preoperatively. Anesth Analg, 118(5), 1072-1080. PMID: 24722257.

Crosby, G., Culley, D. J. & Dexter, F. (2014). Cognitive outcome of surgery: is there no place like home?. (Vols. 118). (5), pp. 898-900. Anesth Analg. PMID: 24781557.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E. (2014). Strategies for net cost reductions with the expanded role and expertise of anesthesiologists in the perioperative surgical home. Anesth Analg, 118(5), 1062-1071. PMID: 24781575.

Dexter, F. (2014). Use of the Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale in Portuguese. (Vols. 77). (2), pp. 132. Arq Bras Oftalmol. PMID: 25076482.

Dexter, F. (2014). Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale for general anaesthesia. (Vols. 31). (1), pp. 62. Eur J Anaesthesiol. PMID: 24225727.

Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F. (2014). Anesthesia scholarship, research, and publication. (Vols. 118). (1), pp. 15-17. Anesth Analg. PMID: 24356156.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2014). Applying systematic criteria for type and screen based on procedure's probability of erythrocyte transfusion. (Vols. 120). (1), pp. 241. Anesthesiology. PMID: 24398741.

Ehrenfeld, J. M., Dexter, F., Rothman, B. S., Minton, B. S., Johnson, D., Sandberg, W. S. & Epstein, R. H. (2013). Lack of utility of a decision support system to mitigate delays in admission from the operating room to the postanesthesia care unit. Anesth Analg, 117(6), 1444-1452. PMID: 24257394.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2013). Increased mean time from end of surgery to operating room exit in a historical cohort of cases with prolonged time to extubation. Anesth Analg, 117(6), 1453-1459. PMID: 24257395.

Wachtel, R. E., Dexter, F. (2013). Difficulties and challenges associated with literature searches in operating room management, complete with recommendations. Anesth Analg, 117(6), 1460-1479. PMID: 24257396.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. & Brull, S. J. (2013). Cohort study of cases with prolonged tracheal extubation times to examine the relationship with duration of workday. Can J Anaesth, 60(11), 1070-1076. PMID: 24037748.

Prahl, A., Dexter, F., Braun, M. T. & Van Swol, L. (2013). Review of experimental studies in social psychology of small groups when an optimal choice exists and application to operating room management decision-making. Anesth Analg, 117(5), 1221-1229. PMID: 24108254.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. (2013). Rescheduling of previously cancelled surgical cases does not increase variability in operating room workload when cases are scheduled based on maximizing efficiency of use of operating room time. Anesth Analg, 117(4), 995-1002. PMID: 24023019.

Ehrenfeld, J. M., Dexter, F., Rothman, B. S., Johnson, A. M. & Epstein, R. H. (2013). Case cancellation rates measured by surgical service differ whether based on the number of cases or the number of minutes cancelled. Anesth Analg, 117(3), 711-716. PMID: 23921653.

Dexter, F. (2013). Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test used for data that are not normally distributed. (Vols. 117). (3), pp. 537-538. Anesth Analg. PMID: 23966647.

Rothman, B. S., Dexter, F. & Epstein, R. H. (2013). Communication latencies of Apple push notification messages relevant for delivery of time-critical information to anesthesia providers. Anesth Analg, 117(2), 398-404. PMID: 23757478.

Tiwari, V., Dexter, F., Rothman, B. S., Ehrenfeld, J. M. & Epstein, R. H. (2013). Explanation for the near-constant mean time remaining in surgical cases exceeding their estimated duration, necessary for appropriate display on electronic white boards. Anesth Analg, 117(2), 487-493. PMID: 23780422.

Dexter, F., Ledolter, J., Tiwari, V. & Epstein, R. H. (2013). Value of a scheduled duration quantified in terms of equivalent numbers of historical cases. Anesth Analg, 117(1), 205-210. PMID: 23733843.

Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F. & Todd, M. M. (2013). Research, education, and nonclinical service productivity of new junior anesthesia faculty during a 2-year faculty development program. Anesth Analg, 117(1), 194-204. PMID: 23733844.

Dexter, F., Logvinov, I. I. & Brull, S. J. (2013). Anesthesiology residents' and nurse anesthetists' perceptions of effective clinical faculty supervision by anesthesiologists. Anesth Analg, 116(6), 1352-1355. PMID: 23477961.

Wang, J., Dexter, F. & Yang, K. (2013). A behavioral study of daily mean turnover times and first case of the day start tardiness. Anesth Analg, 116(6), 1333-1341. PMID: 23492958.

Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F., Kreiter, C. D. & Wachtel, R. E. (2013). Determinants, associations, and psychometric properties of resident assessments of anesthesiologist operating room supervision. Anesth Analg, 116(6), 1342-1351. PMID: 23558839.

Stepaniak, P. S., Dexter, F. (2013). Monitoring anesthesiologists' and anesthesiology departments' managerial performance. (Vols. 116). (6), pp. 1198-1200. Anesth Analg. PMID: 23709072.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Bayman, E. O. & Ledolter, J. (2013). Estimating surgical case durations and making comparisons among facilities: identifying facilities with lower anesthesia professional fees. Anesth Analg, 116(5), 1103-1115. PMID: 23558844.

Dexter, F., Ahn, H. S. & Epstein, R. H. (2013). Choosing which practitioner sees the next patient in the preanesthesia evaluation clinic based on the relative speeds of the practitioner. Anesth Analg, 116(4), 919-923. PMID: 23354335.

Smallman, B., Dexter, F., Masursky, D., Li, F., Gorji, R., George, D. & Epstein, R. H. (2013). Role of communication systems in coordinating supervising anesthesiologists' activities outside of operating rooms. Anesth Analg, 116(4), 898-903. PMID: 23385055.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. & Rothman, B. (2013). Communication latencies of wireless devices suitable for time-critical messaging to anesthesia providers. Anesth Analg, 116(4), 911-918. PMID: 23385056.

Dexter, F. (2013). Case scenario consistent with lack of knowledge and psychological bias. (Vols. 118). (4), pp. 990-991. Anesthesiology. PMID: 23511531.

de Oliveira Filho, G. R., Dexter, F. (2013). Interpretation of the association between frequency of self-reported medical errors and faculty supervision of anesthesiology residents. (Vols. 116). (4), pp. 752-753. Anesth Analg. PMID: 23519625.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Wachtel, R. E. & Rosenberg, H. (2013). Estimate of the relative risk of succinylcholine for triggering malignant hyperthermia. Anesth Analg, 116(1), 118-122. PMID: 23223104.

Schwenk, E. S., Dexter, F. & Epstein, R. H. (2013). Comparing the cumulative pain patients experience waiting for joint arthroplasty versus postoperatively. Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research, 4(11). DOI: 10.4172/2155-6148.1000364.

Dexter, F. (2012). Behavioral interpretation of absence of Hawthorne effect for turnover times. (Vols. 215). (6), pp. 898-899; author reply 899. J Am Coll Surg. PMID: 23164145.

Dexter, F., Shi, P. & Epstein, R. H. (2012). Descriptive study of case scheduling and cancellations within 1 week of the day of surgery. Anesth Analg, 115(5), 1188-1195. PMID: 23011558.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. (2012). Implications of resolved hypoxemia on the utility of desaturation alerts sent from an anesthesia decision support system to supervising anesthesiologists. Anesth Analg, 115(4), 929-933. PMID: 22696609.

Dexter, F. (2012). Previous studies of statistical assessment of analgesic consumption. (Vols. 29). (10), pp. 495. Eur J Anaesthesiol. PMID: 22914043.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. (2012). Mediated interruptions of anaesthesia providers using predictions of workload from anaesthesia information management system data. Anaesth Intensive Care, 40(5), 803-812. PMID: 22934862.

Sulecki, L., Dexter, F., Zura, A., Saager, L. & Epstein, R. H. (2012). Lack of value of scheduling processes to move cases from a heavily used main campus to other facilities within a health care system. Anesth Analg, 115(2), 395-401. PMID: 22610848.

Masursky, D., Dexter, F., Kwakye, M. O. & Smallman, B. (2012). Measure to quantify the influence of time from end of surgery to tracheal extubation on operating room workflow. Anesth Analg, 115(2), 402-406. PMID: 22610849.

Wachtel, R. E., Dexter, F. (2012). Training rotations at hospitals as a recruitment tool for Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists. AANA J, 80(4 Suppl), S45-S48. PMID: 23248830.

Dexter, F. (2012). A brief history of evidence-based operating room management: then and now. (Vols. 115). (1), pp. 10-11. Anesth Analg. PMID: 22723206.

Dexter, F., Masursky, D., Ledolter, J., Wachtel, R. E. & Smallman, B. (2012). Monitoring changes in individual surgeon's workloads using anesthesia data. Can J Anaesth, 59(6), 571-577. PMID: 22431148.

Marian, A. A., Dexter, F., Tucker, P. & Todd, M. M. (2012). Comparison of alphabetical versus categorical display format for medication order entry in a simulated touch screen anesthesia information management system: an experiment in clinician-computer interaction in anesthesia. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, 12, 46. PMID: 22643058.

Shafer, S. L., Dexter, F. (2012). Publication bias, retrospective bias, and reproducibility of significant results in observational studies. (Vols. 114). (5), pp. 931-932. Anesth Analg. PMID: 22523409.

Dexter, F. (2012). Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and outcome. (Vols. 26). (2), pp. e19; author reply e19-20. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. PMID: 22285125.

Dexter, F., Ledolter, J., Davis, E., Witkowski, T. A., Herman, J. H. & Epstein, R. H. (2012). Systematic criteria for type and screen based on procedure's probability of erythrocyte transfusion. Anesthesiology, 116(4), 768-778. PMID: 22357345.

Dexter, F., Witkowski, T. A. & Epstein, R. H. (2012). Forecasting preanesthesia clinic appointment duration from the electronic medical record medication list. Anesth Analg, 114(3), 670-673. PMID: 22190552.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. (2012). Influence of supervision ratios by anesthesiologists on first-case starts and critical portions of anesthetics. Anesthesiology, 116(3), 683-691. PMID: 22297567.

Dexter, F. (2012). Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale. (Vols. 62). (3), pp. 297. Korean J Anesthesiol. PMID: 22474563.

Dexter, F. (2012). Hours of cases to schedule to rarely have overrun. (Vols. 29). (2), pp. 108; author reply 108-109. Eur J Anaesthesiol. PMID: 22123650.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2012). Chapter 6: Influence of staffing and scheduling on operating room productivity. In A. D. Kaye , C. J. Fox III , R. D. Urman (Eds.) Operating Room Leadership and Management. pp. 46-66. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139084277.008.

He, B., Dexter, F., Macario, A. & Zenios, S. (2012). The timing of staffing decisions in hospital operating rooms: incorporating workload heterogeneity into the newsvendor problem. M&SOM-Manuf Serv Op, 14(1), 99-114. DOI: 10.1287/msom.1110.0350.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2012). In reply. (Vols. 117). (2), pp. 438-441. Anesthesiology.

Dexter, F., Marco, A. P. (2011). Rationale for anesthesia groups to run additional flexible operating rooms for multiple surgeons who have scheduled more than 8 hours of cases. (Vols. 113). (6), pp. 1295-1297. Anesth Analg. PMID: 22116966.

Dexter, F. (2011). Forecasting the economic benefit of reducing non-operative time. (Vols. 58). (11), pp. 1055-1056; author reply 1056-1057. Can J Anaesth. PMID: 21887600.

Dexter, F. (2011). Korean translation and use of the Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale. (Vols. 23). (7), pp. 596. J Clin Anesth. PMID: 22050815.

Ledolter, J., Dexter, F. & Epstein, R. H. (2011). Analysis of variance of communication latencies in anesthesia: comparing means of multiple log-normal distributions. Anesth Analg, 113(4), 888-896. PMID: 21862598.

Corda, D. M., Dexter, F., Pasternak, J. J., Trentman, T. L., Nottmeier, E. W. & Brull, S. J. (2011). Patients' perspective on full disclosure and informed consent regarding postoperative visual loss associated with spinal surgery in the prone position. Mayo Clin Proc, 86(9), 865-868. PMID: 21878598.

Dexter, F., Candiotti, K. A. (2011). Multicenter assessment of the Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale, an instrument that measures patient satisfaction with monitored anesthesia care. Anesth Analg, 113(2), 364-368. PMID: 21519043.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. (2011). Mean arterial pressures bracketing prolonged monitoring interruptions have negligible systematic differences from matched controls without such gaps. Anesth Analg, 113(2), 267-271. PMID: 21519059.

Wachtel, R. E., Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. & Ledolter, J. (2011). Meta-analysis of desflurane and propofol average times and variability in times to extubation and following commands. Can J Anaesth, 58(8), 714-724. PMID: 21630118.

Dexter, F. (2011). Checklist for statistical topics in Anesthesia & Analgesia reviews. (Vols. 113). (2), pp. 216-219. Anesth Analg. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182204e95.

Scurlock, C., Dexter, F., Reich, D. L. & Galati, M. (2011). Needs assessment for business strategies of anesthesiology groups' practices. Anesth Analg, 113(1), 170-174. PMID: 21490085.

Bayman, E. O., Dexter, F., Laur, J. J. & Wachtel, R. E. (2011). National incidence of use of monitored anesthesia care. Anesth Analg, 113(1), 165-169. PMID: 21596866.

Dexter, F., Masursky, D. (2011). Psychological biases and their impact on operating room efficiency. (Vols. 23). (3), pp. 219; author reply 220-221. Int J Qual Health Care. PMID: 21540250.

Dexter, F., Maguire, D. & Epstein, R. H. (2011). Observational study of anaesthetists' fresh gas flow rates during anaesthesia with desflurane, isoflurane and sevoflurane. Anaesth Intensive Care, 39(3), 460-464. PMID: 21675067.

Ledolter, J., Dexter, F. (2011). Analysis of interventions influencing or reducing patient waiting while stratifying by surgical procedure. Anesth Analg, 112(4), 950-957. PMID: 21385983.

Masursky, D., Dexter, F., Isaacson, S. A. & Nussmeier, N. A. (2011). Surgeons' and anesthesiologists' perceptions of turnover times. Anesth Analg, 112(2), 440-444. PMID: 21212255.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E. & Epstein, R. H. (2011). Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, 11, 2. PMID: 21214905.

Katz, R. I., Dexter, F., Rosenfeld, K., Wolfe, L., Redmond, V., Agarwal, D., Salik, I., Goldsteen, K., Goodman, M. & Glass, P. S. (2011). Survey study of anesthesiologists' and surgeons' ordering of unnecessary preoperative laboratory tests. Anesth Analg, 112(1), 207-212. PMID: 21081771.

Archbold, L., Dexter, F. (2011). Balancing cost-cutting and safety in the OR. OR Nurse, 5(1), 5-7.

Katz, R. I., Rosenfeld, K., Glass, P. S. & Dexter, F. (2011). In response. (Vols. 113). (2), pp. 431-432. Anesth Analg. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e31822201fa.

Wachtel, R. E., Dexter, F. (2010). Curriculum providing cognitive knowledge and problem-solving skills for anesthesia systems-based practice. J Grad Med Educ, 2(4), 624-632. PMID: 22132289.

Birnbach, D. J., Bucklin, B. A. & Dexter, F. (2010). Impact of anesthesiologists on the incidence of vaginal birth after cesarean in the United States: role of anesthesia availability, productivity, guidelines, and patient safety. Semin Perinatol, 34(5), 318-324. PMID: 20869547.

Sun, E., Dexter, F. & Macario, A. (2010). Can an acute pain service be cost-effective?. (Vols. 111). (4), pp. 841-844. Anesth Analg. PMID: 20870982.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E. (2010). Fasting guidelines need to consider that cases may start earlier than scheduled. (Vols. 54). (9), pp. 1153; author reply 1153-1154. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. PMID: 20887419.

Tung, A., Dexter, F., Jakubczyk, S. & Glick, D. B. (2010). The limited value of sequencing cases based on their probability of cancellation. Anesth Analg, 111(3), 749-756. PMID: 20581163.

Dexter, F., O'Neill, L. (2010). Previous research in operating room scheduling and staffing. (Vols. 13). (3), pp. 280. Health Care Manag Sci. PMID: 20715310.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E., Epstein, R. H., Ledolter, J. & Todd, M. M. (2010). Analysis of operating room allocations to optimize scheduling of specialty rotations for anesthesia trainees. Anesth Analg, 111(2), 520-524. PMID: 20584873.

Ledolter, J., Dexter, F. & Wachtel, R. E. (2010). Control chart monitoring of the numbers of cases waiting when anesthesiologists do not bring in members of call team. Anesth Analg, 111(1), 196-203. PMID: 20142357.

Wachtel, R. E., Dexter, F. (2010). Review article: review of behavioral operations experimental studies of newsvendor problems for operating room management. Anesth Analg, 110(6), 1698-1710. PMID: 20448077.

Agoliati, A., Dexter, F., Lok, J., Masursky, D., Sarwar, M. F., Stuart, S. B., Bayman, E. O. & Epstein, R. H. (2010). Meta-analysis of average and variability of time to extubation comparing isoflurane with desflurane or isoflurane with sevoflurane. Anesth Analg, 110(5), 1433-1439. PMID: 20418303.

Wachtel, R. E., Dexter, F., Barry, B. & Applegeet, C. (2010). Use of state discharge abstract data to identify hospitals performing similar types of operative procedures. Anesth Analg, 110(4), 1146-1154. PMID: 20142355.

Dexter, E. U., Dexter, F., Masursky, D. & Kasprowicz, K. A. (2010). Prospective trial of thoracic and spine surgeons' updating of their estimated case durations at the start of cases. Anesth Analg, 110(4), 1164-1168. PMID: 20145282.

Smallman, B., Dexter, F. (2010). Optimizing the arrival, waiting, and NPO times of children on the day of pediatric endoscopy procedures. Anesth Analg, 110(3), 879-887. PMID: 20185664.

Dexter, F., Bayman, E. O. & Epstein, R. H. (2010). Statistical modeling of average and variability of time to extubation for meta-analysis comparing desflurane to sevoflurane. Anesth Analg, 110(2), 570-580. PMID: 19820242.

Wachtel, R. E., Dexter, F. (2010). Numerous studies have considered opportunity costs of operating time. (Vols. 147). (1), pp. 172. Surgery. PMID: 19863984.

Dexter, F. (2010). Is time on first-case starts well spent?. OR Manager, 26(1), 22-24. PMID: 20088332.

Dexter, F., Masursky, D., Wachtel, R. E. & Nussmeier, N. A. (2010). Application of an online reference for reviewing basic statistical principles of operating room management. J Stat Educ, 18(3). DOI: 10.1080/10691898.2010.11889588.

O'Neill, L., Dexter, F. & Wachtel, R. E. (2009). Should anesthesia groups advocate funding of clinics and scheduling systems to increase operating room workload?. Anesthesiology, 111(5), 1016-1024. PMID: 19809289.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Elgart, R. L. & Ledolter, J. (2009). Forecasting and perception of average and latest hours worked by on-call anesthesiologists. Anesth Analg, 109(4), 1246-1252. PMID: 19762754.

Dexter, F., Marcon, E., Aker, J. & Epstein, R. H. (2009). Numbers of simultaneous turnovers calculated from anesthesia or operating room information management system data. Anesth Analg, 109(3), 900-905. PMID: 19690265.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E. (2009). Analysing day-of-surgery cancellation rates. (Vols. 37). (5), pp. 858; author reply 858-859. Anaesth Intensive Care. PMID: 19775057.

Wachtel, R. E., Dexter, F. (2009). Influence of the operating room schedule on tardiness from scheduled start times. Anesth Analg, 108(6), 1889-1901. PMID: 19448219.

Wachtel, R. E., Dexter, F. (2009). Reducing tardiness from scheduled start times by making adjustments to the operating room schedule. Anesth Analg, 108(6), 1902-1909. PMID: 19448220.

Pandit, J. J., Dexter, F. (2009). Lack of sensitivity of staffing for 8-hour sessions to standard deviation in daily actual hours of operating room time used for surgeons with long queues. Anesth Analg, 108(6), 1910-1915. PMID: 19448221.

Dexter, F., Marcon, E. & Xie, X. (2009). Operational research applied to health services 2007 special issue. Health Care Manag Sci, 12(2), 117-118. PMID: 19469450.

Wachtel, R. E., Dexter, F. & Dow, A. J. (2009). Growth rates in pediatric diagnostic imaging and sedation. Anesth Analg, 108(5), 1616-1621. PMID: 19372345.

Masursky, D., Dexter, F., Garver, M. P. & Nussmeier, N. A. (2009). Incentive payments to academic anesthesiologists for late afternoon work did not influence turnover times. Anesth Analg, 108(5), 1622-1626. PMID: 19372346.

Wachtel, R. E., Dexter, F. (2009). Reducing surgical patient fasting times. (Vols. 89). (5), pp. 830-831. AORN J. PMID: 19422941.

Dexter, E. U., Dexter, F., Masursky, D., Garver, M. P. & Nussmeier, N. A. (2009). Both bias and lack of knowledge influence organizational focus on first case of the day starts. Anesth Analg, 108(4), 1257-61. PMID: 19299797.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2009). Typical savings from each minute reduction in tardy first case of the day starts. Anesth Analg, 108(4), 1262-1267. PMID: 19299798.

Rosen, A. C., Dexter, F. (2009). Lessons from evidence-based operating room management in balancing the needs for efficient, effective and ethical healthcare. (Vols. 9). (4), pp. 43-44. Am J Bioeth. PMID: 19326313.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Lee, J. D. & Ledolter, J. (2009). Automatic updating of times remaining in surgical cases using bayesian analysis of historical case duration data and "instant messaging" updates from anesthesia providers. Anesth Analg, 108(3), 929-940. PMID: 19224806.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F., Ehrenfeld, J. M. & Sandberg, W. S. (2009). Implications of event entry latency on anesthesia information management decision support systems. Anesth Analg, 108(3), 941-947. PMID: 19224807.

Dexter, F., Birchansky, L., Bernstein, J. M. & Wachtel, R. E. (2009). Case scheduling preferences of one Surgeon's cataract surgery patients. Anesth Analg, 108(2), 579-582. PMID: 19151291.

Armon, B. D., Dexter, F. (2009). Legal issues of business arrangements between ambulatory surgery suites and anesthesia groups. Outpatient Surgery Magazine, 10(10), 17-20.

Dexter, F. (2009). Chapter 23: Personal predictions of analytical tools that will become increasingly useful for studies of managerial applications in surgical services. In M. Lubicz (Eds.) Operational Research in Action. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Health Solutions.

Macario, A., Dexter, F., Sypal, J., Cosgriff, N. & Heniford, B. T. (2008). Operative time and other outcomes of the electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing system (LigaSure) versus other methods for surgical hemostasis: a meta-analysis. Surg Innov, 15(4), 284-291. PMID: 18945705.

Dexter, F., O'Neill, L., Xin, L. & Ledolter, J. (2008). Sensitivity of super-efficient data envelopment analysis results to individual decision-making units: an example of surgical workload by specialty. Health Care Manag Sci, 11(4), 307-318. PMID: 18998591.

Masursky, D., Dexter, F. & Nussmeier, N. A. (2008). Operating room nursing directors' influence on anesthesia group operating room productivity. Anesth Analg, 107(6), 1989-1996. PMID: 19020150.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. & Piotrowski, E. (2008). Automated correction of room location errors in anesthesia information management systems. Anesth Analg, 107(3), 965-971. PMID: 18713915.

Masursky, D., Dexter, F., O'Leary, C. E., Applegeet, C. & Nussmeier, N. A. (2008). Long-term forecasting of anesthesia workload in operating rooms from changes in a hospital's local population can be inaccurate. Anesth Analg, 106(4), 1223-1231, table of contents. PMID: 18349198.

Dexter, F., Dexter, E. U., Masursky, D. & Nussmeier, N. A. (2008). Systematic review of general thoracic surgery articles to identify predictors of operating room case durations. Anesth Analg, 106(4), 1232-1241, table of contents. PMID: 18349199.

Dexter, F. (2008). Quotation from article about anesthesia providers' activities during ophthalmology cases. (Vols. 108). (4), pp. 762. Anesthesiology. PMID: 18362613.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2008). Calculating institutional support that benefits both the anesthesia group and hospital. Anesth Analg, 106(2), 544-553, table of contents. PMID: 18227315.

Xiao, Y., Dexter, F., Hu, P. & Dutton, R. P. (2008). The use of distributed displays of operating room video when real-time occupancy status was available. Anesth Analg, 106(2), 554-560, table of contents. PMID: 18227316.

Masursky, D., Dexter, F., McCartney, C. J., Isaacson, S. A. & Nussmeier, N. A. (2008). Predicting orthopedic surgeons' preferences for peripheral nerve blocks for their patients. Anesth Analg, 106(2), 561-567, table of contents. PMID: 18227317.

Dexter, F., Abouleish, A. E. (2008). Chapter 97: The economics of health care and anesthesia practice. In D. E. Longnecker , D. L. Brown , M. F. Newman , W. M. Zapol (Eds.) Anesthesiology. (1), pp. 2155-2171. McGraw-Hill Professional.

Wachtel, R. E., Dexter, F. (2008). Tactical increases in operating room block time for capacity planning should not be based on utilization. Anesth Analg, 106(1), 215-226, table of contents. PMID: 18165581.

Dexter, F. (2008). Staffing your PACU for peak periods. Outpatient Surgery Magazine, 9, 77-78.

Dexter, F., Meskens, N. (2008). Special issue: healthcare systems. J Oper Logist, 2.

Dexter, F., Meskins, N. (2008). Industrial Engineering and Production Management (IEPM) Special Issue: Healthcare Systems. (Vols. 2). (2) J Oper Logist.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E., Epstein, R. H., McIntosh, C. & O'Neill, L. (2007). Allocative efficiency vs technical efficiency in operating room management. (Vols. 62). (12), pp. 1290-1291; author reply 1291-1292. Anaesthesia. PMID: 17991269.

Dexter, F., Xiao, Y., Dow, A. J., Strader, M. M., Ho, D. & Wachtel, R. E. (2007). Coordination of appointments for anesthesia care outside of operating rooms using an enterprise-wide scheduling system. Anesth Analg, 105(6), 1701-1710, table of contents. PMID: 18042870.

LeGrand, S. A., Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F., Weeks, J. B. & Todd, M. M. (2007). Craniocervical motion during direct laryngoscopy and orotracheal intubation with the Macintosh and Miller blades: an in vivo cinefluoroscopic study. Anesthesiology, 107(6), 884-891. PMID: 18043056.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E. (2007). Patient waiting time matters when filling a pod of operating rooms. (Vols. 142). (11), pp. 1114; author reply 1114. Chicago, IL: Arch Surg. PMID: 18025347.

Dexter, F. (2007). Detecting diversion of anesthetic drugs by providers. (Vols. 105). (4), pp. 897-898. Anesth Analg. PMID: 17898362.

Dexter, F. (2007). Why calculating PACU staffing is so hard and why/how operations research specialists can help. J Perianesth Nurs, 22(5), 357-359. PMID: 17982803.

LeGrand, S. A., Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F., Moss, L. G. & Todd, M. M. (2007). Reliability of a telephone-based Glasgow Outcome Scale assessment using a structured interview in a heterogenous population of patients and examiners. J Neurotrauma, 24(9), 1437-1446. PMID: 17892406.

Dexter, F., Willemsen-Dunlap, A. & Lee, J. D. (2007). Operating room managerial decision-making on the day of surgery with and without computer recommendations and status displays. Anesth Analg, 105(2), 419-429. PMID: 17646500.

Dexter, F., Lee, J. D., Dow, A. J. & Lubarsky, D. A. (2007). A psychological basis for anesthesiologists' operating room managerial decision-making on the day of surgery. Anesth Analg, 105(2), 430-434. PMID: 17646501.

Dexter, F. (2007). Measuring the frequency of delays in admission into the PACU. J Perianesth Nurs, 22(4), 293-294. PMID: 17666302.

Marcon, E., Dexter, F. (2007). An observational study of surgeons' sequencing of cases and its impact on postanesthesia care unit and holding area staffing requirements at hospitals. Anesth Analg, 105(1), 119-126. PMID: 17578967.

Wachtel, R. E., Dexter, F. (2007). A simple method for deciding when patients should be ready on the day of surgery without procedure-specific data. Anesth Analg, 105(1), 127-140. PMID: 17578968.

Dexter, F. (2007). Bed management displays to optimize patient flow from the OR to the PACU. J Perianesth Nurs, 22(3), 218-219. PMID: 17543807.

Wachtel, R. E., Dexter, E. U. & Dexter, F. (2007). Application of a similarity index to state discharge abstract data to identify opportunities for growth of surgical and anesthesia practices. Anesth Analg, 104(5), 1157-1170, tables of contents. PMID: 17456668.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. & Ledolter, J. (2007). Identification of systematic underestimation (bias) of case durations during case scheduling would not markedly reduce overutilized operating room time. J Clin Anesth, 19(3), 198-203. PMID: 17531728.

Dexter, F. (2007). Reductions in non-operative times, not increases in operating room efficiency. (Vols. 141). (4), pp. 544-545. Surgery. PMID: 17383535.

O'Neill, L., Dexter, F. (2007). Tactical increases in operating room block time based on financial data and market growth estimates from data envelopment analysis. Anesth Analg, 104(2), 355-368. PMID: 17242093.

Dexter, F. (2007). Prior work using meta-analyses of operative times between regional and general anesthesia. (Vols. 104). (2), pp. 458-459; author reply 459. Anesth Analg. PMID: 17242118.

Dexter, F. (2007). Impact on operating room efficiency of reducing turnover times and anesthesia-controlled times. (Vols. 245). (2), pp. 336-337. Ann Surg. PMID: 17245192.

O'Sullivan, C. T., Dexter, F., Lubarsky, D. A. & Vigoda, M. M. (2007). Evidence-based management assessment of return on investment from anesthesia information management systems. AANA J, 75(1), 43-48. PMID: 17304783.

Dexter, F. (2007). Where's the carrot to reduce OR turnover time? Planning service-specific staffing and scheduling cases to create a financial incentive for turnover time reduction. Contemporary Surgery, 63, 132-134.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2006). Holiday and weekend operating room on-call staffing requirements. Anesth Analg, 103(6), 1494-1498. PMID: 17122230.

McIntosh, C., Dexter, F. & Epstein, R. H. (2006). The impact of service-specific staffing, case scheduling, turnovers, and first-case starts on anesthesia group and operating room productivity: a tutorial using data from an Australian hospital. Anesth Analg, 103(6), 1499-1516. PMID: 17122231.

Dexter, F. (2006). Prior research in measuring financial differences among surgical specialties and using such differences in decision making. (Vols. 244). (5), pp. 833. Ann Surg. PMID: 17060780.

Dexter, F., Weih, L. S., Gustafson, R. K., Stegura, L. F., Oldenkamp, M. J. & Wachtel, R. E. (2006). Observational study of operating room times for knee and hip replacement surgery at nine U.S. community hospitals. Health Care Manag Sci, 9(4), 325-339. PMID: 17186768.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E. (2006). Economic, educational, and policy perspectives on the preincision operating room period. (Vols. 103). (4), pp. 919-921. Anesth Analg. PMID: 17000804.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E. & Epstein, R. H. (2006). Impact of average patient acuity on staffing of the phase I PACU. J Perianesth Nurs, 21(5), 303-310. PMID: 17027439.

Dexter, F. (2006). When should you stop scheduling elective cases?. Outpatient Surgery Magazine, 7(10), 34-35.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E. (2006). Should evaluation of surgeons based on total hospital costs have considered operating room times?. (Vols. 203). (3), pp. 400; author reply 400-2. J Am Coll Surg. PMID: 16931315.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. & Cowen, D. S. (2006). Staffing and case scheduling for anesthesia in geographically dispersed locations outside of operating rooms. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol, 19(4), 453-458. PMID: 16829731.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E. (2006). How late do your cases start? Here's how to accurately measure delays in your schedule. Outpatient Surgery Magazine, 22-23.

O'Sullivan, C. T., Dexter, F. (2006). Assigning surgical cases with regional anesthetic blocks to anesthetists and operating rooms based on operating room efficiency. AANA J, 74(3), 213-218. PMID: 16786915.

Dexter, F., Yue, J. C. & Dow, A. J. (2006). Predicting anesthesia times for diagnostic and interventional radiological procedures. Anesth Analg, 102(5), 1491-1500. PMID: 16632832.

Dexter, F. (2006). A researcher responds to block FAQs. OR Manager, 22(5), 16-17. PMID: 16722475.

Macario, A., Chow, J. L. & Dexter, F. (2006). A Markov computer simulation model of the economics of neuromuscular blockade in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, 6, 15. PMID: 16539706.

Marcon, E., Dexter, F. (2006). Impact of surgical sequencing on post anesthesia care unit staffing. Health Care Manag Sci, 9(1), 87-98. PMID: 16613019.

Dexter, F., Davis, M., Egger Halbeis, C. B., Marjamaa, R., Marty, J., McIntosh, C., Nakata, Y., Thenuwara, K. N., Sawa, T. & Vigoda, M. (2006). Mean operating room times differ by 50% among hospitals in different countries for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and lung lobectomy. J Anesth, 20(4), 319-322. PMID: 17072700.

Dexter, F. (2006). In reply. (Vols. 104). pp. 1342. Anesthesiology.

Dexter, F. (2006). Monitoring cancellation rates on day of surgery. OR Manager, 21(12), 26.

Xiao, Y., Wasei, M., Hu, P., Wieringa, P. & Dexter, F. (2006). Dynamic management of perioperative processes: a paradigm through modeling and visualization. IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 39(3), 647-652. DOI: 10.3182/20060517-3-FR-2903.00330.

Dexter, F., Marcon, E. & Epstein, R. H. (2006). Monitoring waiting times (mean tardiness) on the day of elective surgery. IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 39(3), 683-688. DOI: 10.3182/20060517-3-FR-2903.00346.

Dexter, F., Ledolter, J. (2005). Bayesian prediction bounds and comparisons of operating room times even for procedures with few or no historic data. Anesthesiology, 103(6), 1259-1267. PMID: 16306741.

Dexter, F., Macario, A., Epstein, R. H. & Ledolter, J. (2005). Validity and usefulness of a method to monitor surgical services' average bias in scheduled case durations. Can J Anaesth, 52(9), 935-939. PMID: 16251558.

O'Neill, L., Dexter, F. (2005). Methods for understanding super-efficient data envelopment analysis results with an application to hospital inpatient surgery. Health Care Manag Sci, 8(4), 291-298. PMID: 16379412.

Xiao, Y., Hu, P., Hu, H., Ho, D., Dexter, F., Mackenzie, C. F., Seagull, F. J. & Dutton, R. P. (2005). An algorithm for processing vital sign monitoring data to remotely identify operating room occupancy in real-time. Anesth Analg, 101(3), 823-829, table of contents. PMID: 16115998.

Dexter, F., Marcon, E., Epstein, R. H. & Ledolter, J. (2005). Validation of statistical methods to compare cancellation rates on the day of surgery. Anesth Analg, 101(2), 465-473, table of contents. PMID: 16037163.

Dexter, F. (2005). Deciding whether your hospital can apply clinical trial results of strategies to increase productivity by reducing anesthesia and turnover times. (Vols. 103). (2), pp. 225-228. Anesthesiology. PMID: 16052103.

Wachtel, R. E., Dexter, F. & Lubarsky, D. A. (2005). Financial implications of a hospital's specialization in rare physiologically complex surgical procedures. Anesthesiology, 103(1), 161-167. PMID: 15983469.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Marcon, E. & Ledolter, J. (2005). Estimating the incidence of prolonged turnover times and delays by time of day. Anesthesiology, 102(6), 1242-1248; discussion 6A. PMID: 15915039.

Dexter, F., Ledolter, J. & Wachtel, R. E. (2005). Tactical decision making for selective expansion of operating room resources incorporating financial criteria and uncertainty in subspecialties' future workloads. Anesth Analg, 100(5), 1425-1432, table of contents. PMID: 15845700.

Dexter, F. (2005). Scheduling a delay between 2 surgeons. OR Manager, 21(5), 24. PMID: 15945475.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E., Sohn, M. W., Ledolter, J., Dexter, E. U. & Macario, A. (2005). Quantifying effect of a hospital's caseload for a surgical specialty on that of another hospital using multi-attribute market segments. Health Care Manag Sci, 8(2), 121-131. PMID: 15952609.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Marcon, E. & de Matta, R. (2005). Strategies to reduce delays in admission into a postanesthesia care unit from operating rooms. J Perianesth Nurs, 20(2), 92-102. PMID: 15806526.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2005). Operating room efficiency and scheduling. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol, 18(2), 195-198. PMID: 16534338.

Dexter, F. (2005). Drawing up a winning schedule. How to maximize OR efficiency and reduce patient waiting on the day of surgery. Outpatient Surgery Magazine, 38-47.

Dexter, F. (2005). How do we sequence urgent cases?. OR Manager, 21(3), 12, 14, 16. PMID: 15856672.

Kanter, R. K., Dexter, F. (2005). Criteria for identification of comprehensive pediatric hospitals and referral regions. J Pediatr, 146(1), 26-29. PMID: 15644817.

Freytag, S., Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Kugler, C. & Schnettler, R. (2005). [Allocating and scheduling operating room time]. Chirurg, 76(1), 71-79. PMID: 15657797.

Macario, A., Dexter, F. & Lubarsky, D. (2005). Meta-analysis of trials comparing postoperative recovery after anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane. Am J Health Syst Pharm, 62(1), 63-68. PMID: 15658074.

O'Neill, L., Dexter, F. (2005). Chapter 6: Evaluating the efficiency of hospitals' perioperative services using DEA. In M. L. Brandeau , F. Sainfort , W. P. Pierskalla (Eds.) Operations Research and Health Care. pp. 147-168. Boston, MA: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-8066-2_6.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Traub, R. D. & Xiao, Y. (2004). Making management decisions on the day of surgery based on operating room efficiency and patient waiting times. Anesthesiology, 101(6), 1444-1453. PMID: 15564954.

Dexter, F., O'Neill, L. (2004). Data envelopment analysis to determine by how much hospitals can increase elective inpatient surgical workload for each specialty. Anesth Analg, 99(5), 1492-1500; table of contents. PMID: 15502054.

O'Neill, L., Dexter, F. (2004). Market capture of inpatient perioperative services using DEA. Health Care Manag Sci, 7(4), 263-273. PMID: 15717811.

Dexter, F., Lubarsky, D. A. (2004). Using length of stay data from a hospital to evaluate whether limiting elective surgery at the hospital is an inappropriate decision. J Clin Anesth, 16(6), 421-425. PMID: 15567645.

Dexter, F., Brown, D. L. (2004). Financial disclosure. (Vols. 98). (6), pp. 1811. Anesth Analg. PMID: 15155357.

Wachtel, R. E., Dexter, F. (2004). Differentiating among hospitals performing physiologically complex operative procedures in the elderly. Anesthesiology, 100(6), 1552-1561. PMID: 15166578.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. (2004). When to release allocated operating room time to increase operating room efficiency. Anesth Analg, 98(3), 758-762, table of contents. PMID: 14980933.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Abouleish, A. E., Whitten, C. W. & Lubarsky, D. A. (2004). Impact of reducing turnover times on staffing costs. (Vols. 98). (3), pp. 872. Anesth Analg. PMID: 14980959.

Abouleish, A. E., Dexter, F., Whitten, C. W., Zavaleta, J. R. & Prough, D. S. (2004). Quantifying net staffing costs due to longer-than-average surgical case durations. Anesthesiology, 100(2), 403-412. PMID: 14739818.

Dexter, F. (2004). Adjusting afternoon staffing. OR Manager, 20(8), 11.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2004). Review of operational decision making before the day of surgery based on operating room efficiency. Journal Européen des Systèmes Automatisés, 38, 603-630.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2004). Practical application of research on operating room efficiency and utilization. In C. L. Lake , J. O. Johnson , T. M. McLoughlin (Eds.) Advances in Anesthesiology. pp. 29-49. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

Dexter, F. (2003). Operating room utilization: information management systems. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol, 16(6), 619-622. PMID: 17021519.

Dexter, F., Abouleish, A. E., Epstein, R. H., Whitten, C. W. & Lubarsky, D. A. (2003). Use of operating room information system data to predict the impact of reducing turnover times on staffing costs. Anesth Analg, 97(4), 1119-1126, table of contents. PMID: 14500168.

Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E. & Yue, J. C. (2003). Use of discharge abstract databases to differentiate among pediatric hospitals based on operative procedures: surgery in infants and young children in the state of Iowa. Anesthesiology, 99(2), 480-487. PMID: 12883423.

Dexter, F., Ledolter, J. (2003). Managing risk and expected financial return from selective expansion of operating room capacity: mean-variance analysis of a hospital's portfolio of surgeons. Anesth Analg, 97(1), 190-195, table of contents. PMID: 12818965.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2003). Scheduling of cases in an ambulatory center. Anesthesiol Clin North Am, 21(2), 387-402. PMID: 12812402.

Dexter, F., Macario, A., Traub, R. D. & Lubarsky, D. A. (2003). Operating room utilization alone is not an accurate metric for the allocation of operating room block time to individual surgeons with low caseloads. Anesthesiology, 98(5), 1243-1249. PMID: 12717148.

Dexter, F., Smith, T. C., Tatman, D. J. & Macario, A. (2003). Physicians' perceptions of minimum time that should be saved to move a surgical case from one operating room to another: internet-based survey of the membership of the Association of Anesthesia Clinical Directors (AACD). J Clin Anesth, 15(3), 206-210. PMID: 12770657.

Abouleish, A. E., Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H., Lubarsky, D. A., Whitten, C. W. & Prough, D. S. (2003). Labor costs incurred by anesthesiology groups because of operating rooms not being allocated and cases not being scheduled to maximize operating room efficiency. Anesth Analg, 96(4), 1109-1113, table of contents. PMID: 12651669.

Dexter, F., Murphy, M., Cline, R., Anderson, K., Ramsey, R. & Pankratz, B. (2003). How is block time reviewed and revised? Part 3. OR Manager, 19(4), 15-17, 20. PMID: 12723322.

Dexter, F., Murphy, M., Cline, R., Anderson, K., Ramsey, R. & Pankratz, B. (2003). What are best ways to handle block-time release?. OR Manager, 19(3), 18-19, 22. PMID: 12661501.

Dexter, F., Traub, R. D. & Macario, A. (2003). How to release allocated operating room time to increase efficiency: predicting which surgical service will have the most underutilized operating room time. Anesth Analg, 96(2), 507-512, table of contents. PMID: 12538204.

Dexter, F., Murphy, M., Cline, R., Anderson, K., Ramsey, R. & Pankratz, B. (2003). How can ORs best manage block time for scheduling surgical cases?. OR Manager, 19(2), 1, 21-24. PMID: 12661395.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. (2002). Uncertainty in knowing the operating rooms in which cases were performed has little effect on operating room allocations or efficiency. Anesth Analg, 95(6), 1726-1730, table of contents. PMID: 12456448.

Dexter, F. (2002). The five guiding principles of daily surgical scheduling. Outpatient Surgery Magazine, 3(12), 52-54.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. & Marsh, H. M. (2002). Costs and risks of weekend anesthesia staffing at 6 independently managed surgical suites. AANA J, 70(5), 377-381. PMID: 12425127.

Bell, E. A., Jones, B. P., Olufolabi, A. J., Dexter, F., Phillips-Bute, B., Greengrass, R. A., Penning, D. H. & Reynolds, J. D. (2002). Iliohypogastric-ilioinguinal peripheral nerve block for post-Cesarean delivery analgesia decreases morphine use but not opioid-related side effects. Can J Anaesth, 49(7), 694-700. PMID: 12193488.

Dexter, F., Macario, A., Penning, D. H. & Chung, P. (2002). Development of an appropriate list of surgical procedures of a specified maximum anesthetic complexity to be performed at a new ambulatory surgery facility. Anesth Analg, 95(1), 78-82, table of contents. PMID: 12088947.

Dexter, F., Lubarsky, D. A. & Blake, J. T. (2002). Sampling error can significantly affect measured hospital financial performance of surgeons and resulting operating room time allocations. Anesth Analg, 95(1), 184-188, table of contents. PMID: 12088965.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. (2002). Changing allocations of operating room time from a system based on historical utilization to one where the aim is to schedule as many surgical cases as possible. Anesth Analg, 94(5), 1272-1279, table of contents. PMID: 11973204.

Dexter, F., Traub, R. D., Fleisher, L. A. & Rock, P. (2002). What sample sizes are required for pooling surgical case durations among facilities to decrease the incidence of procedures with little historical data?. Anesthesiology, 96(5), 1230-1236. PMID: 11981165.

Dexter, F., Traub, R. D. (2002). How to schedule elective surgical cases into specific operating rooms to maximize the efficiency of use of operating room time. Anesth Analg, 94(4), 933-942, table of contents. PMID: 11916800.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. & Traub, R. D. (2002). Statistical power analysis to estimate how many months of data are required to identify PACU staffing to minimize delays in admission from ORs. J Perianesth Nurs, 17(2), 84-88. PMID: 11925580.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. (2002). Statistical power analysis to estimate how many months of data are required to identify operating room staffing solutions to reduce labor costs and increase productivity. Anesth Analg, 94(3), 640-643; table of contents. PMID: 11867389.

Dexter, F., Blake, J. T., Penning, D. H., Sloan, B., Chung, P. & Lubarsky, D. A. (2002). Use of linear programming to estimate impact of changes in a hospital's operating room time allocation on perioperative variable costs. Anesthesiology, 96(3), 718-724. PMID: 11873050.

Dexter, F., Blake, J. T., Penning, D. H. & Lubarsky, D. A. (2002). Calculating a potential increase in hospital margin for elective surgery by changing operating room time allocations or increasing nursing staffing to permit completion of more cases: a case study. Anesth Analg, 94(1), 138-142, table of contents. PMID: 11772816.

Blake, J. T., Dexter, F. & Donald, J. (2002). Operating room managers' use of integer programming for assigning block time to surgical groups: a case study. Anesth Analg, 94(1), 143-148, table of contents. PMID: 11772817.

Macario, A., Dexter, F. (2002). What are the most important risk factors for a patient's developing intraoperative hypothermia?. Anesth Analg, 94(1), 215-220, table of contents. PMID: 11772832.

Macario, A., Dexter, F. (2002). Is noncontact normothermic wound therapy cost effective for the treatment of stages 3 and 4 pressure ulcers?. Wounds, 14, 93-106.

Dexter, F. (2002). Chapter 7: Cost implications of various operating room scheduling strategies. In A. J. Schwartz , M. J. Matjasko , C. W. Otto (Eds.) Refresher Courses in Anesthesiology. (1), pp. 87-95. DOI: 10.1097/00126869-200230010-00008.

Hindman, B. J., Moore, S. A., Cutkomp, J., Smith, T. C., Ross-Barta, S. E., Dexter, F. & Brian, Jr, J. E. (2001). Brain expression of inducible cyclooxygenase 2 messenger RNA in rats undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesthesiology, 95(6), 1380-1388. PMID: 11748396.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. (2001). Reducing family members' anxiety while waiting on the day of surgery: systematic review of studies and implications of HIPAA health information privacy rules. J Clin Anesth, 13(7), 478-481. PMID: 11704443.

Dexter, F., O'Neill, L. (2001). Weekend operating room on call staffing requirements. AORN J, 74(5), 664-665, 668-671. PMID: 11725444.

Macario, A., Dexter, F. & Traub, R. D. (2001). Hospital profitability per hour of operating room time can vary among surgeons. Anesth Analg, 93(3), 669-675. PMID: 11524339.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. & Marsh, H. M. (2001). A statistical analysis of weekday operating room anesthesia group staffing costs at nine independently managed surgical suites. Anesth Analg, 92(6), 1493-1498. PMID: 11375832.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. & Lubarsky, D. A. (2001). The impact on revenue of increasing patient volume at surgical suites with relatively high operating room utilization. Anesth Analg, 92(5), 1215-1221. PMID: 11323349.

Dexter, F., Penning, D. H. & Traub, R. D. (2001). Statistical analysis by Monte-Carlo simulation of the impact of administrative and medical delays in discharge from the postanesthesia care unit on total patient care hours. Anesth Analg, 92(5), 1222-1225. PMID: 11323350.

Dexter, F., Traub, R. D. & Lebowitz, P. (2001). Scheduling a delay between different surgeons' cases in the same operating room on the same day using upper prediction bounds for case durations. Anesth Analg, 92(4), 943-946. PMID: 11273931.

Dexter, F., Epstein, R. H. & Penning, D. H. (2001). Statistical analysis of postanesthesia care unit staffing at a surgical suite with frequent delays in admission from the operating room--a case study. Anesth Analg, 92(4), 947-949. PMID: 11273932.

Dexter, F., Thompson, E. (2001). Relative value guide basic units in operating room scheduling to ensure compliance with anesthesia group policies for surgical procedures performed at each anesthetizing location. AANA J, 69(2), 120-123. PMID: 11759145.

Dexter, F., Gan, T. J., Naguib, M. & Lubarsky, D. A. (2001). Cost identification analysis for succinylcholine. Anesth Analg, 92(3), 693-699. PMID: 11226104.

Dexter, F. (2001). Managing cases in the afternoon. OR Manager, 17(3), 23-24. PMID: 11263117.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. (2001). Optimal number of beds and occupancy to minimize staffing costs in an obstetrical unit?. Can J Anaesth, 48(3), 295-301. PMID: 11305833.

Dexter, F. (2001). Experience in using CalculatOR for allocating operating room time. Interface Newsletter, 12(2).

Dexter, F. (2001). Cost implications of various operating room scheduling strategies. American Society of Anesthesiologist's Clinical Update Program, 52(262), 1-6.

Dexter, F. (2001). Maximizing operating room staff productivity. Currents, 2(3), 9-10.

Dexter, F. (2001). How to design an effective surgical schedule. Outpatient Surgery Magazine, 11(3), 17-23.

Dexter, F., Traub, R. D. (2000). The lack of systematic month-to-month variation over one-year periods in ambulatory surgery caseload-application to anesthesia staffing. Anesth Analg, 91(6), 1426-1430. PMID: 11093993.

Dexter, F. (2000). Science of OR management. Sequencing of elective surgical cases. OR Manager, 16(12), 19-20. PMID: 11141662.

Dexter, F. (2000). A strategy to decide whether to move the last case of the day in an operating room to another empty operating room to decrease overtime labor costs. Anesth Analg, 91(4), 925-928. PMID: 11004050.

Dexter, F., Traub, R. D. (2000). Statistical method for predicting when patients should be ready on the day of surgery. Anesthesiology, 93(4), 1107-1114. PMID: 11020768.

Dexter, F. (2000). Science of OR management. 'Ideal' utilization is the wrong quest. OR Manager, 16(10), 32-33. PMID: 11141753.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. & Traub, R. D. (2000). Enterprise-wide patient scheduling information systems to coordinate surgical clinic and operating room scheduling can impair operating room efficiency. Anesth Analg, 91(3), 617-626. PMID: 10960388.

Epstein, R. H., Dexter, F. (2000). Economic analysis of linking operating room scheduling and hospital material management information systems for just-in-time inventory control. Anesth Analg, 91(2), 337-343. PMID: 10910844.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. (2000). What is the relative frequency of uncommon ambulatory surgery procedures performed in the United States with an anesthesia provider?. Anesth Analg, 90(6), 1343-1347. PMID: 10825318.

Dexter, F. (2000). Efficient method to schedule surgery. OR Manager, 16(5), 20-21. PMID: 11067167.

Dexter, F., Traub, R. D. (2000). Sequencing cases in the operating room: predicting whether one surgical case will last longer than another. Anesth Analg, 90(4), 975-979. PMID: 10735810.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. & O'Neill, L. (2000). Scheduling surgical cases into overflow block time- computer simulation of the effects of scheduling strategies on operating room labor costs. Anesth Analg, 90(4), 980-988. PMID: 10735811.

Reynolds, J. D., Grubbs, E. G., Dexter, F., Punnahitananda, S., Dense, T. A. & Penning, D. H. (2000). Acute cord occlusion increases blood ionized magnesium concentration in preterm fetal sheep during maternal magnesium sulfate exposure. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 78(4), 301-306. PMID: 10772057.

Macario, A., Dexter, F. (2000). Effect of compensation and patient scheduling on OR labor costs. AORN J, 71(4), 860, 863-869. PMID: 10806540.

Dexter, F. (2000). Science of OR Management: Efficient scheduling of OR cases. OR Manager, 16(3), 27-28. PMID: 11066808.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. & Traub, R. D. (2000). Statistical method using operating room information system data to determine anesthetist weekend call requirements. AANA J, 68(1), 21-26. PMID: 10876448.

Dexter, F., Traub, R. D. (2000). Determining staffing requirements for a second shift of anesthetists by graphical analysis of data from operating room information systems. AANA J, 68(1), 31-36. PMID: 10876449.

Mackensen, G. B., Nellgård, B., Sarraf-Yazdi, S., Dexter, F., Steffen, R. P., Grocott, H. P. & Warner, D. S. (2000). Post-ischemic RSR13 amplifies the effect of dizocilpine on outcome from transient focal cerebral ischemia in the rat. Brain Res, 853(1), 15-21. PMID: 10627303.

Dexter, F. (2000). Science of OR management: Why try to reduce turnover time?. OR Manager, 16(1), 25-26. PMID: 10787739.

Dexter, F. (2000). What is the most efficient method to schedule elective surgical cases for an integrated health care system?. OR Manager, 16(7), 16-17.

Dexter, F. (2000). Book review of Operating Room Management. Anesthesiology, 93, 312.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. & Traub, R. D. (1999). Which algorithm for scheduling add-on elective cases maximizes operating room utilization? Use of bin packing algorithms and fuzzy constraints in operating room management. Anesthesiology, 91(5), 1491-1500. PMID: 10551602.

Dexter, F., Macario, A., Qian, F. & Traub, R. D. (1999). Forecasting surgical groups' total hours of elective cases for allocation of block time: application of time series analysis to operating room management. Anesthesiology, 91(5), 1501-1508. PMID: 10551603.

Macario, A., Dexter, F. (1999). Estimating the duration of a case when the surgeon has not recently scheduled the procedure at the surgical suite. Anesth Analg, 89(5), 1241-1245. PMID: 10553843.

Zhou, J., Dexter, F., Macario, A. & Lubarsky, D. A. (1999). Relying solely on historical surgical times to estimate accurately future surgical times is unlikely to reduce the average length of time cases finish late. J Clin Anesth, 11(7), 601-605. PMID: 10624647.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. & O'Neill, L. (1999). A strategy for deciding operating room assignments for second-shift anesthetists. Anesth Analg, 89(4), 920-924. PMID: 10512265.

Dexter, F. (1999). Design of appointment systems for preanesthesia evaluation clinics to minimize patient waiting times: a review of computer simulation and patient survey studies. Anesth Analg, 89(4), 925-931. PMID: 10512266.

Macario, A., Glenn, D. & Dexter, F. (1999). What can the postanesthesia care unit manager do to decrease costs in the postanesthesia care unit?. J Perianesth Nurs, 14(5), 284-293. PMID: 10827638.

Dexter, F., Macario, A., Traub, R. D., Hopwood, M. & Lubarsky, D. A. (1999). An operating room scheduling strategy to maximize the use of operating room block time: computer simulation of patient scheduling and survey of patients' preferences for surgical waiting time. Anesth Analg, 89(1), 7-20. PMID: 10389771.

Dexter, F., Macario, A., Lubarsky, D. A. & Burns, D. D. (1999). Statistical method to evaluate management strategies to decrease variability in operating room utilization: application of linear statistical modeling and Monte Carlo simulation to operating room management. Anesthesiology, 91(1), 262-274. PMID: 10422952.

Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F., Subieta, A., Smith, T. C. & Cutkomp, J. (1999). Brain injury after cerebral arterial air embolism in the rabbit as determined by triphenyltetrazolium staining. Anesthesiology, 90(5), 1462-1473. PMID: 10319796.

Dexter, F., Macario, A., Manberg, P. J. & Lubarsky, D. A. (1999). Computer simulation to determine how rapid anesthetic recovery protocols to decrease the time for emergence or increase the phase I postanesthesia care unit bypass rate affect staffing of an ambulatory surgery center. Anesth Analg, 88(5), 1053-1063. PMID: 10320168.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. & Traub, R. D. (1999). Optimal sequencing of urgent surgical cases. Scheduling cases using operating room information systems. J Clin Monit Comput, 15(3-4), 153-162. PMID: 12568166.

Miura, Y., Mackensen, G. B., Nellgård, B., Pearlstein, R. D., Bart, R. D., Dexter, F. & Warner, D. S. (1999). Effects of isoflurane, ketamine, and fentanyl/N2O on concentrations of brain and plasma catecholamines during near-complete cerebral ischemia in the rat. Anesth Analg, 88(4), 787-792. PMID: 10195525.

Mackensen, G. B., Nellgård, B., Miura, Y., Chu, C. T., Dexter, F., Pearlstein, R. D. & Warner, D. S. (1999). Sympathetic ganglionic blockade masks beneficial effect of isoflurane on histologic outcome from near-complete forebrain ischemia in the rat. Anesthesiology, 90(3), 873-881. PMID: 10078690.

Penning, D. H., Dexter, F., Henderson, J. L., Chestnut, D. H. & Reynolds, J. D. (1999). Bolus maternal cocaine administration does not produce a large increase in fetal sheep cerebral cortical glutamate concentration. Neurotoxicol Teratol, 21(2), 177-180. PMID: 10192278.

Dexter, F., Traub, R. D. & Qian, F. (1999). Comparison of statistical methods to predict the time to complete a series of surgical cases. J Clin Monit Comput, 15(1), 45-51. PMID: 12578061.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. (1999). Decrease in case duration required to complete an additional case during regularly scheduled hours in an operating room suite: a computer simulation study. Anesth Analg, 88(1), 72-76. PMID: 9895069.

Dexter, F., Penning, D. H., Lubarsky, D. A., DeLong, E., Sanderson, I., Gilbert, B. C., Bell, E. & Reves, J. G. (1998). Use of an automated anesthesia information system to determine reference limits for vital signs during cesarean section. J Clin Monit Comput, 14(7-8), 491-498. PMID: 10385858.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. & Dexter, E. U. (1998). Computer simulation of changes in nursing productivity from early tracheal extubation of coronary artery bypass graft patients. J Clin Anesth, 10(7), 593-598. PMID: 9805701.

Zhou, J., Dexter, F. (1998). Method to assist in the scheduling of add-on surgical cases--upper prediction bounds for surgical case durations based on the log-normal distribution. Anesthesiology, 89(5), 1228-1232. PMID: 9822012.

Ludington, E., Dexter, F. (1998). Statistical analysis of total labor pain using the visual analog scale and application to studies of analgesic effectiveness during childbirth. Anesth Analg, 87(3), 723-727. PMID: 9728862.

Dexter, F. (1998). Regional anesthesia does not significantly change surgical time versus general anesthesia--a meta-analysis of randomized studies. Reg Anesth Pain Med, 23(5), 439-443. PMID: 9773694.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. & Cerone, S. M. (1998). Hospital profitability for a surgeon's common procedures predicts the surgeon's overall profitability for the hospital. J Clin Anesth, 10(6), 457-463. PMID: 9793808.

Miura, Y., Grocott, H. P., Bart, R. D., Pearlstein, R. D., Dexter, F. & Warner, D. S. (1998). Differential effects of anesthetic agents on outcome from near-complete but not incomplete global ischemia in the rat. Anesthesiology, 89(2), 391-400. PMID: 9710398.

Sarraf-Yazdi, S., Sheng, H., Miura, Y., McFarlane, C., Dexter, F., Pearlstein, R. & Warner, D. S. (1998). Relative neuroprotective effects of dizocilpine and isoflurane during focal cerebral ischemia in the rat. Anesth Analg, 87(1), 72-78. PMID: 9661549.

Hindman, B. J., Enomoto, S., Dexter, F., Bates, J. N., Aldape, G., Cutkomp, J. & Smith, T. C. (1998). Cerebrovascular relaxation responses to endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilators after normothermic and hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in the rabbit. Anesthesiology, 88(6), 1614-1623. PMID: 9637656.

Macario, A., Horne, M., Goodman, S., Vitez, T., Dexter, F., Heinen, R. & Brown, B. (1998). The effect of a perioperative clinical pathway for knee replacement surgery on hospital costs. Anesth Analg, 86(5), 978-984. PMID: 9585280.

Bart, R. D., Takaoka, S., Pearlstein, R. D., Dexter, F. & Warner, D. S. (1998). Interactions between hypothermia and the latency to ischemic depolarization: implications for neuroprotection. Anesthesiology, 88(5), 1266-1273. PMID: 9605687.

Dexter, F., Lubarsky, D. A., Gilbert, B. C. & Thompson, C. (1998). A method to compare costs of drugs and supplies among anesthesia providers: a simple statistical method to reduce variations in cost due to variations in casemix. Anesthesiology, 88(5), 1350-1356. PMID: 9605696.

Dexter, F., Hindman, B. J. (1998). Computer simulation of microscopic cerebral air emboli absorption during cardiac surgery. Undersea Hyperb Med, 25(1), 43-50. PMID: 9566086.

Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F., Enomoto, S., Subieta, A., Smith, T. C. & Cutkomp, J. (1998). Recovery of evoked potential amplitude after cerebral arterial air embolism in the rabbit: a comparison of the effect of cardiopulmonary bypass with normal circulation. Anesthesiology, 88(3), 696-707. PMID: 9523814.

Henderson, J. L., Reynolds, J. D., Dexter, F., Atkins, B., Hrdy, J., Poduska, D. & Penning, D. H. (1998). Chronic hypoxemia causes extracellular glutamate concentration to increase in the cerebral cortex of the near-term fetal sheep. Brain Res Dev Brain Res, 105(2), 287-293. PMID: 9541746.

Dexter, F., Lubarsky, D. A. (1998). Managing with information - using surgical services information systems to increase operating room utilization. ASA Newsletter, 62(10), 6-8.

Dexter, F. (1997). Application of practice guidelines to anesthesiology. (Vols. 87). (5), pp. 1031-1032. Anesthesiology. PMID: 9366450.

Pittman, J. E., Sheng, H., Pearlstein, R., Brinkhous, A., Dexter, F. & Warner, D. S. (1997). Comparison of the effects of propofol and pentobarbital on neurologic outcome and cerebral infarct size after temporary focal ischemia in the rat. Anesthesiology, 87(5), 1139-1144. PMID: 9366466.

Morimoto, Y., Morimoto, Y., Bart, R. D., Pearlstein, R. D., Dexter, F. & Warner, D. S. (1997). High-dose fentanyl does not adversely affect outcome from forebrain ischemia in the rat. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol, 9(4), 316-323. PMID: 9339403.

Lovick, D. S., Ryken, T. C., Traynelis, V. C. & Dexter, F. (1997). Assessment of primary and salvage lateral mass screw insertion torque in a cadaveric model. J Spinal Disord, 10(5), 431-435. PMID: 9355061.

Dexter, F., Aker, J. & Wright, W. A. (1997). Development of a measure of patient satisfaction with monitored anesthesia care: the Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale. Anesthesiology, 87(4), 865-873. PMID: 9357889.

Dexter, F., Hindman, B. J. (1997). Effect of haemoglobin concentration on brain oxygenation in focal stroke: a mathematical modelling study. Br J Anaesth, 79(3), 346-351. PMID: 9389854.

Reasoner, D. K., Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F., Subieta, A., Cutkomp, J. & Smith, T. C. (1997). Doxycycline reduces early neurologic impairment after cerebral arterial air embolism in the rabbit. Anesthesiology, 87(3), 569-576. PMID: 9316962.

Reynolds, J. D., Penning, D. H., Kimura, K. A., Dexter, F., Henderson, J. L., Atkins, B., Poduska, D. & Brien, J. F. (1997). Ethanol-induced changes in prostaglandin E concentration in the intact cerebral cortex of preterm and near-term fetal sheep. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 21(6), 997-1004. PMID: 9309308.

Pecka, S. L., Dexter, F. (1997). Anesthesia providers' interventions during cataract extraction under monitored anesthesia care. AANA J, 65(4), 357-360. PMID: 9281917.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. (1997). Does early extubation ("fast-tracking") of coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients truly decrease perioperative costs?: Appropriate analysis of direct variable costs. (Vols. 87). (1), pp. 181-182. Anesthesiology. PMID: 9232158.

Dexter, F. (1997). Research synthesis of controlled studies evaluating the effect of hypocapnia and airway protection on cerebral outcome. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol, 9(3), 217-222. PMID: 9239582.

Dexter, F., Hindman, B. J. (1997). Recommendations for hyperbaric oxygen therapy of cerebral air embolism based on a mathematical model of bubble absorption. Anesth Analg, 84(6), 1203-1207. PMID: 9174293.

Dexter, F., Kern, F. H., Hindman, B. J. & Greeley, W. J. (1997). The brain uses mostly dissolved oxygen during profoundly hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Thorac Surg, 63(6), 1725-1729. PMID: 9205174.

Dexter, F. (1997). Heart rate variability, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and mathematical modeling of acetylcholine pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics in sinus node neuroeffector junctions. (Vols. 84). (6), pp. 1393. Anesth Analg. PMID: 9174335.

Dexter, F., Rittenmeyer, H. (1997). A statistical method for predicting postanesthesia care unit staffing needs. AORN J, 65(5), 947-950, 952-953, 955-957. PMID: 9145170.

Dexter, F., Coffin, S. & Woodward, J. (1997). Performance of anesthesia machines' devices that are not part of the Food and Drug Administration's daily checkout. J Clin Monit, 13(3), 171-179. PMID: 9234086.

Dexter, F., Rittenmeyer, H. (1997). Quantification of phase I postanesthesia nursing activities in the phase II postanesthesia care unit. Nurs Outlook, 45(2), 86-88. PMID: 9127349.

Dexter, F., Rittenmeyer, H. (1997). Measuring productivity of the phase I postanesthesia care unit. J Perianesth Nurs, 12(1), 7-11. PMID: 9069870.

Dexter, F. (1997). How to control costs of anesthesia without jeopardizing quality. Clinical Anesthesia Updates, 7, 1-9.

Dexter, F., Macario, A. (1996). Applications of information systems to operating room scheduling. (Vols. 85). (6), pp. 1232-1234. Anesthesiology. PMID: 8968168.

McArdle, P., Penning, D. H., Dexter, F. & Reynolds, J. D. (1996). Flumazenil does not affect the increase in rat hippocampal extracellular glutamate concentration produced during thioacetamide-induced hepatic encephalopathy. Metab Brain Dis, 11(4), 329-342. PMID: 8979252.

Kim, Y. J., McFarlane, C., Warner, D. S., Baker, M. T., Choi, W. W. & Dexter, F. (1996). The effects of plasma and brain magnesium concentrations on lidocaine-induced seizures in the rat. Anesth Analg, 83(6), 1223-1228. PMID: 8942590.

Dexter, F., Pearson, K., Griffiths, D. L. & Jebson, P. (1996). Surgical ICU underutilization does not significantly discourage discharge. Health Serv Manage Res, 9(4), 238-242. PMID: 10162520.

Dexter, F., Hindman, B. J. & Marshall, J. S. (1996). Estimate of the maximum absorption rate of microscopic arterial air emboli after entry into the arterial circulation during cardiac surgery. Perfusion, 11(6), 445-450. PMID: 8971944.

Reasoner, D. K., Dexter, F., Hindman, B. J., Subieta, A. & Todd, M. M. (1996). Somatosensory evoked potentials correlate with neurological outcome in rabbits undergoing cerebral air embolism. Stroke, 27(10), 1859-1864. PMID: 8841345.

Reynolds, J. D., Chestnut, D. H., Dexter, F., McGrath, J. & Penning, D. H. (1996). Magnesium sulfate adversely affects fetal lamb survival and blocks fetal cerebral blood flow response during maternal hemorrhage. Anesth Analg, 83(3), 493-499. PMID: 8780269.

Dexter, F. (1996). Application of cost-utility and quality-adjusted life years analyses to monitored anesthesia care for sedation only. J Clin Anesth, 8(4), 286-288. PMID: 8695131.

Clausen, J. D., Ryken, T. C., Traynelis, V. C., Sawin, P. D., Dexter, F. & Goel, V. K. (1996). Biomechanical evaluation of Caspar and Cervical Spine Locking Plate systems in a cadaveric model. J Neurosurg, 84(6), 1039-1045. PMID: 8847569.

Warner, D. S., Takaoka, S., Wu, B., Ludwig, P. S., Pearlstein, R. D., Brinkhous, A. D. & Dexter, F. (1996). Electroencephalographic burst suppression is not required to elicit maximal neuroprotection from pentobarbital in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Anesthesiology, 84(6), 1475-1484. PMID: 8669689.

Enomoto, S., Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F., Smith, T. C. & Cutkomp, J. (1996). Rapid rewarming causes an increase in the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen that is temporarily unmatched by cerebral blood flow. A study during cardiopulmonary bypass in rabbits. Anesthesiology, 84(6), 1392-1400. PMID: 8669681.

Reynolds, J. D., Penning, D. H., Dexter, F., Atkins, B., Hrdy, J., Poduska, D. & Brien, J. F. (1996). Ethanol increases uterine blood flow and fetal arterial blood oxygen tension in the near-term pregnant ewe. Alcohol, 13(3), 251-256. PMID: 8734839.

Dexter, F. (1996). Application of prediction levels to OR scheduling. AORN J, 63(3), 607-615. PMID: 8651672.

Ryu, K. H., Hindman, B. J., Reasoner, D. K. & Dexter, F. (1996). Heparin reduces neurological impairment after cerebral arterial air embolism in the rabbit. Stroke, 27(2), 303-309; discussion 310. PMID: 8571428.

Dexter, F., Reasoner, D. K. (1996). Theoretical assessment of normobaric oxygen therapy to treat pneumocephalus. Anesthesiology, 84(2), 442-447. PMID: 8602677.

Reynolds, J. D., Penning, D. H., Dexter, F., Atkins, B., Hrdy, J., Poduska, D., Chestnut, D. H. & Brien, J. F. (1995). Dose-dependent effects of acute in vivo ethanol exposure on extracellular glutamate concentration in the cerebral cortex of the near-term fetal sheep. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 19(6), 1447-1453. PMID: 8749809.

Dexter, F., Coffin, S. & Tinker, J. H. (1995). Decreases in anesthesia-controlled time cannot permit one additional surgical operation to be reliably scheduled during the workday. Anesth Analg, 81(6), 1263-1268. PMID: 7486114.

Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F., Cutkomp, J. & Smith, T. (1995). Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin does not increase brain oxygen consumption during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in rabbits. Anesthesiology, 83(6), 1302-1311. PMID: 8533923.

Dexter, F., Tinker, J. H. (1995). The cost efficacy of hypothetically eliminating adverse anesthetic outcomes from high-risk, but neither low- nor moderate-risk, surgical operations. Anesth Analg, 81(5), 939-944. PMID: 7486081.

Dexter, F., Hindman, B. J. (1995). Theoretical analysis of cerebral venous blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation as an index of cerebral oxygenation during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. A counterproposal to the "luxury perfusion" hypothesis. Anesthesiology, 83(2), 405-412. PMID: 7631963.

Dexter, F., Tinker, J. H. (1995). Comparisons between desflurane and isoflurane or propofol on time to following commands and time to discharge. A metaanalysis. Anesthesiology, 83(1), 77-82. PMID: 7605021.

McFarlane, C., Warner, D. S. & Dexter, F. (1995). Interactions between NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptor antagonists during halothane anesthesia in the rat. Neuropharmacology, 34(6), 659-663. PMID: 7566502.

Warner, D. S., Todd, M. M., Dexter, F., Ludwig, P. & McAllister, A. M. (1995). Temporal thresholds for hyperglycemia-augmented ischemic brain damage in rats. Stroke, 26(4), 655-660. PMID: 7709414.

Dexter, F., Chestnut, D. H. (1995). Analysis of statistical tests to compare visual analog scale measurements among groups. Anesthesiology, 82(4), 896-902. PMID: 7717561.

McFarlane, C., Warner, D. S., Nader, A. & Dexter, F. (1995). Glycine receptor antagonism. Effects of ACEA-1021 on the minimum alveolar concentration for halothane in the rat. Anesthesiology, 82(4), 963-968. PMID: 7717569.

Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F., Cutkomp, J. & Smith, T. C. (1995). pH-stat management reduces the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen during profound hypothermia (17 degrees C). A study during cardiopulmonary bypass in rabbits. Anesthesiology, 82(4), 983-995; discussion 24A. PMID: 7717572.

Dexter, F. (1995). Statistical analysis of drug interactions in anesthesia. J Theor Biol, 172(4), 305-314. PMID: 7715200.

Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F. (1995). Estimating brain temperature during hypothermia. (Vols. 82). (2), pp. 329-330. Anesthesiology. PMID: 7856890.

Penning, D. H., Chestnut, D. H., Dexter, F., Hrdy, J., Poduska, D. & Atkins, B. (1995). Glutamate release from the ovine fetal brain during maternal hemorrhage. A study using chronic in utero cerebral microdialysis. Anesthesiology, 82(2), 521-530. PMID: 7856910.

Dexter, F. (1995). Mathematical analysis of haemodilution's direct effect on rate of brain cooling during cardiopulmonary bypass. Med Biol Eng Comput, 33(1), 24-26. PMID: 7616776.

Dexter, F., Tinker, J. H. (1995). Analysis of strategies to decrease postanesthesia care unit costs. Anesthesiology, 82(1), 94-101. PMID: 7832340.

Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F., Smith, T. C. & Cutkomp, J. (1995). Pulsatile versus nonpulsatile flow. No difference in cerebral blood flow or metabolism during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in rabbits. Anesthesiology, 82(1), 241-250. PMID: 7832307.

McFarlane, C., Warner, D. S., Dexter, F. & Ludwig, P. A. (1994). Minimum alveolar concentration for halothane in the rat is resistant to effects of forebrain ischemia and reperfusion. Anesthesiology, 81(5), 1206-1211. PMID: 7978479.

McFarlane, C., Warner, D. S., Dexter, F. & Todd, M. M. (1994). Glutamatergic antagonism: effects on lidocaine-induced seizures in the rat. Anesth Analg, 79(4), 701-705. PMID: 7943778.

Dexter, F. (1994). Analysis of statistical tests to compare doses of analgesics among groups. Anesthesiology, 81(3), 610-615. PMID: 8092506.

Dexter, F., Ben-Haim, S. (1994). Theoretical analysis predicts that respiratory sinus arrhythmia does not accurately measure efferent vagal activity during anesthesia. J Theor Biol, 169(2), 133-141. PMID: 7934078.

Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F., Ryu, K. H., Smith, T. C. & Cutkomp, J. (1994). Pulsatile versus nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass. No difference in brain blood flow or metabolism at 27 degrees C. Anesthesiology, 80(5), 1137-1147. PMID: 8017651.

Dexter, F., Hindman, B. J. (1994). Computer simulation of brain cooling during cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Thorac Surg, 57(5), 1171-1178; discussion 1178-1179. PMID: 8179381.

Dexter, F., Hindman, B. J., Cutkomp, J. & Smith, T. C. (1994). Blood warms as it flows retrograde from a femoral cannulation site to the carotid artery during cardiopulmonary bypass. Perfusion, 9(6), 393-397. PMID: 7696741.

Dexter, F., Rudy, Y. & Saidel, G. M. (1994). Mathematical model of acetylcholine kinetics in neuroeffector junctions. Am J Physiol, 266(1 Pt 2), H298-309. PMID: 8304512.

Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F., Cutkomp, J., Smith, T. C. & Tinker, J. H. (1993). Hypothermic acid-base management does not affect cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen at 27 degrees C. A study during cardiopulmonary bypass in rabbits. Anesthesiology, 79(3), 580-587. PMID: 8363085.

Dexter, F., Yang, T. & Levy, M. N. (1992). Analysis of vagally induced sinus arrhythmias. J Theor Biol, 159(4), 507-511. PMID: 1296102.

Spiegel, D. A., Dexter, F., Warner, D. S., Baker, M. T. & Todd, M. M. (1992). Central nervous system toxicity of local anesthetic mixtures in the rat. Anesth Analg, 75(6), 922-928. PMID: 1443711.

Hindman, B. J., Dexter, F., Cutkomp, J., Smith, T. C., Todd, M. M. & Tinker, J. H. (1992). Brain blood flow and metabolism do not decrease at stable brain temperature during cardiopulmonary bypass in rabbits. Anesthesiology, 77(2), 342-350. PMID: 1642353.

Hindman, B. J., Funatsu, N., Harrington, J., Cutkomp, J., Dexter, F., Todd, M. M. & Tinker, J. H. (1991). Cerebral blood flow response to PaCO2 during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in rabbits. Anesthesiology, 75(4), 662-668. PMID: 1928775.

Dexter, F., Rudy, Y., Levy, M. N. & Bruce, E. N. (1991). Mathematical model of cellular basis for the respiratory sinus arrhythmia. J Theor Biol, 150(2), 157-173. PMID: 1890853.

Dexter, F., Saidel, G. M. & Rudy, Y. (1989). Simulation of the diffusion of acetylcholine in the neuroeffector junctions of the sinus node. J Theor Biol, 141(4), 505-514. PMID: 2630802.

Dexter, F., Levy, M. N. & Rudy, Y. (1989). Mathematical model of the changes in heart rate elicited by vagal stimulation. Circ Res, 65(5), 1330-1339. PMID: 2805246.

Dexter, F., Rudy, Y. & Levy, M. N. (1989). Muscarinic autoreceptors do not modulate kinetics of acetylcholine release in hearts. Am J Physiol, 256(4 Pt 2), H1073-8. PMID: 2705550.

Dexter, F., Saidel, G. M., Levy, M. N. & Rudy, Y. (1989). Mathematical model of dependence of heart rate on tissue concentration of acetylcholine. Am J Physiol, 256(2 Pt 2), H520-6. PMID: 2916685.

Dexter, F., Banks, H. T. & Webb IIII, T. (1987). Modeling holocene changes in the location and abundance of beech populations in Eastern North America. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 50, 273-292. DOI: 10.1016/0034-6667(87)90004-2.

Dexter, F. (1986). A statistical measure of internal consistency. Communications in Statistics - Simulation and Computation, 15(3), 879-886. DOI: 10.1080/03610918608812548.

Dexter, F. (1981). Modification of the standard most-probable-number procedure for fecal coliform bacteria in seawater and shellfish. Appl Environ Microbiol, 42(1), 184-185. PMID: 7020596.