Randy H. Kardon, MD, PhD

Portrait
Pomerantz Family Chair in Ophthalmology
Director, Neuro-Ophthalmology Service
Director, Iowa City VA Center of Excellence for Prevention and Treatment of Visual Loss
Professor of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences

Contact Information

Primary Office: 11290D PFP
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-356-2260

Education

BS, Pharmacology, University of Iowa
MD, Medicine, University of Iowa
PhD, Pharmacology, University of Iowa

Fellow, Ophthalmology Research Fellow, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Iowa
Internship, Medicine, Gundersen Clinic & Lutheran Hospital
Resident, Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Iowa
Fellow, Neuro-Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Iowa

Licensure and Certifications

Federal DEA
Iowa Controlled Substance

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Medical Scientist Training Program

Center, Program and Institute Affiliations

Carver Family Center for Macular Degeneration, Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, Institute for Clinical and Translational Science

Research Summary

I am Director of Neuro-ophthalmology at The University of Iowa and have been an active clinician scientist for over 25 years. Additionally I am Director of the Iowa City VA Center for Prevention and Treatment of Vision Loss, funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs, which organizes a group of over 20 scientists and clinicians towards studying and researching optic nerve and retinal disorders that have relevance to the military population, especially in relation to traumatic brain injury (TBI). I have expertise in the physiology of the melanopsin containing retinal ganglion cells (MGC) in humans and animals. Most recently, I have obtained funding and have published articles on using the pupil light reflex to measure the rod, cone, and melanopsin mediated pupil responses in humans and animals. Recently, we have extended our measurements to recording the EMG of the eye's squinting muscles and skin conductance in response to increasing intensities of red and blue light to objectively characterize photosensitivity in patients. Clinically, I also diagnose and work with patients and veterans with photophobia and headache following TBI. I have been collaborating with colleagues over the last few years on light mediated responses of the visual system. I also have a great deal of clinical expertise in photophobia and testing of visual function, including the pupil, besides my research and translational interests.

Publications

Conrad, E. C., Jivraj, I., Kardon, R. & Liu, G. T. (2018). Unilateral periodic pupillary constriction causing alternating anisocoria. Neurology, 90(2), 86-88. PMID: 29222127.

Kirkpatrick, C. A., Shriver, E. M., Clark, T. J. & Kardon, R. H. (2018). Upper Eyelid Response to Topical 0.5% Apraclonidine. Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery, 34(1), 13-19. PMID: 27984360.

Buckingham, E. M., Foley, M. A., Grose, C., Syed, N. A., Smith, M. E., Margolis, T. P., Thurtell, M. J. & Kardon, R. (2018). Identification of Herpes Zoster-Associated Temporal Arteritis Among Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis. American journal of ophthalmology, 187(3), 51-60. PMID: 29294312.

Berman, G., Muttuvelu, D., Berman, D., Larsen, J. I., Licht, R. W., Ledolter, J. & Kardon, R. H. (2018). Decreased retinal sensitivity in depressive disorder: a controlled study. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica, 137(3), 231-240. PMID: 29336011.

Mallery, R. M., Poolman, P., Thurtell, M. J., Full, J. M., Ledolter, J., Kimbrough, D., Frohman, E. M., Frohman, T. C. & Kardon, R. H. (2018). Visual Fixation Instability in Multiple Sclerosis Measured Using SLO-OCT. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 59(1), 196-201. PMID: 29340646.

Sobhanian, M. J., Agarwal, R., Meltzer, E., Kildebeck, E., Frohman, B. S., Frohman, A. N., Galetta, S. L., Saidha, S., White, O., Villoslada, P., Paul, F., Petzold, A., Rennaker, R. L., Martinez-Lapiscina, E. H., Balcer, L. J., Kardon, R., Frohman, E. M. & Frohman, T. C. (2018). Identification and treatment of the visual processing asymmetry in MS patients with optic neuritis: The Pulfrich phenomenon. Journal of the neurological sciences, 387, 60-69. PMID: 29571874.

Davidson, E. P., Coppey, L. J., Shevalye, H., Obrosov, A., Kardon, R. H. & Yorek, M. A. (2017). Impaired Corneal Sensation and Nerve Loss in a Type 2 Rat Model of Chronic Diabetes Is Reversible With Combination Therapy of Menhaden Oil, a-Lipoic Acid, and Enalapril. Cornea, 36(6), 725-731. PMID: 28476051.

Ledolter, J., Kardon, R. H. (2017). Does Testing More Frequently Shorten the Time to Detect Disease Progression?. Translational vision science & technology, 6(3), 1. PMID: 28473945.

Barker, F., Cockerham, G., Goodrich, G., Hartwick, A., Kardon, R., Mick, A. B. & Swanson, M. (2017). Brain Injury Impact on the Eye and Vision. Optom Vis Sci, 94(1), 4-6. PMID: 28009763.

Yeh, C. Y., Koehl, K. L., Harman, C. D., Iwabe, S., Guzman, J. M., Petersen-Jones, S. M., Kardon, R. H. & Komáromy, A. M. (2017). Assessment of Rod, Cone, and Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cell Contributions to the Canine Chromatic Pupillary Response. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 58(1), 65-78. PMID: 28061512.

Chen, J. J., AbouChehade, J. E., Iezzi, Jr, R., Leavitt, J. A. & Kardon, R. H. (2017). Optical Coherence Angiographic Demonstration of Retinal Changes From Chronic Optic Neuropathies. Neuro-ophthalmology (Aeolus Press), 41(2), 76-83. PMID: 28348629.

Yorek, M. S., Obrosov, A., Shevalye, H., Coppey, L. J., Kardon, R. H. & Yorek, M. A. (2017). Early vs. late intervention of high fat/low dose streptozotocin treated C57Bl/6J mice with enalapril, a-lipoic acid, menhaden oil or their combination: Effect on diabetic neuropathy related endpoints. Neuropharmacology, 116, 122-131. PMID: 28025096.

Meltzer, E., Sguigna, P. V., Subei, A., Beh, S., Kildebeck, E., Conger, D., Conger, A., Lucero, M., Frohman, B. S., Frohman, A. N., Saidha, S., Galetta, S., Calabresi, P. A., Rennaker, R., Frohman, T. C., Kardon, R. H., Balcer, L. J. & Frohman, E. M. (2017). Retinal Architecture and Melanopsin-Mediated Pupillary Response Characteristics: A Putative Pathophysiologic Signature for the Retino-Hypothalamic Tract in Multiple Sclerosis. JAMA neurology, 74(5), 574-582. PMID: 28135360.

Beebe, J. D., Kardon, R. H. & Thurtell, M. J. (2017). The Yield of Diagnostic Imaging in Patients with Isolated Horner Syndrome. Neurologic clinics, 35(1), 145-151. PMID: 27886891.

Kupersmith, M. J., Sibony, P. A., Feldon, S. E., Wang, J. K., Garvin, M., Kardon, R. & O. C. T. Sub-Study Group for the NORDIC Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial, (2017). The Effect of Treatment of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension on Prevalence of Retinal and Choroidal Folds. Am J Ophthalmol, 176, 77-86. PMID: 28040526.

Wang, J. K., Kardon, R. H., Ledolter, J., Sibony, P. A., Kupersmith, M. J. & Garvin, M. K. (2017). Peripapillary Retinal Pigment Epithelium Layer Shape Changes From Acetazolamide Treatment in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 58(5), 2554-2565. PMID: 28492874.

Agne, J., Wang, J. K., Kardon, R. H. & Garvin, M. K. (2017). Automatic detection of folds and wrinkles due to swelling of the optic disc. In International Workshop on Fetal and Infant Image Analysis, FIFI 2017 and 4th International Workshop on Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis, OMIA 2017 held in Conjunction with 20th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2017 [Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 10554 LNCS]. pp. 235-242. Springer Verlag. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-67561-9_27.

Petzold, A., Balcer, L. J., Calabresi, P. A., Costello, F., Frohman, T. C., Frohman, E. M., Martinez-Lapiscina, E. H., Green, A. J., Kardon, R., Outteryck, O., Paul, F., Schippling, S., Vermersch, P., Villoslada, P. & Balk, L. J. (2017). Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol, 16(10), 797-812. PMID: 28920886.

Yorek, M. S., Obrosov, A., Lu, B., Gerard, C., Kardon, R. H. & Yorek, M. A. (In Press). Effect of Inhibition or Deletion of Neutral Endopeptidase on Neuropathic Endpoints in High Fat Fed/Low Dose Streptozotocin-Treated Mice. Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology. PMID: 27634964.

Laurenzo, S. A., Kardon, R., Ledolter, J., Poolman, P., Schumacher, A. M., Potash, J. B., Full, J. M., Rice, O., Ketcham, A., Starkey, C. & Fiedorowicz, J. G. (2016). Pupillary response abnormalities in depressive disorders. Psychiatry research, 246, 492-499. PMID: 27821359.

Mallery, R., Poolman, P., Thurtell, M., Wang, J. K., Garvin, M., Ledolter, J. & Kardon, R. H. (2016). The Pattern of Visual Fixation Eccentricity and Instability in Optic Neuropathy and Its Spatial Relationship to Retinal Ganglion Cell Layer Thickness. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 57(9), OCT429-37. PMID: 27409502.

Trammell, S. A., Weidemann, B. J., Chadda, A., Yorek, M. S., Holmes, A., Coppey, L. J., Obrosov, A., Kardon, R. H., Yorek, M. A. & Brenner, C. (2016). Nicotinamide Riboside Opposes Type 2 Diabetes and Neuropathy in Mice. Scientific reports, 6, 26933. PMID: 27230286.

Sibony, P. A., Kupersmith, M. J., Feldon, S. E. & Kardon, R. (2016). Author Response: Choroidal Folds in Astronauts. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 57(2), 593. PMID: 26886893.

Kupersmith, M. J., Garvin, M. K., Wang, J. K., Durbin, M. & Kardon, R. (2016). Retinal ganglion cell layer thinning within one month of presentation for optic neuritis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 22(5), 641-8. PMID: 26362894.

Yorek, M. S., Coppey, L. J., Shevalye, H., Obrosov, A., Kardon, R. H. & Yorek, M. A. (2016). Effect of Treatment with Salsalate, Menhaden Oil, Combination of Salsalate and Menhaden Oil, or Resolvin D1 of C57Bl/6J Type 1 Diabetic Mouse on Neuropathic Endpoints. Journal of nutrition and metabolism, 2016, 5905891. PMID: 27774316.

Gilmore, C. S., Camchong, J., Davenport, N. D., Nelson, N. W., Kardon, R. H., Lim, K. O. & Sponheim, S. R. (2016). Deficits in Visual System Functional Connectivity after Blast-Related Mild TBI are Associated with Injury Severity and Executive Dysfunction. Brain and behavior, 6(5), e00454. PMID: 27257516.

Yorek, M. S., Davidson, E. P., Poolman, P., Coopey, L. J., Obrosov, A., Holmes, A., Kardon, R. H. & Yorek, M. A. (2016). Corneal Sensitivity to Hyperosmolar Eye Drops: A Novel Behavioral Assay to Assess Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 57(6), 2412-9. PMID: 27145474.

Kostic, C., Crippa, S. V., Martin, C., Kardon, R. H., Biel, M., Arsenijevic, Y. & Kawasaki, A. (2016). Determination of Rod and Cone Influence to the Early and Late Dynamic of the Pupillary Light Response. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 57(6), 2501-8. PMID: 27152964.

Kupersmith, M. J., Garvin, M. K., Wang, J. K., Durbin, M. & Kardon, R. (2016). Retinal Ganglion Cell Layer Thinning Within One Month of Presentation for Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 57(8), 3588-3593. PMID: 27388052.

Chen, J. J., Kardon, R. H. (2016). Avoiding Clinical Misinterpretation and Artifacts of Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of the Optic Nerve, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, and Ganglion Cell Layer. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology, 36(4), 417-438. PMID: 27636747.

Chen, J. J., Thurtell, M. J., Longmuir, R. A., Garvin, M. K., Wang, J. K., Wall, M. & Kardon, R. H. (2015). Causes and Prognosis of Visual Acuity Loss at the Time of Initial Presentation in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 56(6), 3850-9. PMID: 26070058.

Greiner, M. A., Burckart, K. A., Wagoner, M. D., Schmidt, G. A., Reed, C. R., Liaboe, C. A., Flamme-Wiese, M. J., Zimmerman, M. B., Mullins, R. F., Kardon, R. H., Goins, K. M. & Aldrich, B. T. (2015). Regional assessment of energy-producing metabolic activity in the endothelium of donor corneas. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 56(5), 2803-10. PMID: 26024071.

Yorek, M. S., Obrosov, A., Shevalye, H., Holmes, A., Harper, M. M., Kardon, R. H. & Yorek, M. A. (2015). Effect of diet-induced obesity or type 1 or type 2 diabetes on corneal nerves and peripheral neuropathy in C57Bl/6J mice. Journal of the peripheral nervous system : JPNS, 20(1), 24-31. PMID: 25858759.

Kardon, R. H. (2015). What should I do with a dilated pupil?. In A. G. Lee , P. W. Brazis , L. B. Kline (Eds.) Curbside Consultation in Neuro-Ophthalmology: 49 Clinical Questions. (2nd ed.), pp. 97-101. Thorofare, NJ: Slack Inc.

Meier, P. G., Maeder, P., Kardon, R. H. & Borruat, F. X. (2015). Homonymous Ganglion Cell Layer Thinning After Isolated Occipital Lesion: Macular OCT Demonstrates Transsynaptic Retrograde Retinal Degeneration. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society, 35(2), 112-6. PMID: 25285723.

Costello, F., Pan, Y. I., Yeh, E. A., Hodge, W., Burton, J. M. & Kardon, R. (2015). The temporal evolution of structural and functional measures after acute optic neuritis. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry, 86(12), 1369-73. PMID: 25669747.

Shevalye, H., Yorek, M. S., Coppey, L. J., Holmes, A., Harper, M. M., Kardon, R. H. & Yorek, M. A. (2015). Effect of enriching the diet with menhaden oil or daily treatment with resolvin D1 on neuropathy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Journal of neurophysiology, 114(1), 199-208. PMID: 25925322.

Chen, J. J., Costello, F. & Kardon, R. H. (2015). Sex disparities in neuro-ophthalmologic disorders. Current eye research, 40(2), 247-65. PMID: 24911098.

Chen, J. J., Kardon, R. H., Daley, T. J. & Longmuir, R. A. (2015). Enhancement of the optic nerve sheath and temporal arteries from giant cell arteritis. (Vols. 50). (5), pp. e96-7. Canadian journal of ophthalmology. PMID: 26455993.

Vislisel, J. M., Chen, J. J. & Kardon, R. H. (2014). Localizing the lesion in Foster Kennedy syndrome from hemiretinal atrophy at the macula. (Vols. 34). (4), pp. 422-5. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society. PMID: 25225949.

Auinger, P., Durbin, M., Feldon, S., Garvin, M., Kardon, R., Keltner, J., Kupersmith, M., Sibony, P., Plumb, K., Wang, J. K. & Werner, J. S. (2014). Baseline OCT measurements in the idiopathic intracranial hypertension treatment trial, part I: quality control, comparisons, and variability. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 55(12), 8180-8188. PMID: 25370510.

Chen, J. J., Kardon, R. H. & Longmuir, R. A. (2014). Diagnostic features of retinal nerve fiber layer rotation in skew deviation using optical coherence tomography. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society, 34(4), 389-92. PMID: 25025301.

Dutca, L. M., Stasheff, S. F., Hedberg-Buenz, A., Rudd, D. S., Batra, N., Blodi, F. R., Yorek, M. S., Yin, T., Shankar, M., Herlein, J. A., Naidoo, J., Morlock, L., Williams, N., Kardon, R. H., Anderson, M. G., Pieper, A. A. & Harper, M. M. (2014). Early detection of subclinical visual damage after blast-mediated TBI enables prevention of chronic visual deficit by treatment with P7C3-S243. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 55(12), 8330-41. PMID: 25468886.

Kardon, R. (2014). Optical coherence tomography in papilledema: What am I missing?. Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, 34(Suppl), S10-17. PMID: 25133965.

Kuburas, A., Thompson, S., Artemyev, N. O., Kardon, R. H. & Russo, A. F. (2014). Photophobia and abnormally sustained pupil responses in a mouse model of bradyopsia. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 55(10), 6878-85. PMID: 25257059.

Almeida, D. R., Chin, E. K., Niles, P., Kardon, R. & Sohn, E. H. (2014). Unilateral manifestation of autoimmune retinopathy. Can J Ophthalmol, 49(4), e85-e87. PMID: 25103665.

Auinger, P., Durbin, M., Feldon, S., Garvin, M., Kardon, R., Keltner, J., Kupersmith, M. J., Sibony, P., Plumb, K., Wang, J. K. & Werner, J. S. (2014). Baseline OCT measurements in the idiopathic intracranial hypertension treatment trial, part II: correlations and relationship to clinical features. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 55(12), 8173-8179. PMID: 25370513.

Yorek, M. S., Obrosov, A., Shevalye, H., Lupachyk, S., Harper, M. M., Kardon, R. H. & Yorek, M. A. (2014). Effect of glycemic control on corneal nerves and peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57Bl/6J mice. Journal of the peripheral nervous system : JPNS, 19(3), 205-17. PMID: 25403729.

Davidson, E. P., Coppey, L. J., Kardon, R. H. & YOREK, M. A. (2014). Differences and similarities in development of corneal nerve damage and peripheral neuropathy and in diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetic rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 55(3), 1222-30. PMID: 24519423.

Wang, J. K., Miri, M. S., Kardon, R. H. & Garvin, M. K. (2013). Automated 3-D Region-Based Volumetric Estimation of Optic Disc Swelling in Papilledema Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. Proc SPIE [Medical Imaging 2013: Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging], 8672, art no: 867214. DOI: 10.1117/12.2007001.

Falardeau, J., Kardon, R. H. (2013). Anisocoria. American Academy of Ophthalmology, 31(3), 1-14.

Kupersmith, M. J., Anderson, S., Durbin, M. & Kardon, R. (2013). Scanning laser polarimetry, but not optical coherence tomography predicts permanent visual field loss in acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 54(8), 5514-5519. PMID: 23838768.

Ommaya, A. K., Adams, K. M., Allman, R. M., Collins, E. G., Cooper, R. A., Dixon, C. E., Fishman, P. S., Henry, J. A., Kardon, R., Kerns, R. D., Kupersmith, J., Lo, A., Macko, R., McArdle, R., McGlinchey, R. E., McNeil, M. R., O'Toole, T. P., Peckham, P. H., Tuszynski, M. H., Waxman, S. G. & Wittenberg, G. F. (2013). Guest editorial: Opportunities in rehabilitation research. J Rehabil Res Dev, 50(6), vii-xxxii. PMID: 24203548.

Ledolter, J., Kardon, R. (2013). Detecting the Progression of Eye Disease: CUSUM Charts for Assessing the Visual Field and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness. Transl Vis Sci Technol, 2(6), 2. PMID: 24083087.

Kardon, R. H., Hong, S. & Kawasaki, A. (2013). Entrance Pupil Size Predicts Retinal Illumination in Darkly Pigmented Eyes But Not Lightly Pigmented Eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 54(8), 5559-67. PMID: 23882686.

Kupersmith, M. J., Anderson, S. & Kardon, R. (2013). Predictive value of 1 month retinal nerve fiber layer thinning for deficits at 6 months after acute optic neuritis. Mult Scler, 19(13), 1743-1748. PMID: 23698127.

Pemp, B., Kardon, R. H., Kircher, K., Pernicka, E., Schmidt-Erfurth, U. & Reitner, A. (2013). Effectiveness of averaging strategies to reduce variance in retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurements using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, 251(7), 1841-8. PMID: 23589277.

Chen, Y., Kardon, R. H. (2013). Studying the effect of iris mechanics on the pupillary light reflex using brimonidine-induced anisocoria. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 54(4), 2951-8. PMID: 23513058.

Ts'o, D. Y., Schallek, J., Kardon, R., Du, Q. (Eds.) (2013). Intrinsic signal functional imaging of the retina: Outer retinal origins. In Frontiers in Optics, FIO 2013, October 6, 2013 - October 10, 2013. Orlando, FL: Optical Society of America.

Mohan, K., Kecova, H., Hernandez-Merino, E., Kardon, R. H. & Harper, M. M. (2013). Retinal ganglion cell damage in an experimental rodent model of blast-mediated traumatic brain injury. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 54(5), 3440-50. PMID: 23620426.

Antony, B. J., Abràmoff, M. D., Harper, M. M., Jeong, W., Sohn, E. H., Kwon, Y. H., Kardon, R. H. & Garvin, M. K. (2013). A combined machine-learning and graph-based framework for the segmentation ofretinal surfaces in SD-OCT volumes. Biomed Opt Express, 4(12), 2712-2728. PMID: 24409375.

Tang, L., Kardon, R. H., Wang, J. K., Garvin, M. K., Lee, K. & Abramoff, M. D. (2012). Quantitative evaluation of papilledema from stereoscopic color fundus photographs. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 53(8), 4490-7. PMID: 22661468.

Thurtell, M. J., Kardon, R. H. (2012). Recovery of vision from no light perception in giant cell arteritis. Archives of ophthalmology, 130(8), 1080-2. PMID: 22893089.

Mohan, K., Harper, M. M., Kecova, H., Ye, E. A., Lazic, T., Sakaguchi, D. S., Kardon, R. H. & Grozdanic, S. D. (2012). Characterization of structure and function of the mouse retina using pattern electroretinography, pupil light reflex, and optical coherence tomography. Veterinary ophthalmology, 15 Suppl 2, 94-104. PMID: 22642927.

Costello, F., Hodge, W., Pan, Y. I., Burton, J. M., Freedman, M. S., Stys, P. K., Trufyn, J. & Kardon, R. (2012). Sex-specific differences in retinal nerve fiber layer thinning after acute optic neuritis. Neurology, 79(18), 1866-72. PMID: 23077012.

Ledolter, J., Kardon, R. (2012). Detection of the onset of multiple sclerosis from SD-OCT thickness measurements of the retinal nerve fiber layer. Quality Engineering, 25(1), 3-10. DOI: 10.1080/08982112.2012.721042.

Kawasaki, A., Crippa, S. V., Kardon, R. H., Leon, L. & Hamel, C. (2012). Characterization of Pupil Responses to Blue and Red Light Stimuli in Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa due to NR2E3 Mutation. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 53(9), 5562-9. PMID: 22807301.

Wang, J. K., Kardon, R. H., Kupersmith, M. J. & Garvin, M. K. (2012). Automated quantification of volumetric optic disc swelling in papilledema using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 53(7), 4069-75. PMID: 22599584.

Zode, G. S., Bugge, K. E., Mohan, K., Grozdanic, S. D., Peters, J. C., Koehn, D. R., Anderson, M. G., Kardon, R. H., Stone, E. M. & Sheffield, V. C. (2012). Topical ocular sodium 4-phenylbutyrate rescues glaucoma in a myocilin mouse model of primary open-angle glaucoma. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 53(3), 1557-65. PMID: 22328638.

Kupersmith, M. J., Kardon, R. H., Durbin, M., Horne, M. & Shulman, J. (2012). Scanning laser polarimetry reveals status of RNFL integrity in eyes with optic nerve head swelling by OCT. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 53(4), 1962-70. PMID: 22410562.

Kawasaki, A., Munier, F. L., Leon, L. & Kardon, R. H. (2012). Pupillometric quantification of residual rod and cone activity in leber congenital amaurosis. Archives of ophthalmology, 130(6), 798-800. PMID: 22801849.

Chen, Y., Kardon, R. & Longmuir, R. (2011). Arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy and Chronic Cough as Presenting Features of Churg-Strauss Syndrome. Neuro-Ophthalmology, 35(5-6), 269-71. PMID: PMID WOS:000297594300008.

Barriga, E. S., Pattichis, M., Ts'o, D., Abramoff, M., Kardon, R., Kwon, Y. & Soliz, P. (2011). Independent component analysis using prior information for signal detection in a functional imaging system of the retina. Med Image Anal, 15(1), 35-44. PMID: 20655800.

Thompson, S., Stasheff, S. F., Hernandez, J., Nylen, E., East, J. S., Kardon, R. H., Pinto, L. H., Mullins, R. F. & Stone, E. M. (2011). Different inner retinal pathways mediate rod-cone input in irradiance detection for the pupillary light reflex and regulation of behavioral state in mice. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 52(1), 618-23. PMID: 20847113.

Echegaray, S., Zamora, G., Yu, H., Luo, W., Soliz, P. & Kardon, R. H. (2011). Automated analysis of optic nerve images for detection and staging of papilledema. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 52(10), 7470-8. PMID: 21862651.

Kardon, R. H., Scott, C. J., Lee, A. G., Frisen, L. & Wall, M. (2011). Optical coherence tomography for optic disc edema--reply. Archives of Ophthalmology, 129(9), 1246-7. PMID: 21911691.

Kardon, R., Anderson, S. C., Damarjian, T. G., Grace, E. M., Stone, E. & Kawasaki, A. (2011). Chromatic pupillometry in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Ophthalmology, 118(2), 376-81. PMID: 20869119.

Kardon, R. (2011). Regulation of light through the pupil. In L. A. Levin , S. F. Nilsson , J. Ver Hoeve , S. M. Wu (Eds.) Adler's physiology of the eye. (11), pp. 502-525. Edinburgh: Saunders, Elsevier.

Kupersmith, M. J., Sibony, P., Mandel, G., Durbin, M. & Kardon, R. H. (2011). Optical coherence tomography of the swollen optic nerve head: deformation of the peripapillary retinal pigment epithelium layer in papilledema. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 52(9), 6558-64. PMID: 21705690.

Kardon, R. H. (2011). Role of the macular optical coherence tomography scan in neuro-ophthalmology. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology, 31(4), 353-361. PMID: 22089499.

Gandhi, N. G., Rogers, G. M., Kardon, R. H. & Allen, R. C. (2011). Periodic unilateral eyelid retraction in a pediatric patient. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society, 31(4), 350-2. PMID: 21878821.

Harper, M. M., Grozdanic, S. D., Blits, B., Kuehn, M. H., Zamzow, D., Buss, J. E., Kardon, R. H. & Sakaguchi, D. S. (2011). Transplantation of BDNF-secreting mesenchymal stem cells provides neuroprotection in chronically hypertensive rat eyes. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 52(7), 4506-15. PMID: 21498611.

Raza, A. S., Cho, J., de Moraes, C. G., Wang, M., Zhang, X., Kardon, R. H., Liebmann, J. M., Ritch, R. & Hood, D. C. (2011). Retinal ganglion cell layer thickness and local visual field sensitivity in glaucoma. Archives of ophthalmology, 129(12), 1529-1536. PMID: 22159673.

Kupersmith, M. J., Mandel, G., Anderson, S., Meltzer, D. E. & Kardon, R. (2011). Baseline, one and three month changes in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer in acute optic neuritis: relation to baseline vision and MRI. Journal of the neurological sciences, 308(1-2), 117-23. PMID: 21764408.

Costello, F. E., Klistorner, A. & Kardon, R. (2011). Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis and management of optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis. Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging: The Official Journal of the International Society for Imaging in the Eye, 42(4), S28-40. PMID: 21790109.

Park, J. C., Moura, A. L., Raza, A. S., Rhee, D. W., Kardon, R. H. & Hood, D. C. (2011). Toward a clinical protocol for assessing rod, cone, and melanopsin contributions to the human pupil response. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 52(9), 6624-35. PMID: 21743008.

Grozdanic, S. D., Kecova, H., Harper, M. M., Nilaweera, W., Kuehn, M. H. & Kardon, R. H. (2010). Functional and structural changes in a canine model of hereditary primary angle-closure glaucoma. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 51(1), 255-263. PMID: 19661222.

Kawasaki, A., Miller, N. R. & Kardon, R. (2010). Pupillographic investigation of the relative afferent pupillary defect associated with a midbrain lesion. Ophthalmology, 117(1), 175-9. PMID: 19923003.

Pasol, J., Feuer, W., Yang, C., Shaw, G., Kardon, R. & Guy, J. (2010). Phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain correlations to visual function, optical coherence tomography, and treatment. Multiple sclerosis international, 2010, 542691. PMID: 22096624.

Tagg, N. T., Kardon, R. H. (2010). Optic Atrophy. In L. A. Levin , D. M. Albert (Eds.) Ocular Disease: Mechanisms and Management. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company.

Nowomiejska, K., Vonthein, R., Paetzold, J., Zagorski, Z., Kardon, R. & Schiefer, U. (2010). Reaction time during semi-automated kinetic perimetry (SKP) in patients with advanced visual field loss. Acta ophthalmologica, 88(1), 65-9. PMID: 19094165.

Jiang, B., Harper, M. M., Kecova, H., Adamus, G., Kardon, R. H., Grozdanic, S. D. & Kuehn, M. H. (2010). Neuroinflammation in advanced canine glaucoma. Molecular vision, 16, 2092-108. PMID: 21042562.

Petzold, A., de Boer, J. F., Schippling, S., Vermersch, P., Kardon, R., Green, A., Calabresi, P. A. & Polman, C. (2010). Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet. Neurology, 9(9), 921-932. PMID: 20723847.

Chen, Y., Longmuir, R., Fernandex De Castro, J., Corbett, J., Lee, A. & Kardon, R. (2010). I am Allergic to What …. Tucson, Arizona: North American Neuro-ophthalmology Society Annual Meeting.

Ko, A. C., Hernández, J., Brinton, J. P., Faidley, E. A., Mugge, S. A., Mets, M. B., Kardon, R. H., Folk, J. C., Mullins, R. F. & Stone, E. M. (2010). Anti-?-enolase autoimmune retinopathy manifesting in early childhood. Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960), 128(12), 1590-5. PMID: 21149784.

Grozdanic, S. D., Lazic, T., Kuehn, M. H., Harper, M. M., Kardon, R. H., Kwon, Y. H., Lavik, E. B. & Sakaguchi, D. S. (2010). Exogenous modulation of intrinsic optic nerve neuroprotective activity. Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology, 248(8), 1105-1116. PMID: 20229104.

Thompson, S., Whiting, R. E., Kardon, R. H., Stone, E. M. & Narfstr̦m, K. (2010). Effects of hereditary retinal degeneration due to a CEP290 mutation on the feline pupillary light reflex. Veterinary ophthalmology, 13(3), 151-7. PMID: 20500714.

Scott, C. J., Kardon, R. H., Lee, A. G., Frisén, L. & Wall, M. (2010). Diagnosis and grading of papilledema in patients with raised intracranial pressure using optical coherence tomography vs clinical expert assessment using a clinical staging scale. Archives of ophthalmology, 128(6), 705-711. PMID: 20547947.

Randhawa, S., Shah, V. A., Kardon, R. H. & Lee, A. G. (2009). An internuclear ophthalmoplegia with ipsilateral abduction deficit: half and half syndrome. BMJ case reports, 2009, bcr2006099135. PMID: 21687160.

Ts'o, D., Schallek, J., Kwon, Y., Kardon, R., Abramoff, M. & Soliz, P. (2009). Noninvasive functional imaging of the retina reveals outer retinal and hemodynamic intrinsic optical signal origins. Japanese journal of ophthalmology, 53(4), 334-44. PMID: 19763750.

Wall, M., Johnson, C. A., Kardon, R. H. & Crabb, D. P. (2009). Use of a continuous probability scale to display visual field damage. Archives of ophthalmology, 127(6), 749-756. PMID: 19506193.

Kardon, R., Anderson, S. C., Damarjian, T. G., Grace, E. M., Stone, E. & Kawasaki, A. (2009). Chromatic pupil responses: preferential activation of the melanopsin-mediated versus outer photoreceptor-mediated pupil light reflex. Ophthalmology, 116(8), 1564-73. PMID: 19501408.

Schallek, J., Li, H., Kardon, R., Kwon, Y., Abramoff, M., Soliz, P. & Ts'o, D. (2009). Stimulus-evoked intrinsic optical signals in the retina: spatial and temporal characteristics. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 50(10), 4865-4872. PMID: 19420337.

Schallek, J., Kardon, R., Kwon, Y., Abramoff, M., Soliz, P. & Ts'o, D. (2009). Stimulus-evoked intrinsic optical signals in the retina: pharmacologic dissection reveals outer retinal origins. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 50(10), 4873-80. PMID: 19420331.

Hood, D. C., Anderson, S. C., Wall, M., Raza, A. S. & Kardon, R. H. (2009). A test of a linear model of glaucomatous structure-function loss reveals sources of variability in retinal nerve fiber and visual field measurements. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 50(9), 4254-4266. PMID: 19443710.

Shah, V. A., Kardon, R. H., Lee, A. G., Corbett, J. J. & Wall, M. (2008). Long-term follow-up of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: the Iowa experience. Neurology, 70(8), 634-40. PMID: 18285538.

Lee, M. S., Harrison, A. R. & Kardon, R. H. (2008). Patient use of Visine (tetrahydrozoline) masks Horner syndrome. The British journal of ophthalmology, 92(1), 149-50. PMID: 18156384.

Dave, S., Wynn, P., Kardon, R. H. & Oetting, T. A. (2008). Beyond blepharitis: First blurry vision, then diplopia. EyeNet, 12(3), 51-53.

Ferraris, S., Clark, S., Garelli, E., Davidzon, G., Moore, S. A., Kardon, R. H., Bienstock, R. J., Longley, M. J., Mancuso, M. & GutiÌ©rrez RÌ_os, P. (2008). Progressive external ophthalmoplegia and vision and hearing loss in a patient with mutations in POLG2 and OPA1. Archives of neurology, 65(1), 125-31. PMID: 18195150.

Wall, M., Brito, C. F., Woodward, K. R., Doyle, C. K., Kardon, R. H. & Johnson, C. A. (2008). Total deviation probability plots for stimulus size v perimetry: a comparison with size III stimuli. Archives of ophthalmology, 126(4), 473-9. PMID: 18413515.

Kardon, R. H. (2008). The Pupils and Accommodation. In M. Yanoff , J. Duker (Eds.) Ophthalmology, Chapter 9. London: Mosby.

Kardon, R. H. (2008). Pupils and Accommodation. In D. Albert , F. Jacobiec (Eds.) Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company.

Hood, D. C., Anderson, S., Rouleau, J., Wenick, A. S., Grover, L. K., Behrens, M. M., Odel, J. G., Lee, A. G. & Kardon, R. H. (2008). Retinal nerve fiber structure versus visual field function in patients with ischemic optic neuropathy. A test of a linear model. Ophthalmology, 115(5), 904-10. PMID: 17870170.

Ostojic, J., Grozdanic, S., Syed, N. A., Hargrove, M. S., Trent, J. T., Kuehn, M. H., Kardon, R. H., Kwon, Y. H. & Sakaguchi, D. S. (2008). Neuroglobin and cytoglobin distribution in the anterior eye segment: a comparative immunohistochemical study. The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society, 56(9), 863-72. PMID: 18574250.

Garvin, M. K., Abramoff, M. D., Kardon, R., Russell, S. R., Wu, X. & Sonka, M. (2008). Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search. IEEE transactions on medical imaging, 27(10), 1495-505. PMID: 18815101.

Reede, D. L., Garcon, E., Smoker, W. R. & Kardon, R. (2008). Horner's syndrome: clinical and radiographic evaluation. Neuroimaging clinics of North America, 18(2), 369-85, xi. PMID: 18466837.

Ostojic, J., Grozdanic, S. D., Syed, N. A., Hargrove, M. S., Trent, 3rd, J. T., Kuehn, M. H., Kwon, Y. H., Kardon, R. H. & Sakaguchi, D. S. (2008). Patterns of distribution of oxygen-binding globins, neuroglobin and cytoglobin in human retina. Archives of ophthalmology, 126(11), 1530-1536. PMID: 19001220.

Costello, F., Hodge, W., Pan, Y. I., Metz, L. & Kardon, R. H. (2008). Retinal nerve fiber layer and future risk of multiple sclerosis. The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques, 35(4), 482-7. PMID: 18973066.

Koczman, J. J., Rouleau, J., Gaunt, M., Kardon, R. H., Wall, M. & Lee, A. G. (2008). Neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis: the University of Iowa experience. Seminars in ophthalmology, 23(3), 157-68. PMID: 18432542.

Costello, F., Hodge, W., Pan, Y. I., Eggenberger, E., Coupland, S. & Kardon, R. H. (2008). Tracking retinal nerve fiber layer loss after optic neuritis: a prospective study using optical coherence tomography. Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England), 14(7), 893-905. PMID: 18573837.

Barriga, E. S., Pattichis, M., Ts'o, D., Abramoff, M., Kardon, R., Kwon, Y. & Soliz, P. (2007). Spatiotemporal independent component analysis for the detection of functional responses in cat retinal images. IEEE transactions on medical imaging, 26(8), 1035-45. PMID: 17695124.

Hood, D. C., Anderson, S. C., Wall, M. & Kardon, R. H. (2007). Structure versus function in glaucoma: an application of a linear model. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 48(8), 3662-8. PMID: 17652736.

Randhawa, S., Shah, V. A., Kardon, R. H. & Lee, A. G. (2007). Neurological picture. An internuclear ophthalmoplegia with ipsilateral abduction deficit: half and half syndrome. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry, 78(3), 309. PMID: 17308292.

Grozdanic, S. D., Matic, M., Sakaguchi, D. S. & Kardon, R. H. (2007). Evaluation of retinal status using chromatic pupil light reflex activity in healthy and diseased canine eyes. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 48(11), 5178-83. PMID: 17962471.

Randhawa, S., Shah, V. A. & Kardon, R. H. (2007). Megalopapilla, not glaucoma. Archives of ophthalmology, 125(8), 1134-5. PMID: 17698767.

Hood, D. C., Kardon, R. H. (2007). A framework for comparing structural and functional measures of glaucomatous damage. Progress in retinal and eye research, 26(6), 688-710. PMID: 17889587.

Grozdanic, S. D., Matic, M., Betts, D. M., Sakaguchi, D. S. & Kardon, R. H. (2007). Recovery of canine retina and optic nerve function after acute elevation of intraocular pressure: implications for canine glaucoma treatment. Veterinary ophthalmology, 10 Suppl 1, 101-7. PMID: 17973841.

Kawasaki, A., Kardon, R. H. (2007). Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society, 27(3), 195-204. PMID: 17895821.

Randhawa, S., Shah, V. A., Kardon, R. H. & Lee, A. G. (2007). An internuclear ophthalmoplegia with ipsilateral abduction deficit: half and half syndrome. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 78(3), 309.

Haeker, M., AbrÌÊmoff, M. D., Wu, X., Kardon, R. & Sonka, M. (2007). Use of varying constraints in optimal 3-D graph search for segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images. Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention : MICCAI ... International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, 10(Pt 1), 244-51. PMID: 18051065.

Haeker, M., Sonka, M., Kardon, R., Shah, V. A., wu, X. & Abràmoff, M. D. (2007). Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images. (Vols. 6512). pp. 651214 (online). Proceedings of SPIE. Medical Imaging 2007: Image Processing.

Daniels, A. B., Liu, G. T., Volpe, N. J., Galetta, S. L., Moster, M. L., Newman, N. J., Biousse, V., Lee, A. G., Wall, M., Kardon, R., Acierno, M. D., Corbett, J. J., Maguire, M. G. & Balcer, L. J. (2007). Profiles of obesity, weight gain, and quality of life in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri). Am J Ophthalmol, 143(4), 635-641. PMID: 17386271.

Haeker, M., Wu, X., AbrÌÊmoff, M., Kardon, R. & Sonka, M. (2007). Incorporation of regional information in optimal 3-D graph search with application for intraretinal layer segmentation of optical coherence tomography images. Information processing in medical imaging : proceedings of the ... conference, 20, 607-18. PMID: 17633733.

Barriga, E. S., Pattichis, M. S., Ts'o, D. Y., Kwon, Y., Kardon, R., Abramoff, M. D. & Soliz, P. (2006). Detection of low amplitude, in-vivo intrinsic signals from an optical imager of retinal function. In Ophthalmic Technologies XVI. (Vols. 6138). pp. 66-77. Proceedings of the SPIE.

AbrÌÊmoff, M. D., Kwon, Y. H., Ts'o, D., Soliz, P., Zimmerman, B., Pokorny, J. & Kardon, R. (2006). Visual stimulus-induced changes in human near-infrared fundus reflectance. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 47(2), 715-21. PMID: 16431972.

Barriga, E. S., Pattichis, M. S., Ts'o, D. Y., Kwon, Y., Kardon, R., Abramoff, M. D. & Soliz, P. (2006). Detection of low amplitude, in-vivo intrinsic signals from an optical imager of retinal function. In Ophthalmic Technologies XVI. (Vols. 6138). pp. 66-77. Proceedings of the SPIE.

Wendel, L., Lee, A. G., Boldt, H. C., Kardon, R. H. & Wall, M. (2006). Subretinal neovascular membrane in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. American journal of ophthalmology, 141(3), 573-4. PMID: 16490514.

Haeker, M., AbrÌÊmoff, M., Kardon, R. & Sonka, M. (2006). Segmentation of the surfaces of the retinal layer from OCT images. Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention : MICCAI ... International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, 9(Pt 1), 800-7. PMID: 17354964.

Haeker, M., Abramoff, M., Kardon, R. & Sonka, M. (2006). Segmentation of the surfaces of the retinal layer from OCT images. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science. (Vols. 4190). (LNCS-I), pp. 800-807. Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2006 - 9th International Conference, Proceedings.

Kardon, R. H. (2006). Disturbances of the Pupil. In J. H. Noseworthy (Eds.) Neurological Therapeutics Principles and Practice, Chapter 168. pp. 1981-1997. Oxon, UK: Informa Healthcare.

Kardon, R., Kawasaki, A. & Miller, N. R. (2006). Origin of the relative afferent pupillary defect in optic tract lesions. Ophthalmology, 113(8), 1345-53. PMID: 16877073.

Kardon, R. H., Morrisey, M. C. & Lee, A. G. (2006). Abnormal multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) in ethambutol toxicity. Seminars in ophthalmology, 21(4), 215-22. PMID: 17182409.

Ostoji?à, J., Sakaguchi, D. S., de Lathouder, Y., Hargrove, M. S., Trent, J. T., Kwon, Y. H., Kardon, R. H., Kuehn, M. H., Betts, D. M. & Grozdani?à, S. (2006). Neuroglobin and cytoglobin: oxygen-binding proteins in retinal neurons. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 47(3), 1016-23. PMID: 16505036.

Parikh, M., Miller, N. R., Lee, A. G., Savino, P. J., Vacarezza, M. N., Cornblath, W., Eggenberger, E., Antonio-Santos, A., Golnik, K. & Kardon, R. (2006). Prevalence of a normal C-reactive protein with an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate in biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis. Ophthalmology, 113(10), 1842-5. PMID: 16884778.

Thompson, H. S., Kardon, R. H. (2006). The Argyll Robertson pupil. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society, 26(2), 134-8. PMID: 16845316.

Grozdanic, S. D., Ast, A. M., Lazic, T., Kwon, Y. H., Kardon, R. H., Sonea, I. M. & Sakaguchi, D. S. (2006). Morphological integration and functional assessment of transplanted neural progenitor cells in healthy and acute ischemic rat eyes. Experimental eye research, 82(4), 597-607. PMID: 16213484.

Costello, F., Coupland, S., Hodge, W., Lorello, G. R., Koroluk, J., Pan, Y. I., Freedman, M. S., Zackon, D. H. & Kardon, R. H. (2006). Quantifying axonal loss after optic neuritis with optical coherence tomography. Annals of neurology, 59(6), 963-9. PMID: 16718705.

Thompson, H. S., Kardon, R. H. (2006). Irene E. Loewenfeld, PhD Physiologist of the pupil. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society, 26(2), 139-48. PMID: 16845317.

Kardon, R. (2005). Introduction to Anatomy and Neural Pathways. Am Orthopt J, 55(1), 2-9.

Sakaguchi, D. S., Van Hoffelen, S. J., Grozdanic, S. D., Kwon, Y. H., Kardon, R. H. & Young, M. J. (2005). Neural Progenitor Cell Transplants into the Developing and Mature Central Nervous System, Part IV. In J. Ourednik (Eds.) Stem Cell Biology, Development and Plasticity. pp. 118-134. New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

Kawasaki, A., Crippa, S., Anderson, S. & Kardon, R. H. (2005). The Pupil response to large regional stimuli in patients with focal visual field loss. Neuro-Ophthalmol, 29(4), 143-147.

Kardon, R. H., Bergamin, O. (2005). Adie’s Pupil. In L. A. Levin , A. C. Arnold (Eds.) Neuro-Ophthalmology, The Practical Guide, Chapter 37. New York: Thieme.

Lee, A. G., Chau, F. Y., Golnik, K. C., Kardon, R. H. & Wall, M. (2005). The diagnostic yield of the evaluation for isolated unexplained optic atrophy. Ophthalmology, 112(5), 757-9. PMID: 15878053.

Kardon, R. (2005). Are we ready to replace cocaine with apraclonidine in the pharmacologic diagnosis of Horner syndrome?. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society, 25(2), 69-70. PMID: 15937425.

Kwon, Y. H., Pereira, M. L., Anderson, S. C., Kim, Y. I. & Kardon, R. H. (2005). Quantitative correlation of elevated intraocular pressure with relative afferent pupillary defect change in unilateral glaucoma. Acta ophthalmologica Scandinavica, 83(1), 127-9. PMID: 15715579.

Nowomiejska, K., Vonthein, R., Paetzold, J., Zagorski, Z., Kardon, R. & Schiefer, U. (2005). Comparison between semiautomated kinetic perimetry and conventional Goldmann manual kinetic perimetry in advanced visual field loss. Ophthalmology, 112(8), 1343-54. PMID: 15996734.

Sakaguchi, D. S., Van Hoffelen, S. J., Grozdanic, S. D., Kwon, Y. H., Kardon, R. H. & Young, M. J. (2005). Neural progenitor cell transplants into the developing and mature central nervous system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1049, 118-34. PMID: 15965112.

Lee, A. G., Pless, M., Falardeau, J., Capozzoli, T., Wall, M. & Kardon, R. H. (2005). The use of acetazolamide in idiopathic intracranial hypertension during pregnancy. American journal of ophthalmology, 139(5), 855-9. PMID: 15860291.

Kardon, R. H. (2004). Anatomy and Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System. In N. Miller , N. Newman (Eds.) Walsh & Hoyt Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, Chapter 20. (6) Williams and Wilkinson.

Kawasaki, A., Kardon, R. H. (2004). Evaluation of a simple photographic technique to detect pupillary dilation lag due to Horner’s syndrome. Neuro Ophthalmol, 28(5-6), 215-219.

Lee, A. G., Anderson, R., Kardon, R. H. & Wall, M. (2004). Presumed "sulfa allergy" in patients with intracranial hypertension treated with acetazolamide or furosemide: cross-reactivity, myth or reality?. American journal of ophthalmology, 138(1), 114-8. PMID: 15234289.

Lee, A. G., Chau, F. Y., Golnik, K. C., Brazis, P. W., Wall, M. & Kardon, R. H. (2004). Evaluation of Isolated Optic Atrophy: An Update and Review. Comprehen Ophthalmol Update, 5(6), 297-304.

Grozdanic, S. D., Kwon, Y. H., Sakaguchi, D. S., Kardon, R. H. & Sonea, I. M. (2004). Functional evaluation of retina and optic nerve in the rat model of chronic ocular hypertension. Experimental eye research, 79(1), 75-83. PMID: 15183102.

Bergamin, O., Anderson, S. C. & Kardon, R. H. (2004). An objective method to define outlier optical coherence tomograms and repeatability of retinal nerve fibre layer measurements. Acta ophthalmologica Scandinavica, 82(5), 535-43. PMID: 15453849.

Lee, A. G., Eggenberger, E., Galetta, S., Kerrison, J., Miller, N. R., Kirby, P., Wall, M., Hitchon, P. & Kardon, R. H. (2004). Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of hemangiopericytoma. Seminars in ophthalmology, 19(4-Mar), 95-100. PMID: 15590545.

Bergamin, O., Zimmerman, M. B. & Kardon, R. H. (2003). Pupil light reflex in normal and diseased eyes: diagnosis of visual dysfunction using waveform partitioning. Ophthalmology, 110(1), 106-14. PMID: 12511354.

Bergamin, O., Kardon, R. H. (2003). Latency of the pupil light reflex: sample rate, stimulus intensity, and variation in normal subjects. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 44(4), 1546-54. PMID: 12657591.

Grozdanic, S. D., Sakaguchi, D. S., Kwon, Y. H., Kardon, R. H. & Sonea, I. M. (2003). Functional characterization of retina and optic nerve after acute ocular ischemia in rats. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 44(6), 2597-605. PMID: 12766062.

Grozdanic, S., Betts, D. M., Allbaugh, R. A., Sakaguchi, D. S., Kwon, Y. H., Kardon, R. H. & Sonea, I. M. (2003). Characterization of the pupil light reflex, electroretinogram and tonometric parameters in healthy mouse eyes. Current eye research, 26(6), 371-8. PMID: 12868018.

Grassi, M. A., Lee, A. G., Kardon, R. & Nerad, J. A. (2003). A lot of clot. Survey of ophthalmology, 48(5), 555-61. PMID: 14499821.

Grozdanic, S. D., Betts, D. M., Sakaguchi, D. S., Kwon, Y. H., Kardon, R. H. & Sonea, I. M. (2003). Temporary elevation of the intraocular pressure by cauterization of vortex and episcleral veins in rats causes functional deficits in the retina and optic nerve. Experimental eye research, 77(1), 27-33. PMID: 12823985.

Grozdanic, S. D., Betts, D. M., Sakaguchi, D. S., Allbaugh, R. A., Kwon, Y. H. & Kardon, R. H. (2003). Laser-induced mouse model of chronic ocular hypertension. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 44(10), 4337-46. PMID: 14507878.

Kardon, R. K., Kwon, Y. H., Truitt, P. W., Nemeth, S. C., Ts'o, D. & Soliz, P. (2002). Optical imaging device of retinal function. In F. Manns , P. G. Söderberg , A. Ho (Eds.) Ophthalmi Technologies XII. (4611), pp. 230-238. Proceedings of SPIE.

Hunt, M. H., Lee, A. G., Kardon, R. K., Lesley, W. S. & Chaloupka, J. C. (2002). Improvement in papilledema and visual loss after endovascular stent placement in dural sinus thrombosis. Neuro-ophthalmol, 26(2), 85-92.

Bergamin, O., Kardon, R. H. (2002). Greater pupillary escape differentiates central from peripheral visual field loss. Ophthalmology, 109(4), 771-80. PMID: 11927439.

Lee, A. G., Golnik, K., Kardon, R., Wall, M., Eggenberger, E. & Yedavally, S. (2002). Sleep apnea and intracranial hypertension in men. Ophthalmology, 109(3), 482-5. PMID: 11874748.

Costello, F., Kardon, R. H., Wall, M., Kirby, P., Ryken, T. & Lee, A. G. (2002). Papilledema as the presenting manifestation of spinal schwannoma. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society, 22(3), 199-203. PMID: 12352582.

Hayreh, S. S., Zimmerman, B. & Kardon, R. H. (2002). Visual improvement with corticosteroid therapy in giant cell arteritis. Report of a large study and review of literature. Acta ophthalmologica Scandinavica, 80(4), 355-67. PMID: 12190776.

Costello, F., Lee, A. G., Afifi, A. K., Kelkar, P., Kardon, R. H. & White, M. (2002). Childhood-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy with cranial nerve involvement. Journal of child neurology, 17(11), 819-23. PMID: 12585721.

Eggenberger, E., Golnik, K., Lee, A., Santos, R., Suntay, A., Satana, B., Vaphlades, M., Stevens, C., Kaufman, D. & Wall, M. (2002). Prognosis of ischemic internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Ophthalmology, 109(9), 1676-8. PMID: 12208716.

Grozdanic, S., Sakaguchi, D. S., Kwon, Y. H., Kardon, R. H. & Sonea, I. M. (2002). Characterization of the pupil light reflex, electroretinogram and tonometric parameters in healthy rat eyes. Current eye research, 25(2), 69-78. PMID: 12525960.

Oh, K. T., Folk, J. C., Maturi, R. K., Moore, P. & Kardon, R. H. (2001). Multifocal electroretinography in multifocal choroiditis and the multiple evanescent white dot syndrome. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.), 21(6), 581-9. PMID: 11756880.

Kardon, R. H., Givre, S. J., Wall, M. & Hood, D. (2001). Comparison Of Threshold And Multifocal-VEP Perimetry In Recovered Optic Neuritis. In Wall , Mills (Eds.) Perimetry Update 2000:Proceedings of the XVIIth International Perimetric Society Meeting, Sept. 6-9, 2000. pp. 19-28. New York: Kugler.

Lee, A. G., Kardon, R. & Arnold, T. A. (2001). LEO Clinical Update for Neuro-ophthalmology. American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Wall, M., Punke, S. G., Stickney, T. L., Brito, C. F., Withrow, K. R. & Kardon, R. H. (2001). SITA standard in optic neuropathies and hemianopias: a comparison with full threshold testing. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 42(2), 528-37. PMID: 11157893.

Wszolek, Z. K., Kardon, R. H., Wolters, E. C. & Pfeiffer, R. F. (2001). Frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17): PPND family. A longitudinal videotape demonstration. Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 16(4), 756-60. PMID: 11481705.

Hong, S., Narkiewicz, J. & Kardon, R. H. (2001). Comparison of pupil perimetry and visual perimetry in normal eyes: decibel sensitivity and variability. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 42(5), 957-65. PMID: 11274072.

Kawasaki, A., Kardon, R. H. (2001). Disorders of the pupil. Ophthalmology clinics of North America, 14(1), 149-68. PMID: 11370564.

Patel, A. D., Kardon, R. H. (2000). Visual Manifestations of Carotid Artery Disease. In C. Loftus , T. Kresowik (Eds.) Textbook of Carotid Artery Surgery. New York: Thieme.

Kardon, R. H. (2000). Pupils and Accommodation. In D. Albert , F. Jacobiec (Eds.) Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company.

Oh, K. T., Boldt, H. C., Maturi, R. K., Folk, J. C. & Kardon, R. H. (2000). Evaluation of patients with visual field defects following macular hole surgery using multifocal electroretinography. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.), 20(3), 238-43. PMID: 10872927.

Givre, S. J., Wall, M. & Kardon, R. H. (2000). Visual loss and recovery in a patient with Friedreich ataxia. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society, 20(4), 229-33. PMID: 11130744.

Yuh, W. T., Zhu, M., Taoka, T., Quets, J. P., Maley, J. E., Muhonen, M. G., Schuster, M. E. & Kardon, R. H. (2000). MR imaging of pituitary morphology in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI, 12(6), 808-13. PMID: 11105018.

Kardon, R. H. (1999). The Pupils and Accommodation. In M. Yanoff , J. Duker (Eds.) Ophthalmology, Chapter 20. London: Mosby.

Oh, K. T., Alward, W. L. & Kardon, R. H. (1999). Myositis associated with a Baerveldt glaucoma implant. American journal of ophthalmology, 128(3), 375-6. PMID: 10511042.

Donahue, S. P., Wall, M., Kutzko, K. E. & Kardon, R. H. (1999). Automated perimetry in amblyopia: a generalized depression. American journal of ophthalmology, 127(3), 312-21. PMID: 10088742.

Maturi, R. K., Folk, J. C., Nichols, B., Oetting, T. T. & Kardon, R. H. (1999). Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Archives of ophthalmology, 117(9), 1262-3. PMID: 10496407.

Kardon, R. H. (1998). The Pupils. In E. Rosen , H. S. Thompson , P. Eustace , K. Cumming (Eds.) Atlas of Neuro-Ophthalmology, Chapter. London, England: Mosby-Wolfe Publishers.

Kardon, R. H., Corbett, J. J. & Thompson, H. S. (1998). Segmental denervation and reinnervation of the iris sphincter as shown by infrared videographic transillumination. Ophthalmology, 105(2), 313-21. PMID: 9479293.

Leira, E. C., Bendixen, B. H., Kardon, R. H. & Adams, H. P. (1998). Brief, transient Horner's syndrome can be the hallmark of a carotid artery dissection. Neurology, 50(1), 289-90. PMID: 9443497.

Ajax, E. T., Kardon, R. (1998). Late-onset Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society, 18(1), 30-1. PMID: 9532536.

Lagr̬ze, W. D., Kardon, R. H. (1998). Correlation of relative afferent pupillary defect and estimated retinal ganglion cell loss. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 236(6), 401-4. PMID: 9646082.

Kardon, R. H. (1998). Drop the Alzheimer's drop test. Neurology, 50(3), 588-91. PMID: 9521239.

Wilhelm, H., Kardon, R. H. (1997). The pupillary light reflex pathway. Neuro-ophthalmol, 17(2), 59-62.

Kardon, R. H., Weinstein, J. (1997). The Iris and The Pupil. In W. Tasman , E. A. Jaeger (Eds.) Foundations of Clinical Ophthalmology, Chapter 9. Philadelpia, PA: Lippincott-Raven Publishers.

Kardon, R. H. (1997). Part I, Anatomy. In Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 2, Fundamentals and Principles of Ophthalmology, 1997-1998. pp. 9-121. American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Mizener, J. B., Kimura, A. E., Adamus, G., Thirkill, C. E., Goeken, J. A. & Kardon, R. H. (1997). Autoimmune retinopathy in the absence of cancer. American journal of ophthalmology, 123(5), 607-18. PMID: 9152066.

Donahue, S. P., Moore, P. & Kardon, R. H. (1997). Automated pupil perimetry in amblyopia: generalized depression in the involved eye. Ophthalmology, 104(12), 2161-7. PMID: 9400779.

Kardon, R. H. (1997). Anatomy and Physiology of the Pupil, Chapter 20. In N. Miller , N. Newman (Eds.) Walsh & Hoyt Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology. (5) Williams and Wilkins.

Thompson, S., Kardon, R. (1996). Migraine associated stroke. Ophthalmol Worlds News, 2(5), 22-23.

Kawasaki, A., Moore, P. & Kardon, R. H. (1996). Long-term fluctuation of relative afferent pupillary defect in subjects with normal visual function. American journal of ophthalmology, 122(6), 875-82. PMID: 8956643.

Kardon, R. H. (1995). Chapter 28: Pupil Perimetry. In N. York (Eds.) Neuro-ophthalmological Disorders: Diagnosis Work-up and Management. pp. 421-36. Tusa RJ, Newman SA: Marcel Dekker.

Kardon, R. H. (1995). Part I: Anatomy III. The Eye: Retina.

Kardon, R. H., Thompson, S. (1995). Pupil perimetry: methods of threshold determination and comparison with visual responses. In R. P. Mills , M. Wall (Eds.) Perimetry Update 1994/1995, Proceedings of the XIth International Perimetric Society Meeting Washington, D.C., USA, July 3-7, 1994. pp. 119-123. New York: Kugler Publications.

Kardon, R. H. (1995). Anisocoria following a scleral buckle. Ophthalmol World News, 1(1), 10-11.

Kardon, R. (1995). Pupillary light reflex. Curr Opin Ophthalmol, 6(6), 20-26. PMID: 10160414.

Butler, V. P., Odel, J. G., Rath, E., Wolin, M. J., Behrens, M. M., Martin, T. J., Kardon, R. H. & Gouras, P. (1995). Digitalis-induced visual disturbances with therapeutic serum digitalis concentrations. Annals of internal medicine, 123(9), 676-80. PMID: 7574223.

Kawasaki, A., Moore, P. & Kardon, R. H. (1995). Variability of the relative afferent pupillary defect. American journal of ophthalmology, 120(5), 622-33. PMID: 7485364.

Wall, M., Dollar, J. D., Sadun, A. A. & Kardon, R. (1995). Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Lack of histologic evidence for cerebral edema. Archives of neurology, 52(2), 141-5. PMID: 7848121.

Kardon, R. (1995). Comments on: Two Neuro-ophthalmic episodes separated in time and space:By Cullom Jr RD, Cullom ME. (Vols. 40). (3), pp. 217-224. Sur Ophthalmol.

Donahue, S. P., Kardon, R. H. & Thompson, H. S. (1995). Hourglass-shaped visual fields as a sign of bilateral lateral geniculate myelinolysis. American journal of ophthalmology, 119(3), 378-80. PMID: 7872406.

Barton, J. J., Kardon, R. H., Slagel, D. & Thompson, H. S. (1995). Bilateral central ptosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques, 22(1), 52-5. PMID: 7750076.

Zabriskie, N. A., Kardon, R. H. (1994). The pupil photostress test. Ophthalmology, 101(6), 1122-30. PMID: 8008354.

Wall, M., Kardon, R. H. & Moore, P. (1993). Effects of stimulus size on test-retested variability. In R. P. Mills (Eds.) Perimetry Update 1992/93:Proceedings of the Xth International Perimetric Society Meeting, Kyoto, Japan, Oct 20-22, 1992. pp. 371-376. New York: Kugler.

Shults, W. T., Hamby, S., Corbett, J. J., Kardon, R., Winterkorn, J. S. & Odel, J. G. (1993). Neuro-ophthalmic complications of intracranial catheters. Neurosurgery, 33, 135-138.

Kardon, R. H., Thompson, H. S. (1993). Congenital and Acquired Anisocoria in Children. In G. W. Cibis , A. C. Tongue , M. L. Stass-Isern (Eds.) Decision Making in Pediatric Ophthalmology. pp. 26-27. St Louis: Mosby-Year Book, Inc.

Kardon, R. H., Haupert, C. L. & Thompson, H. S. (1993). The relationship between static perimetry and the relative afferent pupillary defect. American journal of ophthalmology, 115(3), 351-6. PMID: 8442495.

Thompson, H. S., Kardon, R. H. (1992). Anisocoria: The clinical evaluation of unequal pupils. In American Academy of Ophthalmology Continuing Medical Education series. (Vols. X). (10), pp. 1-12. Rochester, MN: American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Kardon, R. H. (1992). Pupil Perimetry. Curr Opin Ophthalmol, 3, 565-570. PMID: 10147922.

Sobol, W. M., Kimura, A. E., Kardon, R. H. & Thompson, H. S. (1991). Pupillary constriction to darkness in a patient with blue-cone monochromatism. Journal of clinical neuro-ophthalmology, 11(1), 53-4. PMID: 1827461.

Thompson, H. S., Kardon, R. H. (1991). The Pupil. In S. Lessel , J. T. van Dalen (Eds.) Current Neuro-Ophthalmology, Chapter 12. pp. 223-233. St Louis: Year Book Publishers, Inc.

Hayreh, S. S., Kardon, R. H., McAllister, D. L. & Fleury, P. J. (1991). Acepromazine. Effects on intraocular pressure. Archives of ophthalmology, 109(1), 119-24. PMID: 1987928.

Kardon, R. H., Mirsky, R. (1991). Pupillary studies of the retinal "off" response in: Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System. 1991 Technical Digest Series,(1), 186-189.

Yuh, W. T., Hanigan, M. T., Nerad, J. A., Ehrhardt, J. C., Carter, K. D., Kardon, R. H. & Shellock, F. G. (1991). Extrusion of eye socket magnetic implant after MR imaging: potential hazard to patient with eye prosthesis. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI, 1(6), 711-3. PMID: 1823177.

Kardon, R. H., Kirkali, P. A. & Thompson, H. S. (1991). Automated pupil perimetry. Pupil field mapping in patients and normal subjects. Ophthalmology, 98(4), 485-95; discussion 495-6. PMID: 2052302.

Haynes, W. L., Thompson, H. S., Kardon, R. H. & Alward, W. L. (1991). Asymmetric pigmentary dispersion syndrome mimicking Horner's syndrome. American journal of ophthalmology, 112(4), 463-4. PMID: 1928256.

Kardon, R. H., Traynelis, V. C. & Billier, J. (1991). Inferior division paresis of the oculomotor nerve caused by basilar artery aneurysm. J Cerebrovasc Dis, 1, 171-176.

Munden, P. M., Kardon, R. H., Denison, C. E. & Carter, K. D. (1991). Palpebral fissure responses to topical adrenergic drugs. American journal of ophthalmology, 111(6), 706-10. PMID: 2039040.

Cremer, S. A., Thompson, H. S., Digre, K. B. & Kardon, R. H. (1990). Hydroxyamphetamine mydriasis in normal subjects. American journal of ophthalmology, 110(1), 66-70. PMID: 2368823.

Kardon, R. H., Haupert, C. & Thompson, H. S. (1990). Automated pupil perimetry in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System. pp. 44-7. Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, The Society.

Cremer, S. A., Thompson, H. S., Digre, K. B. & Kardon, R. H. (1990). Hydroxyamphetamine mydriasis in Horner's syndrome. American journal of ophthalmology, 110(1), 71-6. PMID: 2368824.

Kardon, R. H., Denison, C. E., Brown, C. K. & Thompson, H. S. (1990). Critical evaluation of the cocaine test in the diagnosis of Horner's syndrome. Archives of ophthalmology, 108(3), 384-7. PMID: 2310339.

Haller, K., Miller-Meeks, M. & Kardon, R. H. (1990). Magnetic resonance imaging and acute traumatic INO. Ophthalmology, 97, 1162-1165. PMID: 2234848.

Kardon, R. H., Denison, C. E., Brown, C. K. & Thompson, H. S. (1990). Reply to the cocaine test and Horner's syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol, 8, 1667-1668.

Stone, E. M., Coppinger, J. M., Kardon, R. H. & Donelson, J. (1990). Mae III positively detects the mitochondrial mutation associated with type I Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Archives of ophthalmology, 108(10), 1417-20. PMID: 1977373.

Haller, K. A., Miller-Meeks, M. & Kardon, R. (1990). Early magnetic resonance imaging in acute traumatic internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Ophthalmology, 97(9), 1162-5. PMID: 2234848.

Kardon, R. H., Weingeist, T. A. (1987). Anatomy of the ciliary body and outflow pathways. In T. D. Duane (Eds.) Clinical Ophthalmology, Chapter 43. Philadlephia: Harper and Row.

Kardon, R. H., Cutkomp, J. & Weingeist, T. A. (1984). Retinal and choroidal blood flow measurement in monkeys using implantable ultrasonic Doppler flow probes.

Kardon, R. H., Farley, D. B., Heidger, P. M. & Van Orden, D. E. (1982). Intraarterial cushions of the rat uterine artery: a scanning electron microscope evaluation utilizing vascular casts. The Anatomical record, 203(1), 19-29. PMID: 7049004.

Kardon, R. H., Kessel, R. G. (1981). The microcirculation of lymphoid tissue in three dimensions. Scanning electron microscopy of corrosion casts of the lymph node, thymus, and peri-rectal lymphoid tissue. Biomed Res, 2(Suppl), 173.

Kessel, R. G., Kardon, R. H. (1981). Scanning electron microscopy of mammalian neuroepithelium. Biomed Res, 2(Suppl), 482-499.

Reynolds, D. G., Kardon, R. H. (1981). Methods of studying the splanchnic vascular architecture. In N. Granger , G. Bulkey (Eds.) The Measurement of Splanchnic Blood Flow. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co.

Kessel, R. G., Kardon, R. H. & Angyal, J. (1980). The digestive system. Carolina Tips, 43(4).

Kessel, R. G., Kardon, R. H. & Angyal, J. (1980). The digestive system. In Carolina Tips. (Vols. 43). (4) Burlington NC: Carolina Biological Supply Co.

Kardon, R. H., Kessel, R. G. (1980). Three-dimensional organization of the hepatic microcirculation in the rodent as observed by scanning electron microscopy of corrosion casts. Gastroenterology, 79(1), 72-81. PMID: 7380226.

Kessel, R. G., Kardon, R. H. (1979). Tissues and Organs: A Text-Atlas of Scanning Electron Microscopy. San Francisco: W H Freeman & Co.

Kardon, R. H., Kessel, R. G. (1979). SEM studies on vascular casts of the rat ovary. Scanning electron microscopy,(3), 743-50. PMID: 524041.

Kessel, R. G., Kardon, R. H. (1979). The shape, polarization, and innervation of sensory hair cells in the guinea pig crista ampullaris and macula utriculi. Scanning electron microscopy,(3), 967-74, 962. PMID: 42972.