Nicholas M. Mohr, MD, MS

Portrait
Associate Fellowship Director, Critical Care Fellowship
Clinical Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine
Clinical Associate Professor of Anesthesia
Clinical Associate Professor of Epidemiology

Contact Information

Primary Office: 1008 RCP
200 Hawkins Drive
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-353-6360

Education

BS, Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University
MD, University of Iowa
MS, Clinical Investigation, University of Iowa

Resident, Emergency Medicine, Indiana University
Fellow, Multidisciplinary Critical Care, Washington University in St. Louis

Licensure and Certifications

Board Certification, Neurocritical Care - United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties
Board Certification, Internal Medicine-Critical Care Medicine - American Board of Emergency Medicine
Physician Medical License - State of Iowa
Board Certification, Emergency Medicine - American Board of Emergency Medicine

Publications

Akhtar, M., Van Heukelom, P. G., Ahmed, A., Tranter, R. D., White, E., Shekem, N., Walz, D., Fairfield, C., Vakkalanka, J. P. & Mohr, N. M. (2018). Telemedicine physical examination utilizing a consumer device demonstrates poor concordance with in-person physical examination in emergency department patients with sore throat: a prospective blinded study. Telemedicine journal and e-health/the American Telemedicine Association. PMID: 29470127.

Page, D., Ablordeppey, E., Wessman, B. T., Mohr, N. M., Trzeciak, S., Kollef, M. H., Roberts, B. W. & Fuller, B. M. (2018). Emergency department hyperoxia is associated with increased mortality in mechanically ventilated patients: a cohort study. Critical care, 22(1), 9. PMID: 29347982.

Faine, B. A., Amendola, J., Homan, J., Ahmed, A. & Mohr, N. (2018). Factors associated with availability of anticoagulation reversal agents in rural and community emergency departments. American journal of health-system pharmacy, 75(2), 72-77. PMID: 29317397.

Mohr, N. M., Stoltze, A., Ahmed, A., Kiscaden, E. & Shane, D. (2018). Using continuous quantitative capnography for emergency department procedural sedation: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis. Internal and emergency medicine, 13(1), 75-85. PMID: 28032265.

Vakkalanka, J. P., Harland, K. K., Swanson, M. B. & Mohr, N. M. (2018). Clinical and epidemiological variability in severe sepsis: an ecological study. Journal of epidemiology and community health. PMID: 29636401.

Mohr, N. M., Young, T., Harland, K. K., Skow, B., Wittrock, A., Bell, A. & Ward, M. M. (2018). Emergency department telemedicine shortens rural time-to-provider and emergency department transfer times. Telemedicine journal and e-health. PMID: 29293413.

Solie, C. J., Mohr, N. M. & Runde, D. P. (2018). Can multidetector computed tomography rule out left atrial thrombus in patients with atrial fibrillation?. (Vols. 71). (4), pp. 480-1. Annals of emergency medicine. PMID: 29033295.

Mohr, N. M., Vakkalanka, J. P., Harland, K. K., Bell, A., Skow, B., Shane, D. M. & Ward, M. M. (2018). Telemedicine use decreases rural emergency department length of stay for transferred North Dakota trauma patients. Telemedicine journal and e-health/American Telemedicine Association, 24(3), 194-202. PMID: 28731843.

Page, D. B., Drewry, A. M., Ablordeppey, E., Mohr, N. M., Kollef, M. H. & Fuller, B. M. (2018). Thirty-day hospital readmissions among mechanically ventilated emergency department patients. Emergency medicine journal, 35(4), 252-256. PMID: 29305381.

Roberts, B. W., Mohr, N. M., Ablordeppey, E., Drewry, A. M., Ferguson, I. T., Trzeciak, S., Kollef, M. H. & Fuller, B. M. (2018). Association Between Partial Pressure of Arterial Carbon Dioxide and Survival to Hospital Discharge Among Patients Diagnosed With Sepsis in the Emergency Department. Critical care medicine, 46(3), e213-20. PMID: 29261567.

Miller, D. G., Vakkalanka, P., Moubarek, M. L., Lee, S. & Mohr, N. M. (2018). Reduced Computed Tomography Use in the Emergency Department Evaluation of Headache Was Not Followed by Increased Death or Missed Diagnosis. The western journal of emergency medicine, 19(2), 319-326. PMID: 29560060.

Fuller, B. M., Page, D., Stephens, R. J., Roberts, B. W., Drewry, A. M., Ablordeppey, E., Mohr, N. M. & Kollef, M. H. (2018). Pulmonary Mechanics and Mortality in Mechanically Ventilated Patients Without Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Cohort Study. Shock, 49(3), 311-6. PMID: 28846571.

Dietrich, J. N., Faine, B. A. & Mohr, N. M. (2017). Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus colonization does not accurately predict resistant Enterococcus infections. Journal of critical care, 38, 236. PMID: 27988467.

Fuller, B. M., Ferguson, I. T., Mohr, N. M., Drewry, A. M., Palmer, C., Wessman, B. T., Ablordeppey, E., Keeperman, J., Stephens, R. J., Briscoe, C. C., Kolomiets, A. A., Hotchkiss, R. S. & Kollef, M. H. (2017). A quasi-experimental, before-after trial examining the impact of an emergency department mechanical ventilator protocol on clinical outcomes and lung-protective ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Critical care medicine, 45(4), 645-652. PMID: 28157140.

Fuller, B. M., Ferguson, I. T., Mohr, N. M., Drewry, A. M., Palmer, C., Wessman, B. T., Ablordeppey, E., Keeperman, J., Stephens, R. J., Briscoe, C. C., Kolomiets, A. A., Hotchkiss, R. S. & Kollef, M. H. (2017). Lung-Protective Ventilation Initiated in the Emergency Department (LOV-ED): A Quasi-Experimental, Before-After Trial. Annals of emergency medicine. PMID: 28259481.

Mohr, N. M., Harland, K. K., Chrischilles, E. A., Bell, A., Shane, D. M. & Ward, M. M. (2017). Emergency Department Telemedicine Is Used for More Severely Injured Rural Trauma Patients, but Does Not Decrease Transfer: A Cohort Study. Academic emergency medicine/Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, 24(2), 177-85. PMID: 28187248.

Fuller, B. M., Mohr, N. M., Drewry, A. M., Ferguson, I. T., Trzeciak, S., Kollef, M. H. & Roberts, B. W. (2017). Partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide and survival to hospital discharge among patients requiring acute mechanical ventilation: A cohort study. Journal of critical care, 41, 29-35. PMID: 28472700.

Mohr, N. M., Harland, K. K., Shane, D. M., Ahmed, A., Fuller, B. M., Ward, M. M. & Torner, J. C. (2017). Rural Patients With Severe Sepsis or Septic Shock Who Bypass Rural Hospitals Have Increased Mortality: An Instrumental Variables Approach. Critical care medicine, 45(1), 85-93. PMID: 27611977.

Van Oeveren, L., Donner, J., Fantegrossi, A., Mohr, N. M. & Brown, 3rd, C. A. (2017). Telemedicine-Assisted Intubation in Rural Emergency Departments: A National Emergency Airway Registry Study. Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association, 23(4), 290-7. PMID: 27673565.

Mohr, N. M., Vakkalanka, J. P., Faine, B. A., Skow, B., Harland, K. K., Dick-Perez, R., Fuller, B. M., Ahmed, A. & Simson, S. Q. (2017). Serum anion gap predicts lactate poorly, but may be used to identify sepsis patients at risk for death: A cohort study. Journal of critical care, 44, 223-8. PMID: 29175046.

Dick-Perez, R., Mohr, N. M. (2017). Know How to Diagnose and Treat Pulmonary Embolism. In , A. S. Chanmugam , S. P. Swadron , D. Woolridge (Eds.) Avoiding Common Errors in the Emergency Department. (2nd), pp. 545-547. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Bobb, M. R., Ahmed, A., Van Heukelom, P., Tranter, R., Harland, K. K., Firth, B. M., Fry, R., Schneider, K., Dierks, K. K., Miller, S. L. & Mohr, N. M. (2017). Key high efficiency practices of emergency department providers: a mixed methods study. Academic emergency medicine. PMID: 29265539.

Stephens, R. J., Ablordeppey, E., Drewry, A. M., Palmer, C., Wessman, B. T., Mohr, N. M., Roberts, B. W., Liang, S. Y., Kollef, M. H. & Fuller, B. M. (2017). Analgosedation practices and the impact of dedation depth on clinical outcomes among patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the ED: a cohort study. Chest, 152(5), 963-71. PMID: 28645462.

Nelson, L. F., Harland, K. K., Shane, D. M., Ahmed, A. & Mohr, N. M. (2017). Against the current: back-transfer as a mechanism for rural regionalization. The American Journal of Managed Care, 23(9), e287-e294. PMID: 29087168.

Faine, B. A., Mohr, N., Dietrich, J., Meadow, L., Harland, K. K. & Chrischilles, E. (2017). Antimicrobial therapy for pneumonia in the emergency department: the impact of clinical pharmacists on appropriateness. The Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 18(5), 856-63. PMID: 28874937.

Nelson, L. F., Harland, K. K., Shane, D. M., Ahmed, A. & Mohr, N. M. (2017). Safety of back-transfer to local hospitals during an acute care hospitalization. The Journal of Rural Health. PMID: 28921673.

Fuller, B. M., Mohr, N. M. (2016). Treatment of Critical Respiratory Illness in the Emergency Department and Intensive Care Unit. In W. B. Gibler , J. M. Racadio , A. L. Hirsch (Eds.) Critical Care: Caring for Critically Ill and Injured Patients in the Emergency Department. pp. 1-6. Cincinnati, OH: EMCREG-International Monograph.

Mohr, N. M., Wong, T. S., Faine, B., Schlichting, A., Noack, J. & Ahmed, A. (2016). Discordance Between Patient and Clinician Experiences and Priorities in Rural Interhospital Transfer: A Mixed Methods Study. The Journal of rural health : official journal of the American Rural Health Association and the National Rural Health Care Association, 32(1), 25-34. PMID: 26174410.

Faine, B., Amendola, J., Homan, J., Ahmed, A. & Mohr, N. (In Press). Factors associated with availability of anticoagulation reversal in rural and community emergency departments: A mixed methods study. American Journal of Healthy-System Pharmacy.

Fuller, B. M., Ferguson, I., Mohr, N. M., Stephens, R. J., Briscoe, C. C., Kolomiets, A. A., Hotchkiss, R. S. & Kollef, M. H. (2016). Lung-protective ventilation initiated in the emergency department (LOV-ED): a study protocol for a quasi-experimental, before-after trial aimed at reducing pulmonary complications. BMJ open, 6(4), e010991. PMID: 27067896.

Mohr, N. M., Harland, K. K., Shane, D. M., Ahmed, A., Fuller, B. M. & Torner, J. C. (2016). Inter-hospital transfer is associated with increased mortality and costs in severe sepsis and septic shock: An instrumental variables approach. Journal of critical care, 36, 187-194. PMID: 27546770.

Mohr, N. M., Harland, K. K., Crabb, V., Mutnick, R., Baumgartner, D., Spinosi, S., Haarstad, M., Ahmed, A., Schweizer, M. & Faine, B. (2016). Urinary Squamous Epithelial Cells Do Not Accurately Predict Urine Culture Contamination, but May Predict Urinalysis Performance in Predicting Bacteriuria. Academic emergency medicine, 23(3), 323-30. PMID: 26782662.

Bobb, M. R., Van Heukelom, P. G., Faine, B. A., Ahmed, A., Messerly, J. T., Bell, G., Harland, K. K., Simon, C. & Mohr, N. M. (2016). Telemedicine Provides Noninferior Research Informed Consent for Remote Study Enrollment: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Academic emergency medicine, 23(7), 759-65. PMID: 26990899.

Kolinsky, D., Mohr, N. M. & Fuller, B. M. (2016). Good Care Starts Early: Pre-Hospital Lung Protective Ventilation.

Mohr, N. M., Harland, K. K., Shane, D. M., Miller, S. L. & Torner, J. C. (2016). Potentially Avoidable Pediatric Interfacility Transfer Is a Costly Burden for Rural Families: A Cohort Study. Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, 23(8), 885-94. PMID: 27018337.

Fuller, B. M., Mohr, N. M., Miller, C. N., Deitchman, A. R., Levine, B. J., Castagno, N., Hassebroek, E. C., Dhedhi, A., Scott-Wittenborn, N., Grace, E., Lehew, C. & Kollef, M. H. (2015). Mechanical Ventilation and ARDS in the ED: A Multicenter, Observational, Prospective, Cross-sectional Study. Chest, 148(2), 365-374. PMID: 25742126.

Faine, B. A., Noack, J. M., Wong, T., Messerly, J. T., Ahmed, A., Fuller, B. M. & Mohr, N. M. (2015). Interhospital Transfer Delays Appropriate Treatment for Patients With Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Critical care medicine, 43(12), 2589-96. PMID: 26491865.

Feazel, L., Schlichting, A. B., Bell, G. R., Shane, D. M., Ahmed, A., Faine, B., Nugent, A. & Mohr, N. M. (2015). Achieving regionalization through rural interhospital transfer. The American journal of emergency medicine, 33(9), 1288-96. PMID: 26087707.

Dettmer, M. R., Mohr, N. M. & Fuller, B. M. (2015). Sepsis-associated pulmonary complications in emergency department patients monitored with serial lactate: An observational cohort study. Journal of critical care, 30(6), 1163-8. PMID: 26362864.

Mohr, N. M., Pelaez Gil, C. A., Harland, K. K., Faine, B., Stoltze, A., Pearson, K. & Ahmed, A. (2015). Prehospital oral chlorhexidine does not reduce the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia among critically ill trauma patients: A prospective concurrent-control study. Journal of critical care, 30(4), 787-92. PMID: 25964208.

Fuller, B. M., Mohr, N. M., Graetz, T. J., Lynch, I. P., Dettmer, M., Cullison, K., Coney, T., Gogineni, S. & Gregory, R. (2015). The impact of cardiac dysfunction on acute respiratory distress syndrome and mortality in mechanically ventilated patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: an observational study. Journal of critical care, 30(1), 65-70. PMID: 25179413.

Stoltze, A. J., Wong, T. S., Harland, K. K., Ahmed, A., Fuller, B. M. & Mohr, N. M. (2015). Prehospital tidal volume influences hospital tidal volume: A cohort study. Journal of critical care, 30(3), 495-501. PMID: 25813548.

Mohr, N. M., Stoltze, A. J., Harland, K. K., Van Heukelom, J. N., Hogrefe, C. P. & Ahmed, A. (2015). An evidence-based medicine curriculum implemented in journal club improves resident performance on the Fresno test. The Journal of emergency medicine, 48(2), 222-229.e1. PMID: 25440869.

Fuller, B. M., Mohr, N. M., Skrupky, L., Fowler, S., Kollef, M. H. & Carpenter, C. R. (2015). The use of inhaled prostaglandins in patients with ARDS: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Chest, 147(6), 1510-1522. PMID: 25742022.

Mohr, N. M. (2014). A 77-year-old Male Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft. In D. L. Klamen , C. M. McDowell , T. R. Clark (Eds.) Resident Readiness: Emergency Medicine. (1st), pp. 307-316. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mohr, N. M. (2014). A 76-year-old Male With Dyspnea. In D. L. Klamen , C. M. McDowell , T. R. Clark (Eds.) Resident Readiness: Emergency Medicine. (1st), pp. 281-286. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mohr, N. M., Stilley, J. D. & Walsh, A. (2014). A new EM resident joins the ICU team. In D. L. Klamen , T. R. Clark & C. M. McDowell (Eds.) Resident Readiness: Emergency Medicine. (1st), pp. 243-248. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mohr, N. M., Collier, J., Hassebroek, E. & Groth, H. (2014). Characterizing critical care physician staffing in rural America: a description of Iowa intensive care unit staffing. Journal of critical care, 29(2), 194-8. PMID: 24289882.

Stilley, J. D., Mohr, N. M. (2014). An 84-year-old Female With Cough and Fever. In D. L. Klamen , C. M. McDowell , T. R. Clark (Eds.) Resident Readiness: Emergency Medicine. (1st), pp. 293-298. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mohr, N. M., Doerschug, K. C. (2014). Response. (Vols. 145). (3), pp. 667. Chest. PMID: 24590041.

Mohr, N. M., Doerschug, K. C. (2014). In Replay: Fever Control and Sepsis Mortality. (Vols. 145). (3), pp. 667. Chest. PMID: 27845648.

Walsh, A., Mohr, N. M. (2014). A 70-year-old Male With Altered Mental Status. In D. L. Klamen , C. M. McDowell , T. R. Clark (Eds.) Resident Readiness: Emergency Medicine. (1st), pp. 287-292. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mohr, N., Fuller, B. & Cohn, B. (2014). Lung protective ventilation in the ED. (Vols. Podcast #11).

Mohr, N. M. (2014). A 32-year-old Male With Multi-system Trauma. In D. L. Klamen , C. M. McDowell , T. R. Clark (Eds.) Resident Readiness: Emergency Medicine. (1st), pp. 299-306. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Fuller, B. M., Mohr, N. M., Hotchkiss, R. S. & Kollef, M. H. (2014). Reducing the burden of acute respiratory distress syndrome: the case for early intervention and the potential role of the emergency department. Shock (Augusta, Ga.), 41(5), 378-87. PMID: 24469236.

Fuller, B. M., Mohr, N. M. (2014). Limiting acute respiratory distress syndrome in the emergency department: a survey of US academic emergency medicine physicians. (Vols. 21). (5), pp. 387-8. European journal of emergency medicine : official journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine. PMID: 25159175.

Stilley, J. D., Mohr, N. M. (2014). A 65-year-old Male With Hematemesis. In D. L. Klamen , C. M. McDowell , T. R. Clark (Eds.) Resident Readiness: Emergency Medicine. (1st), pp. 269-274. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mohr, N. M., Harland, K. K., Skeete, D., Pearson, K. & Choi, K. (2014). Duration of prehospital intubation is not a risk factor for development of early ventilator-associated pneumonia. Journal of critical care, 29(4), 539-44. PMID: 24793661.

Mohr, N. M. (2014). A 60-year-old Male With Fever and Hypotension. In D. L. Klamen , C. M. McDowell , T. R. Clark (Eds.) Resident Readiness: Emergency Medicine. (1st), pp. 253-262. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Stilley, J. D., Mohr, N. M. (2014). A 35-year-old Male on a Ventilator Develops Hypoxia. In D. L. Klamen , T. R. Clark , C. M. McDowell (Eds.) Resident Readiness: Emergency Medicine. (1st), pp. 249-252. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Stilley, J. D., Mohr, N. M. (2014). A 45-year-old Male With Abdominal Pain, Vomiting, and Altered Mental Status. In D. L. Klamen , C. M. McDowell , T. R. Clark (Eds.) Resident Readiness: Emergency Medicine. (1st), pp. 275-280. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Walsh, A., Mohr, N. M. (2014). A 40-year-old Female With Headache. In D. L. Klamen , C. M. McDowell , T. R. Clark (Eds.) Resident Readiness: Emergency Medicine. (1st), pp. 263-268. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mohr, N. M., Wessman, B. (2013). Continuous capnography should be used for every emergency department procedural sedation. Annals of emergency medicine, 61(6), 697-8. PMID: 23684325.

Fuller, B. M., Mohr, N. M., Drewry, A. M. & Carpenter, C. R. (2013). Lower tidal volume at initiation of mechanical ventilation may reduce progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review. Critical care (London, England), 17(1), R11. PMID: 23331507.

Okeke, C. C., Hunt, D. G., Mohr, N. M., Medwick, T., Sheinin, E. B. & Williams, R. L. (2013). Packaging Systems: Compendial Requirements. In Taylor , Francis (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology. (4th), pp. 2409-30. New York: CRC Press.

Fuller, B. M., Mohr, N. M. & Carpenter, C. R. (2013). Protective ventilation for patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome. (Vols. 309). (7), pp. 654-5. JAMA. PMID: 23423402.

Fuller, B. M., Mohr, N. M., Dettmer, M., Kennedy, S., Cullison, K., Bavolek, R., Rathert, N. & McCammon, C. (2013). Mechanical ventilation and acute lung injury in emergency department patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: an observational study. Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, 20(7), 659-69. PMID: 23859579.

Mohr, N. M., Moreno-Walton, L., Smith-Coggins, R., Mills, A. M., Larrabee, H., Brunett, P. H., Dyne, P. L., Clem, K. J. & Promes, S. B. (2013). Generational Differences in Emergency Medicine. In R. W. Strauss , T. A. Mayer (Eds.) Strauss and Mayer's Emergency Department Management. (1st), pp. 717-723. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mohr, N. M., Drewry, A. M. (2013). Should Antipyretic Therapy Be Given Routinely to Febrile Patients in Septic Shock?. In D. K. Hogarth (Eds.) CHEST Podcast Series.

Mohr, N. M., Doerschug, K. C. (2013). Point: Should antipyretic therapy be given routinely to febrile patients in septic shock? Yes. Chest, 144(4), 1096-1098. PMID: 24081339.

Mohr, N. M., Fuller, B. M. (2012). Low tidal volume ventilation should be the routine ventilation strategy of choice for all emergency department patients. Annals of emergency medicine, 60(2), 215-6. PMID: 22818369.

Mohr, N. M., Faine, B. (2012). Increased mortality with early therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest - a case study in allocation bias. (Vols. 83). (12), pp. e221; author reply e223. Resuscitation. PMID: 22940597.

Mohr, N. M., Smith-Coggins, R., Larrabee, H., Dyne, P. L. & Promes, S. B. (2011). Generational influences in academic emergency medicine: structure, function, and culture (Part II). Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, 18(2), 200-7. PMID: 21314780.

Mohr, N. M., Moreno-Walton, L., Mills, A. M., Brunett, P. H. & Promes, S. B. (2011). Generational influences in academic emergency medicine: teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology (part I). Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, 18(2), 190-9. PMID: 21314779.

Mohr, N. M., Hotchkiss, R. S., Micek, S. T., Durrani, S. & Fuller, B. M. (2011). Change in temperature profile may precede fever and be an early indicator of sepsis: a case report. (Vols. 36). (3), pp. 318-20; discussion 320-1. Shock (Augusta, Ga.). PMID: 21844790.

Mohr, N. M., Fuller, B. M., Skrupky, L. P., Moy, H., Alunday, R., Micek, S. T. & Fagley, R. E. (2011). Clinical and demographic factors associated with antipyretic use in gram-negative severe sepsis and septic shock. The Annals of pharmacotherapy, 45(10), 1207-16. PMID: 21934034.

Mohr, N. M., Sherman, D. P. & Brody, S. L. (2011). Toxicology. In M. Kollef , W. Isakow (Eds.) The Washington Manual of Critical Care. (2nd), pp. 273-293. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Mohr, N. (2009). Hypoxia Probably Doesn't Tell the Whole Story: Ventilatory Drive and Acclimatization to High Altitude. (Vols. 10). (1), pp. 5-6. ACEP Critical Care Medicine.

Mohr, N. (2008). SAEM Update: The Role of CPR in Cardiac Resuscitation. (Vols. 9). (3), pp. 6-8. ACEP Critical Care Medicine.

Okeke, C. C., Hunt, D. G., Mohr, N. M., Medwick, T., Sheinin, E. B. & Williams, R. L. (2006). Packaging Systems: Compendial Requirements. In Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical Technology. (3rd), pp. 2526-2550. New York: CRC Press.

Okeke, C. C., Mohr, N. M., Medwick, T., Sheinin, E. B. & Williams, R. L. (2004). Packaging Systems: Compendial Requirements. In J. Swarbrick , J. C. Boylan (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical Technology. (2nd) Marcel Dekker.