James V. Nepola, MD

Portrait
Professor of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation

Contact Information

Primary Office
01067 JPP
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-356-2466

Education

BS, Yale University
MD, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University
Internship, Roosevelt Hospital
Resident, General Surgery, Roosevelt Hospital
Resident, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Orthopaedic Center

Publications

Lacks, W. D., Fredericks, D., Petersen, E., Donovan, M., George, M., Nepola, J., Smucker, J. & Femino, J. E. (2013). Effect of Aspirin on Bone Healing in a Rabbit Ulnar Osteotomy Model. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery Am, 95(6), 488-496. PMID: 23407637.

Donigan, MD, J. A., Fredericks, BS, D., Nepola, MD, J. V. & Smucker, MD, J. D. (2012). The Effect of Transdermal Nicotine on Fracture Healing in a Rabbit Model. (Vols. 26). (12), pp. 724-727. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma.

Nepola, J. V. (2011). Treatment of Proximal Humerus Fractures. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Orthopaedic Knowledge Online.

Nepola, J. V. (2009). Rockwood and Green’s Principals in External Fixation 4th Edition. (4) J V Lippincott Company.

Nepola, J. V. (2015). Nothing Is Sacred: The Need for Unceasing Questioning in Scientific Research. (Vols. 44). (10), pp. 444. American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.). PMID: 26447403.

Smucker, J. D., Petersen, E. B., Al-Hili, A., Nepola, J. V. & Fredericks, D. C. (2015). Assessment of SiCaP-30 in a Rabbit Posterolateral Fusion Model with Concurrent Chemotherapy. The Iowa Orthopaedic Journal, 35, 140-6. PMID: 26361457.

Donigan, J. A., Fredericks, D. C., Nepola, J. V. & Smucker, J. D. (2012). The Effect of Transdermal Nicotine on Fracture Healing in a Rabbit Model. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 12(26), 724-7. PMID: 22955337.

Smucker, J. D., Petersen, E. B., Nepola, J. V. & Fredericks, D. C. (2012). Assessment of Masterfraft (R) Strip with Bone Marrow Aspirate as a Graft Extender in a Rabbit Posterolateral Fusion Model. Iowa Orthopaedic Journal, 32, 61-8. PMID: 23576923.

Smucker, J. D., Petersen, E. B., Nepola, J. V. & Fredericks, D. C. (2012). Assessment of Mastergraft(®) strip with bone marrow aspirate as a graft extender in a rabbit posterolateral fusion model. The Iowa orthopaedic journal, 32, 61-8. PMID: 23576923.

Flint, J. H., Carlyle, L. M., Christiansen, C. C. & Nepola, J. V. (2009). Case report and literature review anterior shoulder dislocation with three-part proximal humerus fracture and humeral shaft fracture. The Iowa orthopaedic journal, 29, 105-13. PMID: 19742096.

Schaffer, J. L., Bozic, K. J., Dorr, L. D., Miller, D. A. & Nepola, J. V. (2008). AOA symposium. Direct-to-consumer marketing in orthopaedic surgery: boon or boondoggle?. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 90(11), 2534-2543. PMID: 18978423.

Smucker, J. D., Bobst, J. A., Petersen, E. B., Nepola, J. V. & Fredericks, D. C. (2008). B2A peptide on ceramic granules enhance posterolateral spinal fusion in rabbits compared with autograft. Spine, 33(12), 1324-1329. PMID: 18496344.

Phisitkul, P., McKinley, T. O., Nepola, J. V. & Marsh, J. L. (2007). Complications of locking plate fixation in complex proximal tibia injuries. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 21(2), 83-91. PMID: 17304060.

Wolf, B. R., Bries, A. D. & Nepola, J. V. (2007). Greater tuberosity osteotomy and teres minor transfer for irreparable superior rotator cuff tears. Iowa Orthopaedic Journal, 27, 65-70. PMID: 17907433.

Marsh, J. L., Muehling, V., Dirschl, D., Hurwitz, S., Brown, T. D. & Nepola, J. (2006). Tibial plafond fractures treated by articulated external fixation: a randomized trial of postoperative motion versus nonmotion. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 20(8), 536-541. PMID: 16990724.

Coester, L. M., Nepola, J. V., Allen, J. & Marsh, J. L. (2006). The effects of silver coated external fixation pins. The Iowa orthopaedic journal, 26, 48-53. PMID: 16789449.

Coester, L. M., Nepola, J. V., Allen, J. & Marsh, J. L. (2006). The effects of silver coated external fixator pins. Iowa Orthopaedic Journal, 26, 48-53. PMID: 16789449.

Nepola, J. V. (2005). Musculoskeletal trauma care means orthopaedic trauma care. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 19(9), 589-590. PMID: 16247301.

Wolf, B. R., Heiner, A. D., Albright, J. P. & Nepola, J. V. (2005). Excessive radiofrequency application: effects on capsular tissue in an animal model. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 14(2), 149-156. PMID: 15789008.

Williams, T. M., Nepola, J. V., DeCoster, T. A., Hurwitz, S. R., Dirschl, D. R. & Marsh, J. L. (2004). Factors affecting outcome in tibial plafond fractures. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 423, 93-98. PMID: 15232432.

Fredericks, D. C., Bobst, J. A., Petersen, E. B., Nepola, J. V., Dennis, J. E., Caplan, A. I., Burgess, A. V., Overby, R. J. & Schulz, O. H. (2004). Cellular interactions and bone healing responses to a novel porous tricalcium phosphate bone graft material. Orthopedics, 27(1 Suppl), s167-173. PMID: 14763552.

Fredericks, D. C., Bobst, J. A., Petersen, E. B., Nepola, J. V., Dennis, J. E., Caplan, A. I., Burgess, A. V., Overby, R. J. & Schulz, O. H. (2004). Cellular interactions and bone healing responses to a novel porous tricalcium phosphate bone graft material. (Vols. 27). (1 Suppl), pp. s167-s173. Orthopedics.

Jones, D. M., Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V., Jacobs, J. J., Skipor, A. K., Urban, R. M., Gilbert, J. L. & Buckwalter, J. a. (2003). Focal osteolysis at the junctions of a modular stainless-steel femoral intermedullary nail. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery Am, 83A(4), 537-548. PMID: 11315782.

Fredericks, D. C., Piehl, D. J., Baker, J. T., Abbott, J. & Nepola, J. V. (2003). Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation on distraction osteogenesis in the rabbit tibial leg lengthening model. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, 23(4), 478-483. PMID: 12826946.

Seabold, J. E., Nepola, J. V. (2003). Infection in the peripheral skeleton. M. Dunitz (Eds.) Nuclear Medicine in Radiological Diagnosis.

Jones, D. M., Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V., Jacobs, J. J., Skipor, A. K., Urban, R. M., Gilbert, J. L. & Buckwalter, J. A. (2001). Focal osteolysis at the junctions of a modular stainless-steel femoral intramedullary nail. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume, 83-A(4), 537-48. PMID: 11315782.

Saterbak, A. M., Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V., Brandser, E. A. & Turbett, T. (2000). Clinical failure after posterior wall acetabular fractures: the influence of initial fracture patterns. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 14(4), 230-237. PMID: 10898194.

Fredericks, D. C., Piehl, D. J., Baker, J. T., Abbott, J. & Nepola, J. V. (2000). Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on bone healing in a rabbit tibial osteotomy model. (Vols. 14). (2), pp. 93-100. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma.

Martin, J., Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V., Dirschl, D. R., Hurwitz, S. & DeCoster, T. A. (2000). Radiographic fracture assessments: which ones can we reliably make?. (Vols. 14). (6), pp. 379-385. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma.

Nepola, J. V., Trenhaile, S. W., Miranda, M. A., Butterfield, S. L., Fredericks, D. C. & Riemer, B. L. (1999). Vertical Shear Injuries: Is There a Relationship Between Residual Displacement and Functional Outcome. The Journal of Trauma, 46(6), 1024-1030. PMID: 10372618.

Seabold, J. E., Nepola, J. V. (1999). Imaging Techniques for Evaluation of Postoperative Orthopaedic Infections. The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 43(1), 21-28. PMID: 10230278.

Seabold, J. E., Nepola, J. V. (1999). Imaging techniques for evaluation of postoperative orthopedic infections. The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), 43(1), 21-8. PMID: 10230278.

DeCoster, T. A., Willis, M. C., Marsh, J. L., Williams, T. M., Nepola, J. V., Dirschl, D. R. & Hurwitz, S. R. (1999). Rank order analysis of tibial plafond fractures: does injury or reduction predict outcome?. Foot & ankle international, 20(1), 44-9. PMID: 9921773.

Williams, T. M., Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V., DeCoster, T. A., Hurwitz, S. R. & Bonar, S. B. (1998). External fixation of tibial plafond fractures: is routine plating of the fibula necessary?. Journal of orthopaedic trauma, 12(1), 16-20. PMID: 9447514.

Marsh, J. L., Bonar, S., Nepola, J. V., Decoster, T. A. & Hurwitz, S. R. (1995). Use of an articulated external fixator for fractures of the tibial plafond. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume, 77(10), 1498-509. PMID: 7593058.

Brown, T. D., Hulburt, P. T., Hale, J. E., Gibbons, T. A., Caldwell, N. J., Marsh, J. L. & Nepola, J. V. (1994). Effects of Imposed Hindfoot Constraint on Ankle Contact Mechanics for Displaced Lateral Malleolar Fractures. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 8(6511-9). PMID: 7869166.

Brown, T. D., Hurlbut, P. T., Hale, J. E., Gibbons, T. A., Caldwell, N. J., Marsh, J. L. & Nepola, J. V. (1994). Effects of Imposed Hindfoot Constraint on Contact Mechanics of Displaced Lateral Malleolar Fractures. Orthopaedic Transactions, 18(2), 440.

Nepola, J. V., Seabold, J. E., Marsh, J. L., Kirschner, P. T. & El-Khoury, G. Y. (1993). Diagnosis of Infection in Ununited Fractures. Combined Imagining with Indium-111-Labeled Leukocytes and Technetium-99m Methylene Diphosphonate. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 75(12), 1816-22. PMID: 8258553.

Nepola, J. V., Seabold, J. E., Marsh, J. L., Kirchner, P. T. & el-Khoury, G. Y. (1993). Diagnosis of infection in ununited fractures. Combined imaging with indium-111-labeled leukocytes and technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume, 75(12), 1816-22. PMID: 8258553.

Brown, S., Shurr, D., Nielsen, D. H. & Nepola, J. V. (1993). Gait Comparisons Between Type III C Tibial Fracture Limb Salvage Subjects and Below the Knee Amputees. Journal Of Orthopaedic Trauma.

Bonar, S. K., Marsh, J. L. & Nepola, J. V. (1993). Unilateral External Fixation for Severe Pilon Fractures. Orthopaedic Transactions, 16(3), 786.

Seabold, J. E., Ferlic, R. J., Marsh, J. L. & Nepola, J. V. (1993). Periarticular Bone Sites Associated with Traumatic Injury: False-positive Findings with In-111-labeled White Blood Cell and Tc-99m MDP Scintigraphy. Radiology, 186(3), 845-849. PMID: 8430197.

Nepola, J. V., Newhouse, K. E. (1993). Recurrent Shoulder Dislocation. Iowa Orthopaedic Journal, 13, 97-106. PMID: 7820757.

Martin, J. G., Nepola, J. V. & Marsh, J. L. (1993). The Treatment of Unstable Pelvic Injuries with the Orthofix External Fixator. International Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma.

Baker, J. T., Costa, A. S., Marsh, J. L., Rodkey, W. G. & Nepola, J. V. (1992). Comparison of Infection Rates in Contaminated Tibial Fractures Stabilized with Internal Versus External Fixation in Rabbits. pp. 33. The Second Riva Congress Abstract Book.

Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V. & Meffert, R. (1992). Dynamic Axial External Fixation for Stabilization of Nonunions. Clin Orthop Relat Res, 278, 200-6. PMID: 1563155.

Marsh, J. L., Bonar, S. D., Nepola, J. V., DeCoster, T., Hurwitz, S. & LeClare, W. (1992). Fractures of the Tibial Plafond - Treatment with Articulated External Fixation. The Second Riva Congress Abstract Book.

Nepola, J. V., Martin, J. G. & Marsh, J. L. (1992). Treatment of Unstable Pelvic Injuries with the Orthofix External Fixator. The Second Riva Congress Abstract Book.

Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V. & Meffert, R. (1992). Dynamic external fixation for stabilization of nonunions. Clinical orthopaedics and related research,(278), 200-6. PMID: 1563155.

Marsh, J. L., Prokuski, L. J., Biermann, J. s. & Nepola, J. V. (1992). Comparison of Conventional Treatment vs Bone Transport for Chronic Infected Tibial Nonunions with Bone Loss. Orthopaedic Transactions, 16(1), 238.

Nepola, J. V., Marsh, J. L. & Baker, J. (1992). Comparison of Stabilization, External Fixation Versus Nonreamed Intramedullary Nail in a Contaminated Tibial Fracture Model of the Rabbit: Effect on Infection Rate and Bacterial Distribution. Orthopaedic Transactions, 16(1), 236.

Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V., Bonar, S. K., Lindsey, R., DeCoster, T., Hurwitz, S. & LeClair, W. (1992). Fractures of the Tibial Plafond - Treatment with Articulated External Fixation. Orthopaedic Transactions, 15(1), 231.

Nepola, J. V., Marsh, J. L., Seabold, J. E., Kirchner, P. T. & El-Khoury, G. Y. (1992). Update of In-111 WBC/Tc-99m MDP Bone Imaging for the Evaluation of Infection Associated with Fracture Nonunion. Orthopaedic Transactions, 16(1), 235.

Seabold, S. E., Nepola, J. V., Marsh, J. L., Hawes, D. R., Justin, J. P., Ponto, J. A., Petit, W. A., El-Khoury, G. Y. & Kirchner, P. T. (1991). Post-operative Bone Marrow Alternations; Potential Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Osteomyelitis with In-111 Labeled Leukocyte Scintigraphy. Radiology, 180(3), 741-749. PMID: 1871288.

Seabold, J. E., Nepola, J. V., Marsh, J. L., Hawes, D. R., Justin, E. P., Ponto, J. A., Pettit, W. A., el-Khoury, G. Y. & Kirchner, P. T. (1991). Postoperative bone marrow alterations: potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis with In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy. Radiology, 180(3), 741-7. PMID: 1871288.

Garneau, R. A., Renfrew, D. L., Moore, T. E., El-Khoury, G. Y., Nepola, J. V. & Lemke, J. H. (1991). Glenoid Labrum: Evaluation with MR Imaging. Radiology, 179(2), 519-22. PMID: 2014303.

Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V., Wuest, T. K., Osteen, D., Cox, K. & Oppenheim, W. (1991). Unilateral external fixation until healing with the dynamic axial fixator for severe open tibial fractures. Journal of orthopaedic trauma, 5(3), 341-8. PMID: 1941318.

Biermann, J. S., Marsh, J. L. & Nepola, J. V. (1991). A Unilateral Bone Transport System for Segmental Defects of Bone. Ortho Transactions, 15(3), 639-640.

Baker, J., Costa, A., McKinney, L., Rodkey, W., Nepola, J. & Marsh, J. L. (1991). Comparison of Infection Rates in Contaminated Tibial Fractures Stabilized with Internal Versus External Skeletal Fixation in Rabbits. Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons, Orthopaedic Transactions, 347.

Smith, S. T., Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V. & Found, E. M. (1991). The Tibial Plateau Fractures Treated with External Fixation and Minimal Internal Fixation. Iowa Orthopaedic Journal, 11, 68-77.

Seabold, J. E., Flickinger, F. W., Kao, C. S., Gleason, T. J., Kahn, D., Nepola, J. V. & Marsh, J. L. (1990). Indium III - Leukocyte/Technetium-99m-MDP Bone and Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Difficulty of Diagnosing Osteomyelitis in Patients with Neuropathic Osteoarthropathy. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 31(5), 549-559. PMID: 2341891.

Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V. & Meffert, R. (1990). Nonunions Treated with Unilateral External Fixation. Clinical Orthopaedics, 220-206.

Seabold, J. E., Flickinger, F. W., Kao, S. C., Gleason, T. J., Kahn, D., Nepola, J. V. & Marsh, J. L. (1990). Indium-111-leukocyte/technetium-99m-MDP bone and magnetic resonance imaging: difficulty of diagnosing osteomyelitis in patients with neuropathic osteoarthropathy. Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine, 31(5), 549-56. PMID: 2341891.

Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V. (1990). External Fixation for Open Tibial Fractures, A Management Strategy. Orthopaedic Review, 19(3), 273-280. PMID: 2184393.

Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V. (1990). External fixation for open tibia fractures. A management strategy. Orthopaedic review, 19(3), 273-80. PMID: 2184393.

Ralston, J. L., Brown, T. D., Nepola, J. V., Williams, D. R. & Marsh, J. L. (1990). Mechanical analysis of the factors affecting dynamization of the Orthofix Dynamic Axial Fixator. Journal of orthopaedic trauma, 4(4), 449-57. PMID: 2266452.

Seabold, J. E., Justin, E. P., Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V., Pronto, J. A., Bricker, J. A., Hawes, D. R. & Kirchner, P. T. (1990). Altered Bone Marrow Activity: Potential Cause of False-Positive Indium-111 Leukocyte (In-111 WBC) Imaging Patterns in Complicated Cases of Suspected Osteomyelitis. Radiology, 177, 160.

Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V. & Meffert, R. (1990). Dynamic Axial External Fixation for Long Bone Nonunions. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Ralston, J. L., Brown, T. D., Nepola, J. V., Williams, D. L. & Marsh, J. L. (1990). Mechanical Analysis of the Factors Effecting Dynamization of the Dynamic Axial Fixation External Fixator. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 4(4), 449-457.

Wuest, T. K., Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V., Osteen, D., Cox, K. & Oppenheim, W. (1990). Open Tibia Fractures Treated to Healing with Unilateral External Fixation. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 4(2), 234.

Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V. & Biermann, J. S. (1990). Segmental Bone Transport with a Unilateral Fixator - A Report of Two Cases. The Iowa Orthopaedic Journal, 10, 72-76.

Nepola, J. V. (1989). Evaluation and Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Shoulder. Seminars in Orthopaedics, 4(3), 160-171.

Nepola, J. V., Marsh, J. L., Osteen, D., Oppenheim, W., Wuest, T. K. & Cox, K. (1989). Treatment of Open Tibia Fractures Until Healing Using Dynamic Axial Fixation (DAF). 13th International Conference on Hoffman External Fixation, Book of Abstracts, Rochester, Minnesota.

Seabold, J. E., Nepola, J. V., Conrad, G. R., Marsh, J. L., Montgomery, W. J., Bricker, J. A. & Kirchner, P. T. (1989). Detection of osteomyelitis at fracture nonunion sites: comparison of two scintigraphic methods. AJR. American journal of roentgenology, 152(5), 1021-7. PMID: 2705339.

Seabold, J. D., Nepola, J. V., Conrad, G. R. & Marsh, J. L. (1989). Detection of Osteomyelitis at Fracture Nonunion Site: A Comparison of Two Scintigraphic Methods. American Journal of Radiology, 152, 1021-1027.

Brown, T. D., Farver, B. A., Marsh, J. L. & Nepola, J. V. (1989). Contact Stress Elevations Accompanying Medially Displaced Central Acetabular Fractures. pp. 411. Orthopaedic Research Society, Orthopaedic Transactions.

Marsh, J. L., Martin, J. G. & Nepola, J. V. (1989). Hip Dislocation as a Complication of Valgus Reduction and Fixation for an Intertrochanteric Fracture - A Case Report. The Iowa Orthopaedic Journal, 9, 72-74.

Marsh, J. L., Nepola, J. V. & Seabold, J. (1989). Subclinical Infection in Delayed/Nonunion of Fractures. Orthopaedic Trauma Association, Orthopaedic Transactions, 757.

Brown, T. D., Anderson, D. D., Nepola, J. V., Singerman, R. J., Pedersen, D. R. & Brand, R. A. (1988). Contact Stress Aberrations Following Precise Reduction of Simple Tibial Plateau Fractures. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 6(6), 851-62. PMID: 3171765.

Wroble, R. R., Nepola, J. V. & Malvitz, T. A. (1988). Ankle Dislocation Without Fracture. Foot and Ankle, 9(2), 64-74. PMID: 3066723.

Newhouse, K. E., El-Khoury, G. Y., Nepola, J. V. & Montgomery, W. J. (1988). The Shoulder Impingement View: A Fluoroscopic Technique for the Detection of Subacromial Spurs. AJR Am J Roentgenol, 151(3), 539-41. PMID: 3261516.

DeCoster, T. A., Nepola, J. V. & El-Khoury, G. Y. (1988). Cast Brace Treatment of Proximal Tibia Fractures: A Ten Year Follow-up. Clin Orthop Relat Res,(231), 196-204. PMID: 3370874.

DeCoster, T. A., Nepola, J. V. & el-Khoury, G. Y. (1988). Cast brace treatment of proximal tibia fractures. A ten-year follow-up study. Clinical orthopaedics and related research,(231), 196-204. PMID: 3370874.

Brown, T. D., Anderson, D. D., Nepola, J. V., Singerman, R. J., Pedersen, D. R. & Brand, R. A. (1988). Contact stress aberrations following imprecise reduction of simple tibial plateau fractures. Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society, 6(6), 851-62. PMID: 3171765.

Smith, A. L., Smith, R. A., Brown, T. D. & Nepola, J. V. (1988). Comparative Study of the Orthofix and Pittsburgh Frames for External Fixation of Unstable Pelvic Ring Fractures. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 2(2), 130-138. PMID: 3230497.

Nepola, J. V., Marsh, J. L. (1988). CT Analysis and Classification of Intra-Articular Calcaneus Fractures. Iowa Orthopaedic Journal, 8, 78-84.

Wroble, R. R., Nepola, J. V. & Malvitz, T. A. (1987). Ankle Dislocation Without Fracture. In American Orthopaedic Association Residents Conference. pp. 582-583. Orthopaedic Transactions.

Brown, T. D., Anderson, D., Nepola, J. V., Singerman, R., Pederson, D. R. & Brand, R. A. (1987). Contact Stress Aberrations Following Imprecise Reduction of Intra-articular Fractures. pp. 296-297. Orthopaedic Transactions.

Henderson, R. C., Nepola, J. V. & Claverie, J. G. (1986). Nonoperative Treated Major Traumatic Pelvic Disruptions: An Evaluation of The Long-Term Results. Iowa Orthopaedic Journal, 6, 100-106.

Seabold, J. E., Conrad, G. R., Claverie, J. G., Bricker, J. a. & Nepola, J. V. (1986). Three Phase Bone Scintigraphy (TPBS), Indium-111-Leukocyte Imaging (In-WBC) and Gallium-67 Imaging for the Detection of Osteomyelitis Associated with Nonunion Fractures. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 27(6), 915.

Nepola, J. V. Orthopaedics: Basic Principles and Practice. Churchill Livingstone.