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Paul A. Leonard, MD, PhD

Clinical Associate Professor of Anesthesia - Neuroanesthesia

Contact Information

Primary Office
6412 John Colloton Pavilion
200 Hawkins Drive
Iowa City, IA 52242

6546-1 John Colloton Pavilion
200 Hawkins Drive
Iowa City, IA 52242


BA, Chemistry, Dartmouth College
PhD, Pharmacology, University of Iowa
MD, Medicine, University of Iowa
Internship, Tucson Hospitals Medical Education Program
Resident, Anesthesia, University of Iowa Health Care, Carver College of Medicine


Leonard, P. A., Todd, M. M. (2017). Quantitative neuromuscular blockade monitoring: two pictures of unexpected rocuronium effect: a case report. A A Case Rep, 9(7), 190-192. PMID: 28542054.

Leonard, P. A., Willemsen-Dunlap, A. M. (2012). Simulation training at a large community hospital. (Vols. 2). (3), pp. 13. Iowa City, IA: Proceedings in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Willemsen-Dunlap, A., Leonard, P. A. & Cutkomp, J. L. (2012). Thyroid storm precipitated by stress in an undiagnosed hyperthyroid patient: a simulated medical crisis. Simul Healthc, 7(1), 48-53. PMID: 21785389.

Todd, M. M., Hindman, B. J., Clarke, W. R., Torner, J. C., Weeks, J. B., Bayman, E. O., Shi, Q. & Spofford, C. M. (2009). Perioperative fever and outcome in surgical patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery, 64(5), 897-908; discussion 908. PMID: 19404150.

Pasternak, J. J., McGregor, D. G., Lanier, W. L., Schroeder, D. R., Rusy, D. A., Hindman, B. J., Clarke, W., Torner, J. & Todd, M. M. (2009). Effect of nitrous oxide use on long-term neurologic and neuropsychological outcome in patients who received temporary proximal artery occlusion during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. Anesthesiology, 110(3), 563-573. PMID: 19212259.

Leonard, P. A., Arunkumar, R. & Brennan, T. J. (2004). Bradykinin antagonists have no analgesic effect on incisional pain. Anesth Analg, 99(4), 1166-1172, table of contents. PMID: 15385370.

Leonard, P. A., Whitter, T. J. & Sokoll, M. J. (1998). Monitoring Neuromuscular Blockade. In D. E. Longnecker , J. H. Tinker & G. E. Morgan (Eds.) Principles and Practice of Anesthesiology. (2), pp. 907-922. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby.

Leonard, P. A., Brennan, T. J. & Kramer, D. J. (1997). Bradykinin B2 antagonist HOE-140 does not reduce hyperalgesia in a rat model for post-operative pain. (Vols. 87). (A742) Anesthesiology.

Jensen, N. F., Todd, M. M., Kramer, D. J., Leonard, P. A. & Warner, D. S. (1992). A comparison of the vasodilating effects of halothane and isoflurane on the isolated rabbit basilar artery with and without intact endothelium. Anesthesiology, 76(4), 624-634. PMID: 1550288.

Ma, S. X., Long, J. P., Flynn, J. R., Leonard, P. A. & Cannon, J. G. (1991). Dopaminergic structure-activity relationships of 2-aminoindans and cardiovascular action and dopaminergic activity of 4-hydroxy, 5-methyl, 2-di-n-propylaminoindan (RD-211). J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 256(2), 751-756. PMID: 1671601.

Cannon, J. G., True, C. D., Long, J. P., Bhatnagar, R. K., Leonard, P. A. & Flynn, J. R. (1989). Introduction of a putative dopaminergic prodrug moiety into a 6,7-substitution pattern characteristic of certain 2-aminotetralin dopaminergic agonists. J Med Chem, 32(9), 2210-2214. PMID: 2570153.

Cannon, J. G., Jackson, H., Long, J. P., Leonard, P. A. & Bhatnagar, R. K. (1989). 5-HT1A-receptor antagonism: N-alkyl derivatives of (R)-(-)-8,11-dimethoxynoraporphine. J Med Chem, 32(8), 1959-1962. PMID: 2569041.

Cannon, J. G., Mohan, P., Bojarski, J., Long, J. P., Bhatnagar, R. K., Leonard, P. A., Flynn, J. R. & Chatterjee, T. K. (1988). (R)-(-)-10-methyl-11-hydroxyaporphine: a highly selective serotonergic agonist. J Med Chem, 31(2), 313-318. PMID: 3339604.

Leonard, P. A., Flynn, J. R., Chatterjee, T. K., Bhatnagar, R. K., Long, J. P., Mohan, P. & Cannon, J. G. (1987). Serotonergic activity with an aporphine analog. (Vols. 46). pp. 966. Federation Proceedings.

Leonard, P. A. (1986). Core potentials in AMPAC. Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange (QCPE) Bulletin, 6, 83-84.

Figge, J., Leonard, P. A. & Richelson, E. (1979). Tricyclic antidepressants: potent blockade of histamine H1 receptors of guinea pig ileum. Eur J Pharmacol, 58(4), 479-483. PMID: 41726.