C. Neuro-Ophthalmic Symptoms and Signs


  1. Know how to evaluate and manage symptoms and signs commonly encountered in neuro-ophthalmology.
  2. Recognize the most common ocular causes of visual loss that may mimic neuro-ophthalmic diseases


1. Visual Loss(1)

  1. Transient(1)
  2. Permanent(1)

2. Positive Visual Phenomena(1)

3. Visual hallucinations(1)

4. Visual Field Loss(1)

5. Higher cortical dysfunction(1)

6. Normal optic nerve(1)

  1. Edema (disc swelling, papilledema)
  2. Optic atrophic
  3. Cupped optic nerve

7. Oscillopsia(1)

8. Nystagmus, ocular oscillations(1)

9.Double vision(1)

10. Abnormal extraocular movements(1)

11. Ptosis(1)

12. Lid retraction(1)

13. Proptosis, enophthalmos(1)

14. Pupillary changes, anisocoria(1)

15. Facial abnormal movements(1)

16. Facial weakness(2)

17. Ocular pain, facial pain and headaches(2)

Proposed by the Curriculum of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (NANOS)

Next: D. Disorders of the Afferent and Efferent Visual Pathways