Daniel J. Diekema, MD, MS

Portrait
Director, Division of Infectious Diseases
Clinical Professor of Internal Medicine - Infectious Diseases
Clinical Professor of Pathology

Contact Information

Primary Office
SW54-15 GH
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-384-5626

Education

MD, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
MS, Preventive Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine
Resident, Internal Medicine, University of Virginia
Fellow, Infectious Diseases, The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics
Fellow, Clinical Microbiology, The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics

Licensure and Certifications

Medical Microbiology - American Board of Medical Microbiology
Infectious Diseases - American Board of Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine - American Board of Internal Medicine
State of Medical License - Iowa Board of Medicine

Research Summary

Interests: Several aspects of hospital epidemiology and clinical mycology, including the epidemiology of invasive fungal infections in hospitalized patients and the use of molecular typing in infection control and antimicrobial resistance control.

Publications

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J. & Rinaldi, M. G. (2005). Antifungal drugs: Mechanisms of action, drug resistance, susceptibility testing, and assays of activity in biologic fluids. In V. Lorian (Eds.) Antibiotics in Laboratory Medicine. (5), pp. 226-265. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Werzen, A., Thom, K. A., Robinson, G. L., Li, S., Rock, C., Herwaldt, L. A., Diekema, D. J., Reisinger, H. S. & Perencevich, E. N. (2018). Comparing brief, covert, directly observed hand hygiene compliance monitoring to standard methods: A multicenter cohort study. American journal of infection control. PMID: 30314747.

Marra, A. R., Edmond, M. B., Ford, B. A., Herwaldt, L. A., Algwizani, A. R. & Diekema, D. J. (2018). Impact of 2018 Changes in National Healthcare Safety Network Surveillance for Clostridium difficile Laboratory-Identified Event Reporting. Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 39(7), 886-888. PMID: 29708091.

Marra, A. R., Edmond, M. B., Schweizer, M. L., Ryan, G. W. & Diekema, D. J. (2018). Discontinuing contact precautions for multidrug-resistant organisms: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. American journal of infection control, 46(3), 333-340. PMID: 29031432.

Masse, V., Hartley, M. J., Edmond, M. B. & Diekema, D. J. (2018). Comparing and optimizing ultraviolet germicidal irradiation systems use for patient room terminal disinfection: an exploratory study using radiometry and commercial test cards. Antimicrobial resistance and infection control, 7, 29. PMID: 29484174.

Kates, A. E., Tischendorf, J. S., Schweizer, M., Herwaldt, L., Samore, M., Dukes, K. C., Gerding, D. N., Diekema, D. J. & Safdar, N. (2018). Research Agenda for Microbiome Based Research for Multidrug-resistant Organism Prevention in the Veterans Health Administration System. Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 39(2), 202-209. PMID: 29417924.

Knowlton, S. D., Boles, C. L., Perencevich, E. N., Diekema, D. J. & Nonnenmann, M. W. (2018). Bioaerosol concentrations generated from toilet flushing in a hospital-based patient care setting. Antimicrobial resistance and infection control, 7, 16. PMID: 29423191.

Chen, Y., Crosby, H. A., Oosthuysen, 2nd, W. F., Diekema, D. J., Kelley, S. T. & Horswill, A. R. (2018). Draft Genome Sequence of USA100 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain 209. Genome announcements, 6(1). PMID: 29301880.

Masse, V., Edmond, M. B. & Diekema, D. J. (2018). Infection prevention strategies for procedures performed outside operating rooms: A conceptual integrated model. American journal of infection control, 46(1), 94-96. PMID: 28941559.

Goto, M., Schweizer, M. L., Vaughan-Sarrazin, M. S., Perencevich, E. N., Livorsi, D. J., Diekema, D. J., Richardson, K. K., Beck, B. F., Alexander, B. & Ohl, M. E. (2017). Association of Evidence-Based Care Processes With Mortality in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia at Veterans Health Administration Hospitals, 2003-2014. JAMA internal medicine, 177(10), 1489-1497. PMID: 28873140.

Morgan, D. J., Malani, P. & Diekema, D. J. (2017). Diagnostic Stewardship-Leveraging the Laboratory to Improve Antimicrobial Use. JAMA, 318(7), 607-608. PMID: 28759678.

Marra, A. R., Diekema, D. J. & Edmond, M. B. (2017). Mycobacterium chimaera Infections Associated With Contaminated Heater-Cooler Devices for Cardiac Surgery: Outbreak Management. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 65(4), 669-674. PMID: 28430899.

Kirby, J. E., Branch-Elliman, W., LaSalvia, M. T., Longhi, L., MacKechnie, M., Urman, G., Baldini, L. M., Muriel, F. R., Sullivan, B., Yassa, D. S., Gold, H. S., Wagner, T. K., Diekema, D. J. & Wright, S. B. (2017). Investigation of a Candida guilliermondii Pseudo-outbreak Reveals a Novel Source of Laboratory Contamination. Journal of clinical microbiology, 55(4), 1080-1089. PMID: 28100597.

Diekema, D. J. (2017). Rising Stakes for Health Care-Associated Infection Prevention: Implications for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory. Journal of clinical microbiology, 55(4), 996-1001. PMID: 28122873.

Marra, A. R., Edmond, M. B., Ford, B. A., Herwaldt, L. A., Algwizani, A. R. & Diekema, D. J. (2017). Failure of Risk-Adjustment by Test Method for C. difficile Laboratory-Identified Event Reporting. Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 38(1), 109-111. PMID: 27745553.

Sommerstein, R., Schreiber, P. W., Diekema, D. J., Edmond, M. B., Hasse, B., Marschall, J. & Sax, H. (2017). Mycobacterium chimaera Outbreak Associated With Heater-Cooler Devices: Piecing the Puzzle Together. Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 38(1), 103-108. PMID: 27839530.

McDanel, J. S., Perencevich, E. N., Storm, J., Diekema, D. J., Herwaldt, L., Johnson, J. K., Winokur, P. L. & Schweizer, M. L. (2016). Increased Mortality Rates Associated with Staphylococcus aureus and Influenza Co-infection, Maryland and Iowa, USA(1). Emerging infectious diseases, 22(7), 1253-6. PMID: 27315549.

Richter, S. S., Doern, G. V., Heilmann, K. P., Miner, S., Tendolkar, S., Riahi, F. & Diekema, D. J. (2016). Detection and Prevalence of Penicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in the United States in 2013. Journal of clinical microbiology, 54(3), 812-4. PMID: 26763960.

McDanel, J. S., Perencevich, E. N., Diekema, D. J., Winokur, P. L., Johnson, J. K., Herwaldt, L. A., Smith, T. C., Chrischilles, E. A., Dawson, J. D. & Schweizer, M. L. (2015). Association between microbial characteristics and poor outcomes among patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study. Antimicrobial resistance and infection control, 4, 51. PMID: 26668737.

Merriman, J. A., Klingelhutz, A. J., Diekema, D. J., Leung, D. Y. & Schlievert, P. M. (2015). Novel Staphylococcus aureus Secreted Protein Alters Keratinocyte Proliferation and Elicits a Proinflammatory Response In Vitro and In Vivo. Biochemistry, 54(31), 4855-62. PMID: 26177220.

McDanel, J. S., Perencevich, E. N., Diekema, D. J., Herwaldt, L. A., Smith, T. C., Chrischilles, E. A., Dawson, J. D., Jiang, L., Goto, M. & Schweizer, M. L. (2015). Comparative effectiveness of beta-lactams versus vancomycin for treatment of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections among 122 hospitals. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 61(3), 361-7. PMID: 25900170.

Schweizer, M. L., Chiang, H. Y., Septimus, E., Moody, J., Braun, B., Hafner, J., Ward, M. A., Hickok, J., Perencevich, E. N., Diekema, D. J., Richards, C. L., Cavanaugh, J. E., Perlin, J. B. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2015). Association of a bundled intervention with surgical site infections among patients undergoing cardiac, hip, or knee surgery. JAMA, 313(21), 2162-71. PMID: 26034956.

Morgan, D. J., Braun, B., Milstone, A. M., Anderson, D., Lautenbach, E., Safdar, N., Drees, M., Meddings, J., Linkin, D. R., Croft, L. D., Pineles, L., Diekema, D. J. & Harris, A. D. (2015). Lessons learned from hospital Ebola preparation. Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 36(6), 627-31. PMID: 25994323.

Ren, P., Luo, M., Lin, S., Ghannoum, M. A., Isham, N., Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S., Lockhart, S. R., Iqbal, N. & Chaturvedi, V. (2015). Multilaboratory testing of antifungal drug combinations against Candida species and Aspergillus fumigatus: utility of 100 percent inhibition as the endpoint. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 59(3), 1759-66. PMID: 25512402.

Morgan, D. J., Kaye, K. S. & Diekema, D. J. (2015). Contact precautions for patients with multidrug-resistant pathogens--reply. (Vols. 313). (6), pp. 630. JAMA. PMID: 25668276.

Edmond, M. B., Diekema, D. J. & Perencevich, E. N. (2014). Ebola virus disease and the need for new personal protective equipment. JAMA, 312(23), 2495-6. PMID: 25350321.

Ren, P., Luo, M., Ghannoum, M. A., Isham, N., Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S., Lockhart, S. R., Iqbal, N. & Chaturvedi, V. (2014). Multilaboratory Testing of Antifungal Drug Combinations against Candida Species and Aspergillus Fumigatus: Utility of One-Hundred Percent Inhibition as the End-point. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. PMID: 25512402.

Richter, S. S., Diekema, D. J., Heilmann, K. P., Dohrn, C. L., Riahi, F. & Doern, G. V. (2014). Changes in Pneumococcal Serotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance After Introduction of the 13-Valent Conjugate Vaccine in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 58(11), 6484-9. PMID: 25136018.

Klompas, M., Diekema, D. J., Fishman, N. O. & Yokoe, D. S. (2014). Ebola fever: reconciling planning with risk in U.S. hospitals. Annals of internal medicine, 161(10), 751-2. PMID: 25141883.

Morgan, D. J., Kaye, K. S. & Diekema, D. J. (2014). Reconsidering isolation precautions for endemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. JAMA, 312(14), 1395-6. PMID: 25291571.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Jones, R. N. & Castanheira, M. (2014). Use of Anidulafungin as a Surrogate Marker to Predict Susceptibility and Resistance to Caspofungin among 4,290 Clinical Isolates of Candida using CLSI Methods and Interpretive Criteria. J Clin Microbiol, 52(9), 3223-3229. PMID: 24951808.

Reznikov, L. R., Abou Alaiwa, M. H., Dohrn, C. L., Gansemer, N. D., Diekema, D. J., Stoltz, D. A. & Welsh, M. J. (2014). Antibacterial properties of the CFTR potentiator ivacaftor. Journal of cystic fibrosis : official journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society, 13(5), 515-9. PMID: 24618508.

McDanel, J. S., Ward, M. A., Leder, L., Schweizer, M. L., Dawson, J. D., Diekema, D. J., Smith, T. C., Chrischilles, E. A., Perencevich, E. N. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2014). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention practices in hospitals throughout a rural state. Am J Infect Control, 42(8), 868-73. PMID: 25087139.

Pfaller, M. A., Neofytos, D., Diekema, D., Azie, N., Meier-Kriesche, H. U., Quan, S. P. & Horn, D. (2014). Epidemiology and Outcomes of Invasive Candidiasis Due to Non-albicans Species of Candida in 2,496 Patients: Data from the Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) Registry 2004-2008. (Vols. 9). (7), pp. e101510. PLoS One. DOI: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101510.

Feazel, L. M., Malhotra, A., Perencevich, E. N., Kaboli, P., Diekema, D. J. & Schweizer, M. L. (2014). Effect of antibiotic stewardship programmes on Clostridium difficile incidence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, 69(7), 1748-54. PMID: 24633207.

Vu, B. G., Stach, C. S., Salgado-Pabon, W., Diekema, D. J., Gardner, S. E. & Schlievert, P. M. (2014). Superantigens of Staphylococcus aureus from Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers. J Infect Dis, 210(12), 1920-1927. PMID: 24951827.

Matsumoto, E., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., McDanel, J., Castanheira, M., Pfaller, M. & Diekema, D. (2014). Candidemia surveillance in Iowa: emergence of echinocandin resistance. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 79(2), 205-8. PMID: 24666704.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Procop, G. W. & Wiederhold, N. P. (2014). Multicenter evaluation of the new Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility test using new CLSI clinical breakpoints for fluconazole. Journal of clinical microbiology, 52(6), 2126-30. PMID: 24719450.

Haleem, A., Schultz, J. S., Heilmann, K. P., Dohrn, C. L., Diekema, D. J. & Gardner, S. E. (2014). Concordance of nasal and diabetic foot ulcer staphylococcal colonization. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 79(1), 85–89. DOI: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2014.01.014.

Diekema, D. J., Richter, S. S., Hellmann, K. P., Dohrn, C. L., Riahi, F., Tendolkar, S., McDanel, J. S. & Doern, G. V. (2014). Continued Emergence of USA300 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the United States: Results from a Nationwide Surveillance Study. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 35(3), 285-92. PMID: 24521595 - in process.

Pfaller, M. A., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Bustamente, B., Canton, E., Diekema, D. J., Fothergill, A., Fuller, J., Gonzalez, G. M., Guarro, J. & Las-Floerl, C. (2014). Multicenter study of anidulafungin and micafungin MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for eight Candida species and the CLSI M27-A3 broth microdilution method. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 58(2), 916-22. DOI: doi: 10.1128/AAC.02020-13.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Diekema, D. J., Jones, R. N. & Castanheira, M. (2014). Use of micafungin as a surrogate marker to predict susceptibility and resistance to caspofungin among 3,764 clinical isolates of Candida by use of CLSI methods and interpretive criteria. Journal of clinical microbiology, 52(1), 108-14. PMID: 24153129.

Diekema, D. J., Richter, S. S., Heilmann, K. P., Dohrn, C. L., Crispell, E. K., Riahi, F., McDanel, J. S., Satola, S. W. & Doern, G. V. (2014). Activity of Vancomycin, Ceftaroline, and Mupirocin Against Staphylococcus aureus from a 2011 National Surveillance Study in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemotherapy,(58), 740-45.

El-Herte, R. I., Schouweiler, K. E., Farah, R. S., Arbulu, R., Diekema, D. J., Wanat, K. A. & Ford, B. A. (2014). Phaeoacremonium Parasiticum Phaeohyphomycosis in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Treated Successfully with Surgical Debridement and Voriconazole: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. IDCases, 1(4), 84-88. DOI: 10.1016/j.idcr.2014.10.004.

Paul, S., Diekema, D. & Moye-Rowley, W. S. (2013). Contributions of Aspergillus fumigatus ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins to drug resistance and virulence. Eukaryotic cell, 12(12), 1619-28. PMID: 24123268.

Magill, S. S., Klompas, M., Balk, R., Burns, S. M., Deutschman, C. S., Diekema, D., Fridkin, S., Greene, L., Guh, A., Gutterman, D., Hammer, B., Henderson, D., Hess, D., Hill, N. S., Horan, T., Kollef, M., Levy, M., Septimus, E., Vanantwerpen, C., Wright, D. & Lipsett, P. (2013). Developing a new, national approach to surveillance for ventilator-associated events: executive summary. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 57(12), 1742-6. PMID: 24280662.

Richter, S. S., Heilmann, K. P., Dohrn, C. L., Riahi, F., Diekema, D. J. & Doern, G. V. (2013). Evaluation of pneumococcal serotyping by multiplex PCR and quellung reactions. Journal of clinical microbiology, 51(12), 4193-5. PMID: 24025905.

Talbot, T. R., Bratzler, D. W., Carrico, R. M., Diekema, D. J., Hayden, M. K., Huang, S. S., Yokoe, D. S. & Fishman, N. O. (2013). Public reporting of health care-associated surveillance data: recommendations from the healthcare infection control practices advisory committee. Annals of internal medicine, 159(9), 631-5. PMID: 24189597.

Lepak, A. J., Marchillo, K., VanHecker, J., Diekema, D. & Andes, D. R. (2013). Isavuconazole pharmacodynamic target determination for Candida species in an in vivo murine disseminated candidiasis model. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 57(11), 5642-8. PMID: 24002092.

Richter, S. S., Diekema, D. J., Heilmann, K. P., Dohrn, C. L., Crispell, E. K., Riahi, F., McDanel, J. S., Satola, S. W. & Doern, G. V. (2013). Activity of Vancomycin, Ceftaroline, and Mupirocin Against Staphylococcus aureus from a 2011 National Surveillance Study in the United States. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, AAC.01915–13. PMID: 24247138.

Castanheira, M., Woosley, L. N., Messer, S. A., Diekema, D. J., Jones, R. N. & Pfaller, M. A. (2013). Frequency of fks mutations among Candida glabrata isolates from a 10-year global collection of bloodstream infection isolates. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, AAC.01674–13. PMID: 24126582.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Procop, G. W. & Rinaldi, M. G. (2013). Comparison of the Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system with CLSI microdilution for antifungal susceptibility testing of fluconazole and voriconazole against Candida spp., using new clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 77(1), 37-40. PMID: 23870164.

Richter, S. S., Heilmann, K. P., Dohrn, C. L., Riahi, F., Diekema, D. J. & Doern, G. V. (2013). Pneumococcal serotypes before and after introduction of conjugate vaccines, United States, 1999-2011(1.). Emerging infectious diseases, 19(7), 1074-83. PMID: 23763847.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A. (2013). Rapid detection of antibiotic-resistant organism carriage for infection prevention. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 56(11), 1614-20. PMID: 23362298.

Quezada Joaquin, N. M., Diekema, D. J., Perencevich, E. N., Bailey, G., Winokur, P. L. & Schweizer, M. L. (2013). Long-term risk for readmission, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, and death among MRSA-colonized veterans. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 57(3), 1169-72. PMID: 23254427.

Castanheira, M., Woosley, L. N., Diekema, D. J., Jones, R. N. & Pfaller, M. A. (2013). Candida guilliermondii and other species of candida misidentified as Candida famata: assessment by vitek 2, DNA sequencing analysis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in two global antifungal surveillance programs. Journal of clinical microbiology, 51(1), 117-24. PMID: 23100350.

McDanel, J. S., Murphy, C. R., Diekema, D. J., Quan, V., Kim, D. S., Peterson, E. M., Evans, K. D., Tan, G. L., Hayden, M. K. & Huang, S. S. (2013). Chlorhexidine and mupirocin susceptibilities of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus from colonized nursing home residents. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 57(1), 552-8. PMID: 23147721.

Pedersen, M., Doyle, M. R., Beste, A., Diekema, D. J., Zimmerman, M. B. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2013). Survey of high school athletic programs in Iowa regarding infections and infection prevention policies and practices. The Iowa orthopaedic journal, 33, 107-13. PMID: 24027469.

Pfaller, M., Neofytos, D., Diekema, D., Azie, N., Meier-Kriesche, H. U., Quan, S. P. & Horn, D. (2012). Epidemiology and outcomes of candidemia in 3648 patients: data from the Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH Alliance®) registry, 2004-2008. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 74(4), 323-31. PMID: 23102556.

Ohl, M., Schweizer, M., Graham, M., Heilmann, K., Boyken, L. & Diekema, D. (2012). Hospital privacy curtains are frequently and rapidly contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria. American journal of infection control, 40(10), 904-6. PMID: 22464039.

Schweizer, M., Graham, M., Ohl, M., Heilmann, K., Boyken, L. & Diekema, D. (2012). Novel hospital curtains with antimicrobial properties: a randomized, controlled trial. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 33(11), 1081-5. PMID: 23041804.

Schweizer, M., Ward, M., Cobb, S., McDanel, J., Leder, L., Wibbenmeyer, L., Latenser, B., Diekema, D. & Herwaldt, L. (2012). The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on a burn trauma unit. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 33(11), 1118-25. PMID: 23041810.

Lepak, A., Castanheira, M., Diekema, D., Pfaller, M. & Andes, D. (2012). Optimizing Echinocandin dosing and susceptibility breakpoint determination via in vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation against Candida glabrata with and without fks mutations. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 56(11), 5875-82. PMID: 22948870.

Leekha, S., Diekema, D. J. & Perencevich, E. N. (2012). Seasonality of staphylococcal infections. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 18(10), 927–933. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03955.x.

Beekmann, S. E., Diekema, D. J., Huskins, W. C., Herwaldt, L., Boyce, J. M., Sherertz, R. J. & Polgreen, P. M. (2012). Diagnosing and reporting of central line-associated bloodstream infections. Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 33(9), 875-82. PMID: 22869260.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J. (2012). Progress in antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida spp. by use of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution methods, 2010 to 2012. Journal of clinical microbiology, 50(9), 2846-56. PMID: 22740712.

Johannsson, B., Johnson, S. J., Ernst, E. J., Beekmann, S. E., Herwaldt, L., Diekema, D. J. & Polgreen, P. M. (2012). Antimicrobial therapy for bloodstream infection due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in an era of increasing methicillin resistance: opportunities for antimicrobial stewardship. (Vols. 46). (6), pp. 904-5. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. PMID: 22669794.

Doern, G. V., Diekema, D. J., Heilmann, K. P., Dohrn, C. L., Riahi, F. & Richter, S. S. (2012). In vitro activity of ceftaroline against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered in 43 U.S. medical centers during 2010-2011. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 56(6), 3406-8. PMID: 22491687.

Pfaller, M. A., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Canton, E., Castanheira, M., Cuenca-Estrella, M., Diekema, D. J., Fothergill, A., Fuller, J., Ghannoum, M., Jones, R. N., Lockhart, S. R., Martin-Mazuelos, E., Melhem, M. S., Ostrosky-Zeichner, L., Pappas, P., Pelaez, T., Peman, J., Rex, J. & Szeszs, M. W. (2012). Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for amphotericin B, flucytosine, and itraconazole and Candida spp. as determined by CLSI broth microdilution. Journal of clinical microbiology, 50(6), 2040-6. PMID: 22461672.

Storm, J. C., Diekema, D. J., Kroeger, J. S., Johnson, S. J. & Johannsson, B. (2012). Daptomycin exposure precedes infection and/or colonization with daptomycin non-susceptible enterococcus. Antimicrobial resistance and infection control, 1(1), 19. PMID: 22958379.

Cluck, D., Williamson, J. C., Glasgo, M., Diekema, D. & Sherertz, R. (2012). Bacterial contamination of an automated pharmacy robot used for intravenous medication preparation. Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 33(5), 517-20. PMID: 22476280.

Diekema, D., Arbefeville, S., Boyken, L., Kroeger, J. & Pfaller, M. (2012). The changing epidemiology of healthcare-associated candidemia over three decades. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 73(1), 45-8. PMID: 22578938.

Dressler, A. E., Scheibel, R. P., Wardyn, S., Harper, A. L., Hanson, B. M., Kroeger, J. S., Diekema, D. J., Bender, J. B., Gray, G. C. & Smith, T. C. (2012). Prevalence, antibiotic resistance and molecular characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus in pigs at agricultural fairs in the USA. The Veterinary Record, 170(19), 495. PMID: 22505242.

Cosgrove, S. E., Seo, S. K., Bolon, M. K., Sepkowitz, K. A., Climo, M. W., Diekema, D. J., Speck, K., Gunaseelan, V., Noskin, G. A., Herwaldt, L. A., Wong, E. & Perl, T. M. (2012). Evaluation of postprescription review and feedback as a method of promoting rational antimicrobial use: a multicenter intervention. Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 33(4), 374-80. PMID: 22418633.

Castanheira, M., Duncanson, F. P., Diekema, D. J., Guarro, J., Jones, R. N. & Pfaller, M. A. (2012). Activities of E1210 and comparator agents tested by CLSI and EUCAST broth microdilution methods against Fusarium and Scedosporium species identified using molecular methods. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 56(1), 352-7. PMID: 22083469.

Richter, S. S., Satola, S. W., Crispell, E. K., Heilmann, K. P., Dohrn, C. L., Riahi, F., Costello, A. J., Diekema, D. J. & Doern, G. V. (2011). Detection of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates with Heterogeneous Intermediate-Level Resistance to Vancomycin in the United States. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 49(12), 4203–4207. PMID: 21976769.

Pfaller, M. A., Castanheira, M., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A. & Jones, R. N. (2011). Triazole and echinocandin MIC distributions with epidemiological cutoff values for differentiation of wild-type strains from non-wild-type strains of six uncommon species of Candida. Journal of clinical microbiology, 49(11), 3800-4. PMID: 21900519.

Pfaller, M. A., Castanheira, M., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A. & Jones, R. N. (2011). Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiologic cutoff values for fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole when testing Cryptococcus neoformans as determined by the CLSI broth microdilution method. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 71(3), 252-9. PMID: 21917395.

Mendes, R. E., Smith, T. C., Deshpande, L., Diekema, D. J., Sader, H. S. & Jones, R. N. (2011). Plasmid-borne vga(A)-encoding gene in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 recovered from swine and a swine farmer in the United States. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 71(2), 177-180. DOI: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2011.06.009.

Diekema, D., Johannsson, B., Herwaldt, L., Beekmann, S., Jernigan, J., Kallen, A., Berrios-Torres, S. & Polgreen, P. (2011). Current practice in Staphylococcus aureus screening and decolonization. Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 32(10), 1042-4. PMID: 21931258.

Richter, S. S., Heilmann, K. P., Dohrn, C. L., Riahi, F., Costello, A. J., Kroeger, J. S., Biek, D., Critchley, I. A., Diekema, D. J. & Doern, G. V. (2011). Activity of ceftaroline and epidemiologic trends in Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected from 43 medical centers in the United States in 2009. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 55(9), 4154-60. PMID: 21709080.

Lockhart, S. R., Frade, J. P., Etienne, K. A., Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J. & Balajee, S. A. (2011). Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from the ARTEMIS global surveillance study is primarily due to the TR/L98H mutation in the cyp51A gene. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 55(9), 4465-8. PMID: 21690285.

Arbefeville, S. S., Zhang, K., Kroeger, J. S., Howard, W. J., Diekema, D. J. & Richter, S. S. (2011). Prevalence and genetic relatedness of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates detected by the Xpert MRSA nasal assay. Journal of clinical microbiology, 49(8), 2996-9. PMID: 21677066.

Pfaller, M. A., Andes, D., Arendrup, M. C., Diekema, D. J., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Alexander, B. D., Brown, S. D., Chaturvedi, V., Fowler, C. L., Ghannoum, M. A., Johnson, E. M., Knapp, C. C., Motyl, M. R., Ostrosky-Zeichner, L. & Walsh, T. J. (2011). Clinical breakpoints for voriconazole and Candida spp. revisited: review of microbiologic, molecular, pharmacodynamic, and clinical data as they pertain to the development of species-specific interpretive criteria. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 70(3), 330-43. PMID: 21546199.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Andes, D., Arendrup, M. C., Brown, S. D., Lockhart, S. R., Motyl, M. & Perlin, D. S. (2011). Clinical breakpoints for the echinocandins and Candida revisited: integration of molecular, clinical, and microbiological data to arrive at species-specific interpretive criteria. Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy, 14(3), 164-76. PMID: 21353623.

Chiang, H. Y., Steelman, V. M., Pottinger, J. M., Schlueter, A. J., Diekema, D. J., Greenlee, J. D., Howard, M. A. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2011). Clinical significance of positive cranial bone flap cultures and associated risk of surgical site infection after craniotomies or craniectomies. Journal of neurosurgery, 114(6), 1746-54. PMID: 21375380.

Peterson, J. F., Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Rinaldi, M. G., Riebe, K. M. & Ledeboer, N. A. (2011). Multicenter comparison of the Vitek 2 antifungal susceptibility test with the CLSI broth microdilution reference method for testing caspofungin, micafungin, and posaconazole against Candida spp. Journal of clinical microbiology, 49(5), 1765-71. PMID: 21430096.

Chaturvedi, V., Ramani, R., Andes, D., Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Ghannoum, M. A., Knapp, C., Lockhart, S. R., Ostrosky-Zeichner, L., Walsh, T. J., Marchillo, K., Messer, S., Welshenbaugh, A. R., Bastulli, C., Iqbal, N., Paetznick, V. L., Rodriguez, J. & Sein, T. (2011). Multilaboratory testing of two-drug combinations of antifungals against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 55(4), 1543-8. PMID: 21282457.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L. B., Hollis, R. J., Kroeger, J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2011). Validation of 24-hour posaconazole and voriconazole MIC readings versus the CLSI 48-hour broth microdilution reference method: application of epidemiological cutoff values to results from a global Candida antifungal surveillance program. Journal of clinical microbiology, 49(4), 1274-9. PMID: 21289155.

Pfaller, M. A., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Kroeger, J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2011). Comparison of the broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing with the 24-hour CLSI BMD method for testing susceptibility of Candida species to fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole by use of epidemiological cutoff values. Journal of clinical microbiology, 49(3), 845-50. PMID: 21227994.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Kroeger, J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2011). Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for posaconazole and voriconazole and Candida spp. as determined by 24-hour CLSI broth microdilution. Journal of clinical microbiology, 49(2), 630-7. PMID: 21159940.

Pfaller, M., Boyken, L., Hollis, R., Kroeger, J., Messer, S., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. (2011). Use of epidemiological cutoff values to examine 9-year trends in susceptibility of Aspergillus species to the triazoles. Journal of clinical microbiology, 49(2), 586-90. PMID: 21123534.

Leedom Larson, K. R., Harper, A. L., Hanson, B. M., Male, M. J., Wardyn, S. E., Dressler, A. E., Wagstrom, E. A., Tendolkar, S., Diekema, D. J., Donham, K. J. & Smith, T. C. (2011). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pork production shower facilities. Applied and environmental microbiology, 77(2), 696-8. PMID: 21097587.

Kroeger, J., Diekema, D. J., Quan, V., Kim, D., Peterson, E., Evans, K., Tan, G., Hayden, M. K. & Huang, S. S. (2011). Chlorhexidine and Mupirocin Susceptibility of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Long-Term Care Facility Patients.

Herwaldt, L. A., Ward, M., Cobb, S., Leder, L., Kroeger, J. & Diekema, D. J. (2011). The Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus on a Burn-Trauma Unit.

Pfaller, M. A., Andes, D., Diekema, D. J., Espinel-Ingroff, A. & Sheehan, D. (2010). Wild-type MIC distributions, epidemiological cutoff values and species-specific clinical breakpoints for fluconazole and Candida: time for harmonization of CLSI and EUCAST broth microdilution methods. Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy, 13(6), 180-95. PMID: 21050800.

Espinel-Ingroff, A., Diekema, D. J., Fothergill, A., Johnson, E., Pelaez, T., Pfaller, M. A., Rinaldi, M. G., Canton, E. & Turnidge, J. (2010). Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for the triazoles and six Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI broth microdilution method (M38-A2 document). Journal of clinical microbiology, 48(9), 3251-7. PMID: 20592159.

Perencevich, E. N., Diekema, D. J. (2010). Decline in invasive MRSA infection: where to go from here?. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 304(6), 687-9. PMID: 20699464.

Castanheira, M., Woosley, L. N., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Jones, R. N. & Pfaller, M. A. (2010). Low prevalence of fks1 hot spot 1 mutations in a worldwide collection of Candida strains. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 54(6), 2655-9. PMID: 20368396.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Gibbs, D. L., Newell, V. A., Barton, R., Bijie, H., Bille, J., Chang, S. C., da Luz Martins, M., Duse, A., Dzierzanowska, D., Ellis, D., Finquelievich, J., Gould, I., Gur, D., Hoosen, A., Lee, K., Mallatova, N., Mallie, M., Peng, N. G., Petrikos, G., Santiago, A., Trupl, J., VanDen Abeele, A. M., Wadula, J. & Zaidi, M. (2010). Geographic variation in the frequency of isolation and fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibilities of Candida glabrata: an assessment from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Program. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 67(2), 162-71. PMID: 20338711.

Andes, D., Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Bohrmuller, J., Marchillo, K. & Lepak, A. (2010). In vivo comparison of the pharmacodynamic targets for echinocandin drugs against Candida species. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 54(6), 2497-506. PMID: 20385855.

Pfaller, M. A., Castanheira, M., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Moet, G. J. & Jones, R. N. (2010). Comparison of European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and Etest methods with the CLSI broth microdilution method for echinocandin susceptibility testing of Candida species. Journal of clinical microbiology, 48(5), 1592-9. PMID: 20335424.

Polgreen, P. M., Beekmann, S. E., Diekema, D. J. & Sherertz, R. J. (2010). Wide variability in the use of antimicrobial lock therapy and prophylaxis among infectious diseases consultants. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 31(5), 554-7. PMID: 20334551.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Kroeger, J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2010). Wild-type minimum effective concentration distributions and epidemiologic cutoff values for caspofungin and Aspergillus spp. as determined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution methods. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 67(1), 56-60. PMID: 20207095.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Gibbs, D. L., Newell, V. A., Ellis, D., Tullio, V., Rodloff, A., Fu, W. & Ling, T. A. (2010). Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: a 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida Species to fluconazole and voriconazole as determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion. Journal of clinical microbiology, 48(4), 1366-77. PMID: 20164282.

Peterson, L. R., Diekema, D. J. (2010). To screen or not to screen for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of clinical microbiology, 48(3), 683-9. PMID: 20071548.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Kroeger, J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S., Jones, R. N., Turnidge, J. & Diekema, D. J. (2010). Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for the echinocandins and Candida spp. Journal of clinical microbiology, 48(1), 52-6. PMID: 19923478.

Diekema, D. J., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Kroeger, J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Pfaller, M. A. (2010). Comparison of the broth microdilution methods of EUCAST and the CLSI for testing itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole against Aspergillus species.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J. (2010). Epidemiology of invasive mycoses in North America. Critical reviews in microbiology, 36(1), 1-53. PMID: 20088682.

Richter, S. S., Heilmann, K., Dohrn, C., Kroeger, J., Diekema, D. J. & Doern, G. V. (2010). Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the United States, 2009.

Mendes, R., Smith, T., Deshpande, L. M., Diekema, D. J., Sader, H. S. & Jones, R. N. (2010). Plasmid borne vga(A)-encoding gene in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST-398 from swine and swine farmers in the United States.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Kroeger, J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2010). Use of epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) to examine 9-year trends in susceptibility of Aspergillus species to the triazoles.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A. (2010). Utility of Antifungal Susceptibility Testing and Clinical Correlations.

Richter, S. S., Heilmann, K., Dohrn, C., Riahi, F., Costello, A., Kroeger, J., Diekema, D. J. & Doern, G. V. (2010). Activity of ceftaroline against 4210 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 43 United States centers, 2009.

Andrews, J. I., Coffin, J. E., Fleener, D. K. & Diekema, D. J. (2010). Association of Toll Like receptor 2 (TLR2) genetic polymorphisms with Staphylococcus aureus colonization during pregnancy.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Andes, D., Arendrup, M., Brown, S., Motyl, M. & Perlin, D. (2010). Clinical breakpoints for the echinocandins and Candida, revisited.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Messer, S., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2010). Comparison of broth microdilution methods of EUCAST and CLSI for testing fluconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole against Candida spp.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Georgopapadakou, N., Martell, L. A., Besterman, J. M. & Diekema, D. J. (2009). Activity of MGCD290, a Hos2 histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with azole antifungals against opportunistic fungal pathogens. Journal of clinical microbiology, 47(12), 3797-804. PMID: 19794038.

Siikala, E., Richardson, M., Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Perheentupa, J., Saxén, H. & Rautemaa, R. (2009). Candida albicans isolates from APECED patients show decreased susceptibility to miconazole. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 34(6), 607-9. PMID: 19748230.

Etienne, K. A., Gade, L., Lockhart, S. R., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Pfaller, M. A. & Balajee, S. A. (2009). Screening of a large global Aspergillus fumigatus species complex collection by using a species-specific microsphere-based Luminex assay. Journal of clinical microbiology, 47(12), 4171-2. PMID: 19794043.

Van De Griend, P., Herwaldt, L. A., Alvis, B., DeMartino, M., Heilmann, K., Doern, G., Winokur, P., Vonstein, D. D. & Diekema, D. (2009). Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Iowa, USA. Emerging infectious diseases, 15(10), 1582-9. PMID: 19861049.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L. B., Hollis, R. J., Kroeger, J., Tendolkar, S. & Pfaller, M. A. (2009). In vitro activity of seven systemically active antifungal agents against a large global collection of rare Candida species as determined by CLSI broth microdilution methods. Journal of clinical microbiology, 47(10), 3170-7. PMID: 19710283.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Kroeger, J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2009). In vitro susceptibility of clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin: a head-to-head comparison using the CLSI M38-A2 broth microdilution method. Journal of clinical microbiology, 47(10), 3323-5. PMID: 19710267.

Andrews, J. I., Fleener, D. K., Messer, S. A., Kroeger, J. S. & Diekema, D. J. (2009). Screening for Staphylococcus aureus carriage in pregnancy: usefulness of novel sampling and culture strategies. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 201(4), 396.e1-5. PMID: 19716114.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Kroeger, J. & Diekema, D. J. (2009). Variation in susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata to fluconazole according to patient age and geographic location in the United States in 2001 to 2007. Journal of clinical microbiology, 47(10), 3185-90. PMID: 19656983.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Ghannoum, M. A., Rex, J. H., Alexander, B. D., Andes, D., Brown, S. D., Chaturvedi, V., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Fowler, C. L., Johnson, E. M., Knapp, C. C., Motyl, M. R., Ostrosky-Zeichner, L., Sheehan, D. J. & Walsh, T. J. (2009). Wild-type MIC distribution and epidemiological cutoff values for Aspergillus fumigatus and three triazoles as determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution methods. Journal of clinical microbiology, 47(10), 3142-6. PMID: 19692559.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Kroeger, J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2009). Comparison of results of fluconazole and voriconazole disk diffusion testing for Candida spp. with results from a central reference laboratory in the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Program. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 65(1), 27-34. PMID: 19679232.

Reighard, A., Diekema, D., Wibbenmeyer, L., Ward, M. & Herwaldt, L. (2009). Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization and colonization or infection at other body sites in patients on a burn trauma unit. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 30(8), 721-6. PMID: 19580438.

Klevay, M. J., Horn, D. L., Neofytos, D., Pfaller, M. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2009). Initial treatment and outcome of Candida glabrata versus Candida albicans bloodstream infection. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 64(2), 152-7. PMID: 19376667.

Lockhart, S. R., Messer, S. A., Gherna, M., Bishop, J. A., Merz, W. G., Pfaller, M. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2009). Identification of Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis in a large global collection of Candida glabrata isolates: comparison to the literature. Journal of clinical microbiology, 47(4), 1216-7. PMID: 19193845.

Morgan, D. J., Diekema, D. J., Sepkowitz, K. & Perencevich, E. N. (2009). Adverse outcomes associated with Contact Precautions: a review of the literature. American journal of infection control, 37(2), 85-93. PMID: 19249637.

Endimiani, A., Hujer, A. M., Perez, F., Bethel, C. R., Hujer, K. M., Kroeger, J., Oethinger, M., Paterson, D. L., Adams, M. D., Jacobs, M. R., Diekema, D. J., Hall, G. S., Jenkins, S. G., Rice, L. B., Tenover, F. C. & Bonomo, R. A. (2009). Characterization of blaKPC-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates detected in different institutions in the Eastern USA. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, 63(3), 427-37. PMID: 19155227.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Kroeger, J., Jones, R. N. & Pfaller, M. A. (2009). A global evaluation of voriconazole activity tested against recent clinical isolates of Candida spp. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 63(2), 233-6. PMID: 19070452.

Lockhart, S. R., Messer, S. A., Pfaller, M. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2009). Identification and Susceptibility Profile of Candida fermentati from a worldwide collection of Candida guilliermondii clinical isolates. Journal of clinical microbiology, 47(1), 242-4. PMID: 19036938.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Gibbs, D. L., Newell, V. A., Bijie, H., Dzierzanowska, D., Klimko, N. N., Letscher-Bru, V., Lisalova, M., Muehlethaler, K., Rennison, C. & Zaidi, M. (2009). Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of noncandidal yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion testing. Journal of clinical microbiology, 47(1), 117-23. PMID: 19005141.

Pottinger, J., Steelman, V., Schlueter, A., Chiang, H. Y., Diekema, D. J. & Herwaldt, L. (2009). Clinical significance of positive cranial bone flap cultures, and risk of surgical site infection post-craniotomy.

Diekema, D., Perencevich, E., Babcock, H. & Edmond, M. (2009). Controversies in hospital infection prevention: pondering vexing issues in infection prevention.

Wyatt, C., Winokur, P., Page, J., Von Stein, D. & Diekema, D. J. (2009). Differing acquisition rates of MRSA and VRE during an active surveillance-contact precautions intervention.

Smith, T. C., Male, M. J., Harper, A. L., Kroeger, J. S., Tinkler, G. P., Moritz, E. D., Capuano, A. W., Herwaldt, L. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2009). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain ST398 is present in midwestern U.S. swine and swine workers. PloS one, 4(1), e4258. PMID: 19145257.

Ostrosky-Zeichner, L., Rex, J. H., Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Alexander, B. D., Andes, D., Brown, S. D., Chaturvedi, V., Ghannoum, M. A., Knapp, C. C., Sheehan, D. J. & Walsh, T. J. (2008). Rationale for reading fluconazole MICs at 24 hours rather than 48 hours when testing Candida spp. by the CLSI M27-A2 standard method. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 52(11), 4175-7. PMID: 18809944.

Riedel, S., Von Stein, D., Richardson, K., Page, J., Miller, S., Winokur, P. & Diekema, D. (2008). Development of a prediction rule for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus carriage in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center population. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 29(10), 969-71. PMID: 18702599.

Andes, D. R., Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Marchillo, K. & Bohrmueller, J. (2008). In vivo pharmacodynamic target investigation for micafungin against Candida albicans and C. glabrata in a neutropenic murine candidiasis model. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 52(10), 3497-503. PMID: 18625768.

Andrews, J. I., Shamshirsaz, A. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2008). Nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Obstetrics and gynecology, 112(4), 933-8. PMID: 18827138.

Wrobel, L., Whittington, J. K., Pujol, C., Oh, S. H., Ruiz, M. O., Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Soll, D. R. & Hoyer, L. L. (2008). Molecular phylogenetic analysis of a geographically and temporally matched set of Candida albicans isolates from humans and nonmigratory wildlife in central Illinois. Eukaryotic cell, 7(9), 1475-86. PMID: 18621922.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Ostrosky-Zeichner, L., Rex, J. H., Alexander, B. D., Andes, D., Brown, S. D., Chaturvedi, V., Ghannoum, M. A., Knapp, C. C., Sheehan, D. J. & Walsh, T. J. (2008). Correlation of MIC with outcome for Candida species tested against caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin: analysis and proposal for interpretive MIC breakpoints. Journal of clinical microbiology, 46(8), 2620-9. PMID: 18579718.

Lockhart, S. R., Messer, S. A., Pfaller, M. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2008). Geographic distribution and antifungal susceptibility of the newly described species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in comparison to the closely related species Candida parapsilosis. Journal of clinical microbiology, 46(8), 2659-64. PMID: 18562582.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Rice, C., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2008). In vitro survey of triazole cross-resistance among more than 700 clinical isolates of Aspergillus species. Journal of clinical microbiology, 46(8), 2568-72. PMID: 18562581.

Diekema, D. (2008). Benefits and drawbacks of universal surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Annals of internal medicine, 149(1), 67; author reply 68-9. PMID: 18591646.

Pfaller, M. A., Chaturvedi, V., Diekema, D. J., Ghannoum, M. A., Holliday, N. M., Killian, S. B., Knapp, C. C., Messer, S. A., Miskov, A. & Ramani, R. (2008). Clinical evaluation of the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric antifungal panel for antifungal susceptibility testing of the echinocandins anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin. Journal of clinical microbiology, 46(7), 2155-9. PMID: 18463213.

Huang, S. S., Diekema, D. J., Warren, D. K., Zuccotti, G., Winokur, P. L., Tendolkar, S., Boyken, L., Datta, R., Jones, R. M., Ward, M. A., Aubrey, T., Onderdonk, A. B., Garcia, C. & Platt, R. (2008). Strain-relatedness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from patients with repeated infection. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 46(8), 1241-7. PMID: 18444862.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Gibbs, D. L., Newell, V. A., Ng, K. P., Colombo, A., Finquelievich, J., Barnes, R. & Wadula, J. (2008). Geographic and temporal trends in isolation and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis: a global assessment from the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program, 2001 to 2005. Journal of clinical microbiology, 46(3), 842-9. PMID: 18199791.

Diekema, D. J., Climo, M. (2008). Preventing MRSA infections: finding it is not enough. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 299(10), 1190-2. PMID: 18334697.

Klevay, M. J., Ernst, E. J., Hollanbaugh, J. L., Miller, J. G., Pfaller, M. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2008). Therapy and outcome of Candida glabrata versus Candida albicans bloodstream infection. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 60(3), 273-7. PMID: 18024053.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Gibbs, D. L., Newell, V. A., Nagy, E., Dobiasova, S., Rinaldi, M., Barton, R. & Veselov, A. (2008). Candida krusei, a multidrug-resistant opportunistic fungal pathogen: geographic and temporal trends from the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program, 2001 to 2005. Journal of clinical microbiology, 46(2), 515-21. PMID: 18077633.

Andes, D., Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Prince, R. A., Marchillo, K., Ashbeck, J. & Hou, J. (2008). In vivo pharmacodynamic characterization of anidulafungin in a neutropenic murine candidiasis model. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 52(2), 539-50. PMID: 18070979.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2008). Selection of a surrogate agent (fluconazole or voriconazole) for initial susceptibility testing of posaconazole against Candida spp.: results from a global antifungal surveillance program. Journal of clinical microbiology, 46(2), 551-9. PMID: 18094129.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Kroeger, J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2008). In vitro susceptibility of invasive isolates of Candida spp. to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin: six years of global surveillance. Journal of clinical microbiology, 46(1), 150-6. PMID: 18032613.

Lockhart, S. R., Messer, S. A., Pfaller, M. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2008). Lodderomyces elongisporus masquerading as Candida parapsilosis as a cause of bloodstream infections. Journal of clinical microbiology, 46(1), 374-6. PMID: 17959765.

Klevay, M. J., Coffman, S. L., David, S. A., Lockhart, S. R., Latenser, B. A., Heile, J. A., Herwaldt, L. a. & Diekema, D. J. (2008). A cluster of Aspergillus flavus wound infections in a burn unit.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Kroeger, J., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S. & Pfaller, M. A. (2008). Antifungal Activity Against a Large Global Collection of Rare Candida Species.

Polgreen, P. M., Beekmann, S. E., Diekema, D. J. & Sherertz, R. J. (2008). Antimicrobial lock therapy and prophylaxis practice patterns: An Emerging Infections Network Survey.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Besterman, J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2008). Combination Testing of MGCD290, a Fungal Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, with Azole Antifungals against a Large Collection of Clinical Fungal Isolates.

Wibbenmeyer, L. A., Kealey, G. P., Latenser, B. A., Diekema, D. J., Williams, I. M., Coffman, S. L., Winokur, P. L., Kroeger, J. S., Lewis, R. W. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2008). Emergence of the USA300 strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a burn-trauma unit. Journal of burn care & research : official publication of the American Burn Association, 29(5), 790-7. PMID: 18695604.

Klevay, M. J., Horn, D., Neofytos, D., Pfaller, M. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2008). Empiric Treatment and Outcome of Candida glabrata versus C. albicans Bloodstream Infection.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J. & Merz, W. G. (2008). Infections caused by non-Candida, non-Cryptococcis yeasts.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Kroeger, J., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. & Diekema, D. J. (2008). Reading Fluconazole Susceptibility after 24 Hours: Validation against the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Reference Methods.

Klevay, M. J., Diekema, D. J. (2008). Response to letter to the editor. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 61, 364.

Reighard, A., Diekema, D. J., Wibbenmeyer, L., Ward, M. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2008). Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection on a burn/trauma unit.

Lockhart, S. J., Diekema, D. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2008). The epidemiology of fungal infections.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Kroeger, J., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Lockhart, S., Jones, R. N. & Pfaller, M. A. (2008). Voriconazole Activity Against Aspergillus spp: Eight Years of Global Surveillance.

Zhao, X., Oh, S. H., Jajko, R., Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Pujol, C., Soll, D. R. & Hoyer, L. L. (2007). Analysis of ALS5 and ALS6 allelic variability in a geographically diverse collection of Candida albicans isolates. Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B, 44(12), 1298-309. PMID: 17625934.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Procop, G. W. & Rinaldi, M. G. (2007). Multicenter comparison of the VITEK 2 antifungal susceptibility test with the CLSI broth microdilution reference method for testing amphotericin B, flucytosine, and voriconazole against Candida spp. Journal of clinical microbiology, 45(11), 3522-8. PMID: 17913927.

Lockhart, S. R., Abramson, M. A., Beekmann, S. E., Gallagher, G., Riedel, S., Diekema, D. J., Quinn, J. P. & Doern, G. V. (2007). Antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative bacilli causing infections in intensive care unit patients in the United States between 1993 and 2004. Journal of clinical microbiology, 45(10), 3352-9. PMID: 17715376.

Andrews, J. I., Fleener, D. K., Messer, S. A., Hansen, W. F., Pfaller, M. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2007). The yeast connection: is Candida linked to breastfeeding associated pain?. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 197(4), 424.e1-4. PMID: 17904988.

Flanagan, M., Ramanujam, R., Sutherland, J., Vaughn, T., Diekema, D. & Doebbeling, B. N. (2007). Development and validation of measures to assess prevention and control of AMR in hospitals. Medical care, 45(6), 537-44. PMID: 17515781.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Boyken, L. B., Tendolkar, S., Kroeger, J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2007). Evaluation of Etest and disk diffusion methods compared with broth microdilution antifungal susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of Candida spp. against posaconazole. Journal of clinical microbiology, 45(6), 1974-7. PMID: 17301284.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Gibbs, D. L., Newell, V. A., Meis, J. F., Gould, I. M., Fu, W., Colombo, A. L. & Rodriguez-Noriega, E. (2007). Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance study, 1997 to 2005: an 8.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida species and other yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion testing. Journal of clinical microbiology, 45(6), 1735-45. PMID: 17442797.

Messer, S. A., Diekema, D. J., Hollis, R. J., Boyken, L. B., Tendolkar, S., Kroeger, J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2007). Evaluation of disk diffusion and Etest compared to broth microdilution for antifungal susceptibility testing of posaconazole against clinical isolates of filamentous fungi. Journal of clinical microbiology, 45(4), 1322-4. PMID: 17267623.

Diekema, D. J., Edmond, M. B. (2007). Look before you leap: active surveillance for multidrug-resistant organisms. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 44(8), 1101-7. PMID: 17366459.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Procop, G. W. & Rinaldi, M. G. (2007). Multicenter comparison of the VITEK 2 yeast susceptibility test with the CLSI broth microdilution reference method for testing fluconazole against Candida spp. Journal of clinical microbiology, 45(3), 796-802. PMID: 17215344.

Polgreen, P. M., Chen, Y. Y., Cavanaugh, J. E., Ward, M., Coffman, S., Hornick, D. B., Diekema, D. J. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2007). An outbreak of severe Clostridium difficile-associated disease possibly related to inappropriate antimicrobial therapy for community-acquired pneumonia. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 28(2), 212-4. PMID: 17265406.

Diekema, D. J. (2007). Healthcare-associated fungal infections: beyond Candida and Aspergillus. Southern medical journal, 100(2), 130-1. PMID: 17330678.

Huang, S. S., Rifas-Shiman, S. L., Warren, D. K., Fraser, V. J., Climo, M. W., Wong, E. S., Cosgrove, S. E., Perl, T. M., Pottinger, J. M., Herwaldt, L. A., Jernigan, J. A., Tokars, J. L., Diekema, D. J., Hinrichsen, V. L., Yokoe, D. S. & Platt, R. (2007). Improving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surveillance and reporting in intensive care units. The Journal of infectious diseases, 195(3), 330-8. PMID: 17205470.

Huang, S. S., Rifas-Shiman, S. L., Pottinger, J. M., Herwaldt, L. A., Zembower, T. R., Noskin, G. A., Cosgrove, S. E., Perl, T. M., Curtis, A. B., Tokars, J. L., Diekema, D. J., Jernigan, J. A., Hinrichsen, V. L., Yokoe, D. S. & Platt, R. (2007). Improving the assessment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci by routine screening. The Journal of infectious diseases, 195(3), 339-46. PMID: 17205471.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Rice, C., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2007). Use of fluconazole as a surrogate marker to predict susceptibility and resistance to voriconazole among 13,338 clinical isolates of Candida spp. Tested by clinical and laboratory standards institute-recommended broth microdilution methods. Journal of clinical microbiology, 45(1), 70-5. PMID: 17079501.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J. (2007). Epidemiology of invasive candidiasis: a persistent public health problem. Clinical microbiology reviews, 20(1), 133-63. PMID: 17223626.

Van de Griend, P., Herwaldt, L. A., Alvis, B., Demartino, M., Heilmann, K., Doern, G. V., Winokur, P. L. & Diekema, D. J. (2007). Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA): An emerging cause of bloodstream infection (BSI) in Iowa.

Alamu, J., Diekema, D. J., Davis, P. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2007). Evaluation of antimicrobial use in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Gibbs, D. L., Newell, V. A., Ng, K. P., Colombo, A. L., Finquelievich, J., Barnes, R. & Wadula, J. (2007). Geographic and temporal trends in the isolation and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis: A global assessment from the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program.

Lockhart, S. R., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S., Pfaller, M. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2007). Geographic distribution and antifungal susceptibility of the newly described species Candida orthopsilosis, in comparison to the closely-related species Candida parapsilosis.

Riedel, S., Von Stein, D., Miller, S., Page, J., Winokur, P. L. & Diekema, D. J. (2007). Identifying MRSA or VRE carriers in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center population.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Kroeger, J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2007). Patterns of cross-resistance/susceptibility among a large collection of clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Kroeger, J. & Diekema, D. J. (2007). Selection of a surrogate agent (fluconazole or voriconazole) for initial susceptibility testing of posaconazole against Candida: Results from a global antifungal surveillance program.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Georgopapdakou, N. & Pfaller, M. A. (2007). Synergy of MG3290, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, with azoles tested against clinical isolates of Candida and Aspergillus.

Klevay, M. J., Ernst, E., Hollanbaugh, J. L., Miller, J. G., Pfaller, M. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2007). The epidemiology and impact of untreated candidemia.

Patel, S., Diekema, D. J., Leung, J., Applegate, D., Winokur, P. L., Von Stein, D., Boyken, L., Kroeger, J. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2007). The epidemiology of MRSA at a university hospital in a rural state.

Klevay, M., Ernst, E., Miller, J., Hollanbaugh, J., Pfaller, M. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2007). The importance of appropriate therapy for candidemia.

Andrews, J. I., Fleener, D. & Diekema, D. J. (2007). The Yeast Connection ? is Candida linked to breastfeeding associated pain?.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Kroeger, J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2007). In vitro susceptibility of Candida spp. to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin: Six years of global surveillance.

Johannsson, B., Chen, Y. Y., Beekmann, S., Shamsuddin, H. H., Diekema, D. J., Herwaldt, L. & Polgreen, P. M. (2007). Methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: Missed opportunities to optimize antimicrobial therapy.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Procop, G. & Rinaldi, M. (2007). Multicenter comparison of the VITEK 2 Yeast Susceptibility Test with the CLSI broth microdilution method for testing amphotericin B, flucytosine, and voriconazole against Candida spp.

Von Stein, D., Diekema, D. J., Richardson, K., Page, J., Riedel, S., Miller, S. & Winokur, P. L. (2007). "Real-life" performance of real-time PCR for detection of MRSA and VRE.

Hollanbaugh, J. L., Ernst, E., Klevay, M. J., Ngo, N., Miller, J. G., Pfaller, M. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2007). A case-case-control study of antimicrobial use and other risk factors for candidemia.

Song, X., Yokoe, D., Platt, R., Herwaldt, L. A., Diekema, D. J., Zuccotti, G., Plaskett, T., Wong, E., Climo, M., Cosgrove, S. & Perl, T. (2007). A multi-site assessment of an antimicrobial and diagnosis code-based screening tool to detect surgical site infections following craniotomy.

Knapp, C. C., Holliday, N., Miskov, A., Killian, S. B., Ghannoum, M. A., Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Diekema, D. J. & Chaturvedi, V. (2007). A multi-site evaluation of two new echinocandins anidulafungin, and micafungin on a colorimetric MIC susceptibility test plate compared with the CLSI M27 reference broth microdilution (BMD) plate for antifungal susceptibility testing.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Andes, D., Rinaldi, M., Fothergill, A., Pappas, P., Lortholary, O., Mohr, J., Kovanda, L., Villmann, M. & Buell, D. (2007). A proposal for an antifungal susceptibility testing breakpoint for micafungin and Candida: Integration of AST surveys and correlation with clinical outcomes.

Piehl, D., Diekema, D. J., Howard, W. & Andrews, J. I. (2007). Absence of vaginal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in the setting of increasing community associated MRSA rates.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J. (2007). Azole antifungal drug cross-resistance: Resistance mechanisms, epidemiology, and clinical significance. J Invasive Fungal Infect, 1, 74-62.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Gibbs, D. L., Newell, V. A., Nagy, E., Dobiasova, S., Rinaldi, M., Barton, R. & Veselov, A. (2007). Candida krusei, a multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen: Geographical and temporal trends form the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program.

Neofytos, D., Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J. & Horn, D. (2006). A case of recurrent episodes of Candida parapsilosis fungemia. Mycopathologia, 162(4), 295-8. PMID: 17039276.

Zillich, A. J., Sutherland, J. M., Wilson, S. J., Diekema, D. J., Ernst, E. J., Vaughn, T. E. & Doebbeling, B. N. (2006). Antimicrobial use control measures to prevent and control antimicrobial resistance in US hospitals. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 27(10), 1088-95. PMID: 17006817.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2006). Global surveillance of in vitro activity of micafungin against Candida: a comparison with caspofungin by CLSI-recommended methods. Journal of clinical microbiology, 44(10), 3533-8. PMID: 17021079.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Mendez, M., Kibbler, C., Erzsebet, P., Chang, S. C., Gibbs, D. L. & Newell, V. A. (2006). Candida guilliermondii, an opportunistic fungal pathogen with decreased susceptibility to fluconazole: geographic and temporal trends from the ARTEMIS DISK antifungal surveillance program. Journal of clinical microbiology, 44(10), 3551-6. PMID: 17021081.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Colombo, A. L., Kibbler, C., Ng, K. P., Gibbs, D. L. & Newell, V. A. (2006). Candida rugosa, an emerging fungal pathogen with resistance to azoles: geographic and temporal trends from the ARTEMIS DISK antifungal surveillance program. Journal of clinical microbiology, 44(10), 3578-82. PMID: 17021085.

Sigurdardottir, B., Berg, J. V., Hu, J., Alamu, J., McNutt, L. A., Diekema, D. J. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2006). Descriptive epidemiology and case-control study of patients colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 27(9), 913-9. PMID: 16941315.

Warren, D. K., Cosgrove, S. E., Diekema, D. J., Zuccotti, G., Climo, M. W., Bolon, M. K., Tokars, J. I., Noskin, G. A., Wong, E. S., Sepkowitz, K. A., Herwaldt, L. A., Perl, T. M., Solomon, S. L. & Fraser, V. J. (2006). A multicenter intervention to prevent catheter-associated bloodstream infections. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 27(7), 662-9. PMID: 16807839.

Siwek, G. T., Pfaller, M. A., Polgreen, P. M., Cobb, S., Hoth, P., Magalheas-Silverman, M. & Diekema, D. J. (2006). Incidence of invasive aspergillosis among allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients receiving voriconazole prophylaxis. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 55(3), 209-12. PMID: 16626917.

Beekmann, S. E., Diekema, D. J., Heilmann, K. P., Richter, S. S. & Doern, G. V. (2006). Macrolide use identified as risk factor for macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a 17-center case-control study. European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology, 25(5), 335-9. PMID: 16612609.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J. & Sheehan, D. J. (2006). Interpretive breakpoints for fluconazole and Candida revisited: a blueprint for the future of antifungal susceptibility testing. Clinical microbiology reviews, 19(2), 435-47. PMID: 16614256.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Rex, J. H., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Johnson, E. M., Andes, D., Chaturvedi, V., Ghannoum, M. A., Odds, F. C., Rinaldi, M. G., Sheehan, D. J., Troke, P., Walsh, T. J. & Warnock, D. W. (2006). Correlation of MIC with outcome for Candida species tested against voriconazole: analysis and proposal for interpretive breakpoints. Journal of clinical microbiology, 44(3), 819-26. PMID: 16517860.

Polgreen, P. M., Beekmann, S. E., Chen, Y. Y., Doern, G. V., Pfaller, M. A., Brueggemann, A. B., Herwaldt, L. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2006). Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in a rural state. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 27(3), 252-6. PMID: 16532412.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2006). In vitro susceptibilities of Candida spp. to caspofungin: four years of global surveillance. Journal of clinical microbiology, 44(3), 760-3. PMID: 16517851.

Messer, S. A., Diekema, D. J., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2006). Activities of micafungin against 315 invasive clinical isolates of fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. Journal of clinical microbiology, 44(2), 324-6. PMID: 16455878.

Polgreen, P. M., Pottinger, J., Polgreen, L., Diekema, D. J. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2006). Influenza vaccination rates, feedback and the Hawthorne effect. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 27(1), 98-9. PMID: 16528865.

Polgreen, P. M., Diekema, D. J., Vandeberg, J., Wiblin, R. T., Chen, Y. Y., David, S., Rasmus, D., Gerdts, N., Ross, A., Katz, L. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2006). Risk factors for groin wound infection after femoral artery catheterization: a case-control study. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 27(1), 34-7. PMID: 16418984.

Polgreen, P. M., Diekema, D. J., Applegate, D. M., Chen, Y. Y., Killgore, G. E., Kuntz, J., Messer, S. A., Thompson, A., Vande Berg, J. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2006). Risk factors for Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD) at a Midwestern teaching hospital.

Herwaldt, L. A., Applegate, D., Kuntz, J., Ward, M., Vande Berg, J., Wibbenmeyer, L. & Diekema, D. J. (2006). Risk factors for colonization with MRSA or VRE on a Burn and Wound Unit.

Huang, S. S., Diekema, D. J., Warren, D. K., Zuccotti, G., Winokur, P. L., Tendolkar, S., Boyken, L., Datta, R., Jones, R. N., Ward, M., Aubrey, T., Onderdonk, A. & Platt, R. (2006). Strain relatedness of isolates from patients with serial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

Herwaldt, L. A., Latenser, B. A., Wibbenmeyer, L., Coffman, S., Winokur, P. L. & Diekema, D. J. (2006). "Miliary" infections caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in a Burn Center.

Diekema, D. J., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Kroeger, J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Pfaller, M. A. (2006). Anidulafungin activity against invasive clinical isolates of Candida: Relationship to fluconazole susceptibility.

Ernst, E., Ngo, N., Miller, J., Klevay, M., Jepson, R., Pfaller, M. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2006). Antimicrobial usage in C. glabrata and C. albicans bloodstream infection.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Kroeger, J., Hollis, R. & Pfaller, M. A. (2006). Candida glabrata: Five years of sentinel antifungal resistance surveillance.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Mendez, M., Kibbler, C., Erzsebet, P., Chang, S., Gibbs, D. & Newell, V. (2006). Candida guilliermondii, an opportunistic fungal pathogen with decreased susceptibility to fluconazole: Global surveillance from the ARTEMIS disk antifungal surveillance program.

Kuntz, J., Herwaldt, L. A., Applegate, D. M., Ward, M., Chen, Y. Y., Diekema, D. J. & Polgreen, P. M. (2006). Clostridium difficile associated disease among patients in a small rural hospital.

Messer, S., Diekema, D. J., Hollis, R. J., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Kroeger, J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2006). Evaluation of disk diffusion and Etest compared to broth microdilution antifungal susceptibility testing of posaconazole against clinical isolates of filamentous fungi.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Kroeger, J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2006). Evaluation of Etest and disk diffusion methods compared to broth microdilution antifungal susceptibility testing of posaconazole against clinical isolates of Candida.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Messer, S., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2006). Global Surveillance of the in vitro activity of micafungin against Candida: A comparison with caspofungin using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended methods.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Tendolkar, S., Kroeger, J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2006). In vitro activity of caspofungin against rare Candida species.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A. (2006). Infection control epidemiology and clinical microbiology.

Herwaldt, L. A., Schultz-Stubner, S., Kuntz, J. & Diekema, D. J. (2006). Infection control practices among anesthesia providers (APs) in the 7 CDC prevention epicenter hospitals.

Ernst, E., Miller, J., Jepson, R., Klevay, M., Pfaller, M. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2006). Risk factors for Candida glabrata bloodstream infection: A case-control study.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Rinaldi, M. G., Barnes, R., Hu, B., Veselov, A. V., Tiraboschi, N., Nagy, E. & Gibbs, D. L. (2005). Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study: a 6.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida and other yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole by standardized disk diffusion testing. Journal of clinical microbiology, 43(12), 5848-59. PMID: 16333066.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Boyken, L., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Goldstein, B. P. (2005). Effectiveness of anidulafungin in eradicating Candida species in invasive candidiasis. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 49(11), 4795-7. PMID: 16251335.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2005). In vitro activities of anidulafungin against more than 2,500 clinical isolates of Candida spp., including 315 isolates resistant to fluconazole. Journal of clinical microbiology, 43(11), 5425-7. PMID: 16272464.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2005). Comparison of results of voriconazole disk diffusion testing for Candida species with results from a central reference laboratory in the ARTEMIS global antifungal surveillance program. Journal of clinical microbiology, 43(10), 5208-13. PMID: 16207985.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2005). In vitro susceptibilities of clinical isolates of Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus species to itraconazole: global survey of 9,359 isolates tested by clinical and laboratory standards institute broth microdilution methods. Journal of clinical microbiology, 43(8), 3807-10. PMID: 16081915.

Sohn, S., Climo, M., Diekema, D., Fraser, V., Herwaldt, L., Marino, S., Noskin, G., Perl, T., Song, X., Tokars, J., Warren, D., Wong, E., Yokoe, D. S., Zembower, T. & Sepkowitz, K. A. (2005). Varying rates of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea at prevention epicenter hospitals. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 26(8), 676-9. PMID: 16156322.

Klevay, M., Ebinger, A., Diekema, D., Messer, S., Hollis, R. & Pfaller, M. (2005). Disk diffusion testing using Candida sp. colonies taken directly from CHROMagar Candida medium may decrease time required to obtain results. Journal of clinical microbiology, 43(7), 3497-9. PMID: 16000489.

Ernst, E. J., Raley, G., Herwaldt, L. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2005). Importance of control group selection for evaluating antimicrobial use as a risk factor for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 26(7), 634-7. PMID: 16092744.

Beekmann, S. E., Diekema, D. J. & Doern, G. V. (2005). Determining the clinical significance of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from blood cultures. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 26(6), 559-66. PMID: 16018432.

Richter, S. S., Galask, R. P., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Diekema, D. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2005). Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species causing vulvovaginitis and epidemiology of recurrent cases. Journal of clinical microbiology, 43(5), 2155-62. PMID: 15872235.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Rice, C., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J., Doern, G. V. & Diekema, D. J. (2005). Global trends in the antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans (1990 to 2004). Journal of clinical microbiology, 43(5), 2163-7. PMID: 15872236.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J. (2005). Unusual fungal and pseudofungal infections of humans. Journal of clinical microbiology, 43(4), 1495-504. PMID: 15814958.

Messer, S., Diekema, D. J., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2005). Micafungin Activity against 315 Invasive Clinical Isolates of Fluconazole Resistant Candida.

Ince, D., Winokur, P., Beekmann, S., Herwaldt, L. A., Pfaller, M. A., Doern, G. V. & Diekema, D. J. (2005). Prevalence of Panton Valentine Leukocidin genes among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Iowa.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2005). Prospective Global Surveillance for Candida spp. Infection: Four Year Results from the ARTEMIS Study.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2005). Activity of New and Investigational Antifungal Agents against Recent Clinical Isolates of Filamentous Fungi.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2005). Activity of New and Investigational Antifungal Agents against Recent Clinical Isolates of Filamentous Fungi.

Polgreen, P. M., Chen, Y. Y., Ward, M. M., Coffman, S., Diekema, D. J., Hornick, D. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2005). An outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea among elderly patients in a small rural hospital.

Messer, S., Diekema, D. J., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2005). Evaluation of the CLSI M44-A Disk Diffusion Method for Determining Susceptibilities of 584 Clinical Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans to Voriconazole.

Messer, S., Diekema, D. J., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2005). Evaluation of the CLSI M44-A Disk Diffusion Method for Determining Susceptibilities of 584 Clinical Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans to Voriconazole.

Alvis, B., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S. & Pfaller, M. A. (2005). Evaluation of the Disk Diffusion Method Compared to Broth Microdilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Voriconazole against Clinical Isolates of Filamentous Fungi.

Alvis, B., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L. & Tendolkar, S. (2005). Evaluation of the Disk Diffusion Method Compared to Broth Microdilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Voriconazole against Clinical Isolates of Filamentous Fungi.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2005). In vitro Activity of Caspofungin against Invasive Clinical Isolates of Candida: Four Years of Sentinel Surveillance.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2005). In vitro Activity of Caspofungin against Invasive Clinical Isolates of Candida: Four Years of Sentinel Surveillance.

Messer, S., Diekema, D. J., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2005). Micafungin Activity against 315 Invasive Clinical Isolates of Fluconazole Resistant Candida.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2005). Prospective Global Surveillance for Candida spp. Infection: Four Year Results from the ARTEMIS Study.

Polgreen, P. M., Diekema, D. J., Herwaldt, L. A., Cavanaugh, J. E. & Nelson, F. D. (2005). The use of a prediction market to forecast influenza activity.

Polgreen, P. M., Diekema, D. J., Herwaldt, L. A., Cavanaugh, J. E., Nelson, F. D. & Neumann, G. R. (2005). The use of a prediction market to forecast influenza activity.

Wilson, D. J., Sutherland, J. M. & Diekema, D. J. (2005). Characteristics and outcomes of US hospitals that perform active surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Wilson, D. J., Sutherland, J. M. & Diekema, D. J. (2005). Characteristics and outcomes of US hospitals that perform active surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Results of a large, national survey.

Miller, R. A., Park, B. J., Fridkin, S. K., Morrison, V. A., Pappas, P. G., Alexander, B., Schuster, M. & Diekema, D. J. (2005). Characterization of very late onset invasive aspergillosis (IA) among organ transplant recipients.

Miller, R. A., Park, B. J., Fridkin, S. K., Morrison, V. A., Pappas, P. G., Alexander, B., Schuster, M. & Diekema, D. J. (2005). Characterization of very late onset invasive aspergillosis (IA) among organ transplant recipients.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2005). Comparison of Results of Voriconazole Disk Diffusion Testing for Candida Species with Results from a Central Reference Laboratory in the ARTEMIS Global Antifungal Surveillance Program.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2005). Comparison of Results of Voriconazole Disk Diffusion Testing for Candida Species with Results from a Central Reference Laboratory in the ARTEMIS Global Antifungal Surveillance Program.

Cosgrove, S. E., Srinivasan, A., Seo, S. K., Bolon, M. K., Climo, M., Diekema, D. J., Speck, K., Gase, K., Moskin, G., Herwaldt, L. A., Wong, E., Song, X., Curtis, A., Solomon, S., Tokars, J. I. & Perl, T. M. (2005). Evaluation of post-prescription review as a model of promoting rational antimicrobial use: A multi-center study.

Flach, S. D., Diekema, D. J., Yankey, J. W., BootsMiller, B. J., Vaughn, T. E., Ernst, E. J., Ward, M. M. & Doebbeling, B. N. (2005). Variation in the use of procedures to monitor antimicrobial resistance in U.S. hospitals. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 26(1), 31-8. PMID: 15693406.

Diekema, D. J., Petroelje, B., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2005). Activities of available and investigational antifungal agents against rhodotorula species. Journal of clinical microbiology, 43(1), 476-8. PMID: 15635020.

Ward, M. M., Diekema, D. J., Yankey, J. W., Vaughn, T. E., BootsMiller, B. J., Pendergast, J. F. & Doebbeling, B. N. (2005). Implementation of strategies to prevent and control the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in U.S. hospitals. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 26(1), 21-30. PMID: 15693405.

Yokoe, D. S., Noskin, G. A., Cunnigham, S. M., Zuccotti, G., Plaskett, T., Fraser, V. J., Olsen, M. A., Tokars, J. I., Solomon, S., Perl, T. M., Cosgrove, S. E., Tilson, R. S., Greenbaum, M., Hooper, D. C., Sands, K. E., Tully, J., Herwaldt, L. a., Diekema, D. J., Wong, E. S., Climo, M. & Platt, R. (2004). Enhanced identification of postoperative infections among inpatients. Emerging infectious diseases, 10(11), 1924-30. PMID: 15550201.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2004). Evaluation of the etest method using Mueller-Hinton agar with glucose and methylene blue for determining amphotericin B MICs for 4,936 clinical isolates of Candida species. Journal of clinical microbiology, 42(11), 4977-9. PMID: 15528683.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2004). Clinical evaluation of a dried commercially prepared microdilution panel for antifungal susceptibility testing of five antifungal agents against Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 50(2), 113-7. PMID: 15474320.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J. (2004). Rare and emerging opportunistic fungal pathogens: concern for resistance beyond Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Journal of clinical microbiology, 42(10), 4419-31. PMID: 15472288.

Pfaller, M. A., Hazen, K. C., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2004). Comparison of results of fluconazole disk diffusion testing for Candida species with results from a central reference laboratory in the ARTEMIS global antifungal surveillance program. Journal of clinical microbiology, 42(8), 3607-12. PMID: 15297505.

Siwek, G. T., Dodgson, K. J., de Magalhaes-Silverman, M., Bartelt, L. A., Kilborn, S. B., Hoth, P. L., Diekema, D. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2004). Invasive zygomycosis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving voriconazole prophylaxis. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 39(4), 584-7. PMID: 15356827.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A. (2004). Nosocomial candidemia: an ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 25(8), 624-6. PMID: 15357151.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2004). Geographic variation in the susceptibilities of invasive isolates of Candida glabrata to seven systemically active antifungal agents: a global assessment from the ARTEMIS Antifungal Surveillance Program conducted in 2001 and 2002. Journal of clinical microbiology, 42(7), 3142-6. PMID: 15243073.

Diekema, D. J., Dodgson, K. J., Sigurdardottir, B. & Pfaller, M. A. (2004). Rapid detection of antimicrobial-resistant organism carriage: an unmet clinical need. Journal of clinical microbiology, 42(7), 2879-83. PMID: 15243032.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Rice, C., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2004). Cross-resistance between fluconazole and ravuconazole and the use of fluconazole as a surrogate marker to predict susceptibility and resistance to ravuconazole among 12,796 clinical isolates of Candida spp. Journal of clinical microbiology, 42(7), 3137-41. PMID: 15243072.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Rice, C., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2004). Further standardization of broth microdilution methodology for in vitro susceptibility testing of caspofungin against Candida species by use of an international collection of more than 3,000 clinical isolates. Journal of clinical microbiology, 42(7), 3117-9. PMID: 15243069.

Ernst, E. J., Diekema, D. J., BootsMiller, B. J., Vaughn, T., Yankey, J. W., Flach, S. D., Ward, M. M., Franciscus, C. L., Acosta, E., Pfaller, M. A. & Doebbeling, B. N. (2004). Are United States hospitals following national guidelines for the analysis and presentation of cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility data?. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 49(2), 141-5. PMID: 15183864.

Diekema, D. J., Lee, K., Raney, P., Herwaldt, L. A., Doern, G. V. & Tenover, F. C. (2004). Accuracy and appropriateness of antimicrobial susceptibility test reporting for bacteria isolated from blood cultures. Journal of clinical microbiology, 42(5), 2258-60. PMID: 15131206.

Polgreen, P. M., Fultz, S. L., Justice, A. C., Wagner, J. H., Diekema, D. J., Rabeneck, L., Weissman, S. & Stapleton, J. T. (2004). Association of hypocholesterolaemia with hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected people. HIV medicine, 5(3), 144-50. PMID: 15139979.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Rice, C., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2004). In vitro activities of voriconazole, posaconazole, and fluconazole against 4,169 clinical isolates of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans collected during 2001 and 2002 in the ARTEMIS global antifungal surveillance program. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 48(3), 201-5. PMID: 15023430.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2004). Stability of Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with glucose and methylene blue for disk diffusion testing of fluconazole and voriconazole. Journal of clinical microbiology, 42(3), 1288-9. PMID: 15004097.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J. (2004). Twelve years of fluconazole in clinical practice: global trends in species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida. Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 10 Suppl 1, 11-23. PMID: 14748799.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J. & Jones, R. N. (2004). In vitro susceptibilities of rare Candida bloodstream isolates to ravuconazole and three comparative antifungal agents. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 48(2), 101-5. PMID: 14972378.

Diekema, D. J., BootsMiller, B. J., Vaughn, T. E., Woolson, R. F., Yankey, J. W., Ernst, E. J., Flach, S. D., Ward, M. M., Franciscus, C. L., Pfaller, M. A. & Doebbeling, B. N. (2004). Antimicrobial resistance trends and outbreak frequency in United States hospitals. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 38(1), 78-85. PMID: 14679451.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Rice, C., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2004). Evaluation of the NCCLS M44-P disk diffusion method for determining susceptibilities of 276 clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans to fluconazole. Journal of clinical microbiology, 42(1), 380-3. PMID: 14715784.

Pfaller, M. A., Hazen, K. C., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. & Diekema, D. J. (2004). Accuracy of Fluconazole Disk Testing for Candida Species: Comparison of participant results with results from a central reference laboratory in the ARTEMIS Global Antifungal Surveillance Program.

Diekema, D. J., Petroelje, B., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2004). Activity of available and investigational antifungal agents against Rhodotorula species.

Pfaller, M. A., Pujol, C., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S., Hollis, R. J. & Soll, D. R. (2004). Animal isolates of Candida albicans are not a source of resistance to common antifungal agents.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2004). Clinical evaluation of a dried commercially prepared microdilution panel for antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans.

Pfaller, M. A., Richter, S. S. & Diekema, D. J. (2004). Conventional methods for the laboratory diagnosis of fungal infections in the immunocompromised host.

Klevay, M. J., Ebinger, A., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S., Hollis, R. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2004). Disk diffusion testing of Candida inoculated directly from CHROMagar Candida medium may decrease time to results reporting.

Sigurdardottir, B., Dodgson, K., Coffman, S., Howard, W., Vande Berg, J., Doern, G. V., Pfaller, M. A., Herwaldt, L. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2004). Effect of real-time PCR detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) on time to detection of colonized patients.

Pfaller, M. A., Boyken, L., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2004). Evaluation of the Etest method using Mueller-Hinton agar with glucose and methylene blue for determining amphotericin B MICs for Candida species.

Dodgson, K. J., Stence, A. A., Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A. & Doern, G. V. (2004). Implementation of a real-time PCR assay for VRE directly from peri-rectal swabs.

Polgreen, P. M., Pottinger, J., Diekema, D. J., Person, C., Coffman, S., Hartley, P. & Herwaldt, L. a. (2004). Influenza vaccination rates and the Hawthorne Effect: Increasing healthcare worker vaccination rates using "half-time" appraisals and targeted interventions including performance feedback.

Polgreen, P. M., Diekema, D. J., Herwaldt, L. A., Neumann, G. & Nelson, F. (2004). Institutional factors associated with a novel antimicrobial resistance index.

Wilson, D. J., Yankey, J., Vaughn, T., Diekema, D. J., Flach, S. D., Ward, M. & Doebbeling, B. (2004). Institutional factors associated with a novel antimicrobial resistance index.

Warren, D., Christian, L., Osa-Edoh, O., Climo, C., Wong, E., Cunningham, S. M., Noskin, G., Zuccotti, G., Plaskett, T., Tokars, J., Solomon, S. L., Cosgrove, S. E., Perl, T. M., Yokoe, D. S., Diekema, D. J., Herwaldt, L. A. & Fraser, V. J. (2004). The impact of an educational intervention on healthcare worker knowledge of catheter-associated bloodstream infections.

Beekmann, S. E., Diekema, D. J., Chapin, K. C. & Doern, G. V. (2004). The optimal algorithm for determining the clinical significance of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) and other common skin contaminants (CSC).

Sohn, S., Climo, M., Diekema, D. J., Fraser, V., Herwaldt, L. A., Marino, S., Noskin, G., Perl, T. M., Song, X., Tokars, J., Warren, D., Wong, E., Yokoe, D., Zembower, T. & Sepkowitz, K. A. (2004). Varying rates of Clostridium difficile diarrhea at Prevention Epicenter hospitals.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Rice, C., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2003). Caspofungin activity against clinical isolates of fluconazole-resistant Candida. Journal of clinical microbiology, 41(12), 5729-31. PMID: 14662968.

Climo, M., Diekema, D., Warren, D. K., Herwaldt, L. A., Perl, T. M., Peterson, L., Plaskett, T., Price, C., Sepkowitz, K., Solomon, S., Tokars, J., Fraser, V. J. & Wong, E. (2003). Prevalence of the use of central venous access devices within and outside of the intensive care unit: results of a survey among hospitals in the prevention epicenter program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 24(12), 942-5. PMID: 14700410.

Gudlaugsson, O., Gillespie, S., Lee, K., Vande Berg, J., Hu, J., Messer, S., Herwaldt, L., Pfaller, M. & Diekema, D. (2003). Attributable mortality of nosocomial candidemia, revisited. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 37(9), 1172-7. PMID: 14557960.

Diekema, D. J. (2003). Use of active surveillance cultures to control vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. (Vols. 37). (10), pp. 1400-2; author reply 1402-3. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. PMID: 14583882.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Jones, R. N. & Pfaller, M. A. (2003). Activities of caspofungin, itraconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B against 448 recent clinical isolates of filamentous fungi. Journal of clinical microbiology, 41(8), 3623-6. PMID: 12904365.

Diekema, D. J., Beekmann, S. E., Chapin, K. C., Morel, K. A., Munson, E. & Doern, G. V. (2003). Epidemiology and outcome of nosocomial and community-onset bloodstream infection. Journal of clinical microbiology, 41(8), 3655-60. PMID: 12904371.

Beekmann, S. E., Diekema, D. J., Chapin, K. C. & Doern, G. V. (2003). Effects of rapid detection of bloodstream infections on length of hospitalization and hospital charges. Journal of clinical microbiology, 41(7), 3119-25. PMID: 12843051.

Diekema, D. J. (2003). Rapid response is best bet. pp. A20. Washington Post.

Diekema, D. J., Andrews, J. I., Huynh, H., Rhomberg, P. R., Doktor, S. R., Beyer, J., Shortridge, V. D., Flamm, R. K., Jones, R. N. & Pfaller, M. A. (2003). Molecular epidemiology of macrolide resistance in neonatal bloodstream isolates of group B streptococci. Journal of clinical microbiology, 41(6), 2659-61. PMID: 12791897.

Andrews, J. I., Diekema, D. J. & Yankowitz, J. (2003). Prenatal testing for infectious disease. Clinics in laboratory medicine, 23(2), 295-315, viii. PMID: 12848446.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Boyken, L., Messer, S. A., Tendolkar, S. & Hollis, R. J. (2003). Evaluation of the Etest and disk diffusion methods for determining susceptibilities of 235 bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata to fluconazole and voriconazole. Journal of clinical microbiology, 41(5), 1875-80. PMID: 12734220.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2003). Variation in susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata to fluconazole according to patient age and geographic location. Journal of clinical microbiology, 41(5), 2176-9. PMID: 12734273.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L. & Hollis, R. J. (2003). Activities of fluconazole and voriconazole against 1,586 recent clinical isolates of Candida species determined by Broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and Etest methods: report from the ARTEMIS Global Antifungal Susceptibility Program, 2001. Journal of clinical microbiology, 41(4), 1440-6. PMID: 12682127.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2003). In vitro susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi: comparison of Etest and reference M38-A microdilution methods for determining posaconazole MICs. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 45(4), 241-4. PMID: 12729993.

Maxwell, M. J., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Diekema, D. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2003). Evaluation of Etest method for determining fluconazole and voriconazole MICs for 279 clinical isolates of Candida species infrequently isolated from blood. Journal of clinical microbiology, 41(3), 1087-90. PMID: 12624034.

Klepser, M. E., Klepser, D. G., Ernst, E. J., Brooks, J., Diekema, D. J., Mozaffari, E., Hendrickson, J. & Doern, G. V. (2003). Health care resource utilization associated with treatment of penicillin-susceptible and -nonsusceptible isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pharmacotherapy, 23(3), 349-59. PMID: 12627934.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J. & Jones, R. N. (2003). In vitro activities of caspofungin compared with those of fluconazole and itraconazole against 3,959 clinical isolates of Candida spp., including 157 fluconazole-resistant isolates. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 47(3), 1068-71. PMID: 12604543.

Pfaller, J. B., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Diekema, D. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2003). In vitro susceptibility testing of Aspergillus spp.: comparison of Etest and reference microdilution methods for determining voriconazole and itraconazole MICs. Journal of clinical microbiology, 41(3), 1126-9. PMID: 12624040.

Richter, S. S., Diekema, D. J., Heilmann, K. P., Almer, L. S., Shortridge, V. D., Zeitler, R., Flamm, R. K. & Doern, G. V. (2003). Fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 36(3), 380-3. PMID: 12539083.

Munson, E. L., Diekema, D. J., Beekmann, S. E., Chapin, K. C. & Doern, G. V. (2003). Detection and treatment of bloodstream infection: laboratory reporting and antimicrobial management. Journal of clinical microbiology, 41(1), 495-7. PMID: 12517905.

Diekema, D. J., BootsMiller, B., Ernst, E., Flach, S., Franciscus, C., Pfaller, M. A., Vaughn, T., Ward, M., Woolson, R., Yankey, J. & Doebbeling, B. (2003). Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Trends and Outbreak Frequency in United States Hospitals: Nationwide Surveys of Infection Control Professionals (ICPs) and Laboratory Directors (LDs).

Doebbeling, B. N., Diekema, D. J., Vaughn, T., Yankey, J., BootsMiller, B., Flach, S., Ernst, E., Ward, M., Franciscus, C., Acosta, E. & Pfaller, M. (2003). Are US Hospitals following Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control Guidelines?.

Ernst, E., Yankey, J., Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., BootsMiller, B., Vaughn, T. E., Ward, M., Flach, S., Franciscus, C., Acotsa, E. & Doebbeling, B. (2003). Are US Hospitals following National Guidelines for the Analysis and Presentation of Antibiogram Data?.

Sigurdardottir, B., Diekema, D. J., Gillespie, S., Johnson, E., Vande Berg, J. & Herwaldt, L. (2003). Descriptive epidemiology of patients co-colonized with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Yankey, J., Diekema, D. J., Vaughn, T., Ernst, E., BootsMiller, B., Flach, S., Ward, M., Pendergast, J. & Doebbeling, B. N. (2003). Development and validation of a novel index to compare antimicrobial resistance across types of hospitals.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Rice, C., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2003). Evaluation of the NCCLS M44-P disk diffusion method for determining the fluconazole susceptibility of 276 clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans.

Flach, S. D., Yankey, J., Diekema, D. J., Vaughn, T., BootsMiller, B., Ward, M., Ernst, E. & Doebbeling, B. N. (2003). Hospitals' Use of Laboratory Procedures to Control Antimicrobial Resistance.

Warren, D., Osa-Edoh, O., Climo, M., Wong, E., Cunningham, S., Noskin, G., Zuccotti, G., Plaskett, T., Tokars, J., Solomon, S., Cosgrove, S., Perl, T., Diekema, D. J., Herwaldt, L. A. & Fraser, V. J. (2003). A multicenter intervention to prevent catheter-associated bloodstream infections in the ICU.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J., Rice, C., Tendolkar, S. & Diekema, D. J. (2003). Activities of voriconazole, posaconazole and fluconazole against 3,932 Candida species and 237 Cryptococcus neoformans: Report from the ARTEMIS Global Antifungal Surveillance Program, 2001-2002.

Ernst, E., Raley, G., Herwaldt, L. A., Hu, J., Vandeberg, J. & Diekema, D. J. (2003). The Importance of Control Group Selection for Evaluating Antimicrobial Usage as a Risk Factor for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

Pfaller, M. A., Hollis, R., Goldstein, B. P., Messer, S., Diekema, D. J. & Henkel, T. (2003). In Vitro activity of anidulafungin and other agents against 526 esophageal candidiasis isolates.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J. & Jones, R. N. (2003). In vitro susceptibilities of bloodstream isolates of rare Candida species against ravuconazole and three licensed antifungal agents.

Beekmann, S. E., Heilmann, K., Sauter, C., Diekema, D. J. & Doern, G. V. (2003). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus in Long-Term Care Facilities: Results from a Nationwide Surveillance Study.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A. (2003). New antigungal agents. (Vols. 20). pp. 399. Infections in Medicine.

Shamsuddin, H., Diekema, D. J. (2003). Opportunistic infections in hematopoetic transplant recipients.

Andrew, J. I., Diekema, D. J. & Yankowitz, J. (2003). Prenatal testing for infectious diseases. Clin Lab Med, 4, 1-21.

Diekema, D. J. (2003). The clinician and the microbiology laboratory.

Maxwell, M. J., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Diekema, D. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2003). Evaluation of Etest method for determining voriconazole and amphotericin B MICs for 162 clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. Journal of clinical microbiology, 41(1), 97-9. PMID: 12517832.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R. J. & Jones, R. N. (2003). In vitro activities of voriconazole, posaconazole, and four licensed systemic antifungal agents against Candida species infrequently isolated from blood. Journal of clinical microbiology, 41(1), 78-83. PMID: 12517829.

Diekema, D. J. (2003). Smallpox vaccinations. pp. A26. New York Times.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A. & Jones, R. N. (2002). Age-related trends in pathogen frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of bloodstream isolates in North America: SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-2000. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 20(6), 412-8. PMID: 12458134.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Huynh, H., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2002). In vitro activities of 5-fluorocytosine against 8,803 clinical isolates of Candida spp.: global assessment of primary resistance using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards susceptibility testing methods. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 46(11), 3518-21. PMID: 12384359.

Diekema, D. J. (2002). Alcohol-based hand gels and hand hygiene in hospitals. (Vols. 360). (9344), pp. 1510; author reply 1511. Lancet. PMID: 12433544.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J. (2002). Role of sentinel surveillance of candidemia: trends in species distribution and antifungal susceptibility. Journal of clinical microbiology, 40(10), 3551-7. PMID: 12354845.

Richter, S. S., Beekmann, S. E., Croco, J. L., Diekema, D. J., Koontz, F. P., Pfaller, M. A. & Doern, G. V. (2002). Minimizing the workup of blood culture contaminants: implementation and evaluation of a laboratory-based algorithm. Journal of clinical microbiology, 40(7), 2437-44. PMID: 12089259.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Jones, R. N. & Diekema, D. J. (2002). In vitro activities of ravuconazole and voriconazole compared with those of four approved systemic antifungal agents against 6,970 clinical isolates of Candida spp. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 46(6), 1723-7. PMID: 12019081.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Huynh, H. & Hollis, R. J. (2002). Clinical evaluation of a frozen commercially prepared microdilution panel for antifungal susceptibility testing of seven antifungal agents, including the new triazoles posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole. Journal of clinical microbiology, 40(5), 1694-7. PMID: 11980944.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Brueggemann, A. B., Coffman, S. L., Doern, G. V., Herwaldt, L. A. & Pfaller, M. A. (2002). Epidemiology of candidemia: 3-year results from the emerging infections and the epidemiology of Iowa organisms study. Journal of clinical microbiology, 40(4), 1298-302. PMID: 11923348.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Jones, R. N., Messer, S. A. & Hollis, R. J. (2002). Trends in antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated from pediatric and adult patients with bloodstream infections: SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997 to 2000. Journal of clinical microbiology, 40(3), 852-6. PMID: 11880404.

Lewis, R. E., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Pfaller, M. A. & Klepser, M. E. (2002). Comparison of Etest, chequerboard dilution and time-kill studies for the detection of synergy or antagonism between antifungal agents tested against Candida species. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, 49(2), 345-51. PMID: 11815578.

Gudlaugsson, O., Gillespie, S., Lee, K., Vande Berg, J., Messer, S. A., Herwaldt, L., Pfaller, M. A. & Diekema, D. J. (2002). Nosocomial candidemia: Attributable mortality and excess length of stay revisited.

Climo, M., Diekema, D. J., Fraser, V. J., Hewaldt, L. A., Perl, T. M., Peterson, L. R., Plaskett, T., Price, C., Sepkowitz, K., Solomon, S., Tokars, J. & Wong, E. (2002). Prevalence of central line use in and outside the intensive care unit: Results of a survey among hospitals in the CDC's Prevention Epicenter Program.

Warren, D., Osa-Edoh, O., Tyakoe, D., Sepkowitz, K., Tokars, J., Perl, T., Gramatikova, A., Platt, R., Diekema, D. J., Herwaldt, L. A., Climo, M., Wong, E., Noskin, G., Plaskett, T., Solomon, S. & Fraser, V. (2002). Preventing catheter-associated bloodstream infections: A survey of policies for insertion and care of central venous catheters from multiple hospitals.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A. (2002). Role of the clinical microbiology laboratory in hospital epidemiology and infection control.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Brueggemann, A. B., Coffman, S., Doern, G. V., Herwaldt, L. & Pfaller, M. A. (2002). The epidemiology of candidemia: Three-year results from the Emerging Infections and the Epidemiology of Iowa Organisms study.

Beekmann, S. E., Diekema, D. J., Munson, E. & Doern, G. V. (2002). The specificity and positive predictive value of the NNIS definition for laboratory confirmed bloodstream infection with common skin contaminants.

Diekema, D. J., Lee, K., Raney, P., Herwaldt, L. A., Doern, G. V. & Tenover, F. C. (2002). Accuracy and appropriateness of antimicrobial susceptibility test reporting for bacteria isolated from blood cultures.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L. & Hollis, R. J. (2002). Activity of fluconazole and voriconazole determined by broth microdilution, disk diffusion and Etest methods against 1897 recent clinical isolates of Candida species: Report from the ARTEMIS Global Anfungal Susceptibility Program, 2001.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Jones, R. N. & Pfaller, M. A. (2002). Antifungal activity of caspofungin and the new triazoles compared with itraconazole and amphotericin B against 462 recent clinical isolates of Aspergillus and other filamentous fungi.

Diekema, D. J., BootsMiller, B., Vaughn, T., Ward, M., Ernst, E., Flach, S., Nora, J., Woolson, R., Franciscus, C., Acotsa, E., Pfaller, M. & Doebbeling, B. (2002). Antimicrobial resistance trends and outbreak frequency in United States Hospitals.

Maxwell, M. J., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Diekema, D. J. & Pfaller, M. A. (2002). Evaluation of Etest method for determining voriconazole and amphotericin B minimum inhibitory concentrations for 162 clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Jones, R. N. & Pfaller, M. A. (2002). Five years of longitudinal global surveillance for Candida spp. infection: Stability of species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility from 1997-2001.

Stapleton, J. T., Diekema, D. J. & Xiang, J. (2002). GB virus C and mortality from HIV infection. (Vols. 346). pp. 377. N Engl J Med.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J. & Jones, R. N. (2002). In vitro activities of caspofungin compared with those of fluconaozole and itraconazole against 3959 clinical isolates of Candida spp., including 157 fluconazole-resistant isolates.

Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Boyken, L., Huynh, H., Hollis, R. J. & Diekema, D. J. (2002). In vitro activity of 5-flourocytosine (5-FC) against 6973 clinical isolates of Candida spp.: A global assessment of primary resistance using NCCLS susceptibility testing methods.

Andrews, J. I., Diekema, D. J., Huynh, H., Rhomberg, P., Hollis, R. J., Jones, R. N. & Pfaller, M. A. (2002). Molecular Epidemiology of Macrolide Resistance among Group B Streptococci: Association of Macrolide Resistance with a Common PFGE Type of Serotype V.

Diekema, D. J., Jones, R. N. (2001). Oxazolidinone antibiotics. Lancet, 358(9297), 1975-82. PMID: 11747939.

Yamazumi, T., Furuta, I., Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A. & Jones, R. N. (2001). Comparison of the Vitek gram-positive susceptibility 106 card, the MRSA-Screen latex agglutination test, and mecA analysis for detecting oxacillin resistance in a geographically diverse collection of clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Journal of clinical microbiology, 39(10), 3633-6. PMID: 11574584.

Xiang, J., Wunschmann, S., Diekema, D. J., Klinzman, D., Patrick, K. D., George, S. L. & Stapleton, J. T. (2001). Effect of coinfection with GB virus C on survival among patients with HIV infection. The New England journal of medicine, 345(10), 707-14. PMID: 11547739.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Jones, R. N., Sader, H. S., Fluit, A. C., Hollis, R. J. & Messer, S. A. (2001). International surveillance of bloodstream infections due to Candida species: frequency of occurrence and in vitro susceptibilities to fluconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole of isolates collected from 1997 through 1999 in the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program. Journal of clinical microbiology, 39(9), 3254-9. PMID: 11526159.

Walsh, T. R., Bolmstrom, A., Qwarnstrom, A., Ho, P., Wootton, M., Howe, R. A., MacGowan, A. P. & Diekema, D. (2001). Evaluation of current methods for detection of staphylococci with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides. Journal of clinical microbiology, 39(7), 2439-44. PMID: 11427551.

Hanberger, H., Diekema, D., Fluit, A., Jones, R., Struelens, M., Spencer, R. & Wolff, M. (2001). Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in European ICUs. The Journal of hospital infection, 48(3), 161-76. PMID: 11439002.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Schmitz, F. J., Smayevsky, J., Bell, J., Jones, R. N. & Beach, M. (2001). Survey of infections due to Staphylococcus species: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, and the Western Pacific region for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-1999. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 32 Suppl 2, S114-32. PMID: 11320452.

Diekema, D. J., Beach, M. L., Pfaller, M. A. & Jones, R. N. (2001). Antimicrobial resistance in viridans group streptococci among patients with and without the diagnosis of cancer in the USA, Canada and Latin America. Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 152-7. PMID: 11318814.

Yamazumi, T., Marshall, S. A., Wilke, W. W., Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A. & Jones, R. N. (2001). Comparison of the Vitek Gram-Positive Susceptibility 106 card and the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test for determining oxacillin resistance in clinical bloodstream isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of clinical microbiology, 39(1), 53-6. PMID: 11136748.

Beekmann, S. E., Diekema, D. J., Chapin, K. C. & Doern, G. V. (2001). Patient outcomes and other factors related to rapid detection of bacteremia using a continuous monitoring blood culture system.

Pfaller, M. A., Jones, R. N., Diekema, D. J. & Beach, M. (2001). Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with bloodstream infections in North America: SENTRY Program, 1997-2000.

David, S., Vandeberg, J., Knapp, C., Kuhns, K., Boyken, L., Erenberger, C., Wiblin, R. T., Diekema, D. J. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2001). A cluster of complicated groin wound infections after femoral artery catheterization.

Nora, J. J., Diekema, D. J., Vaughn, T., Ward, M., Franciscus, C., Bootsmiller, B., Woolson, R. & Doebbeling, B. N. (2001). Antimicrobial resistance in epidemiologically important organisms in US hospitals.

Diekema, D. J., Franciscus, C., Vaughn, T., Ward, M., Woolson, R. F., Pfaller, M. A., Bootsmiller, B. & Doebbeling, B. N. (2001). Clinical microbiology laboratory support for infection control and antimicrobial resistance control.

Diekema, D. J., Beekmann, S. E., Chapin, K. C. & Doern, G. V. (2001). Epidemiology and outcome of bloodstream infection in the new millennium.

Nora, J. J., Diekema, D. J., Vaughn, T., Ward, M., Franciscus, C., Bootsmiller, B., Woolson, R. & Doebbeling, B. N. (2001). Implementation of guidelines to control antimicrobial resistance in US hospitals.

Richter, S. S., Beekmann, S. E., Croco, J. L., Diekema, D. J., Koontz, F. P., Pfaller, M. A. & Doern, G. V. (2001). Minimizing the workup of blood culture contaminants: Implementation and evaluation of a laboratory based algorithm.

Diekema, D. J., Beach, M. L., Pfaller, M. A. & Jones, R. N. (2001). Nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: A four year update from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (US and Canada).

Andrews, J. I., Diekema, D. J., Hunter, S. K., Rhomberg, P. R., Pfaller, M. A., Jones, R. N. & Doern, G. V. (2000). Group B streptococci causing neonatal bloodstream infection: antimicrobial susceptibility and serotyping results from SENTRY centers in the Western Hemisphere. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 183(4), 859-62. PMID: 11035326.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Jones, R. N., Doern, G. V., Kugler, K. C., Beach, M. L. & Sader, H. S. (2000). Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with bloodstream infections in the USA, Canada and Latin America. SENTRY Participants Group. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 13(4), 257-71. PMID: 10755240.

Diekema, D. I., Jones, R. N. (2000). Oxazolidinones: a review. Drugs, 59(1), 7-16. PMID: 10718097.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Turnidge, J., Verhoef, J., Bell, J., Fluit, A. C., Doern, G. V. & Jones, R. N. (2000). Genetic relatedness of multidrug-resistant, methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream isolates from SENTRY Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Centers worldwide, 1998. Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.), 6(3), 213-21. PMID: 11144421.

Andrews, J. I., Diekema, D. J., Coffman, S., Pfaller, M. A., Jones, R. N. & Doern, G. V. (2000). Group B Streptococci causing neonatal bloodstream infection: Antimicrobial susceptibility and serotyping results from SENTRY centers in the Western Hemisphere.

Diekema, D. J., Jones, R. N. (2000). Microbiology of infections in the coronary care unit. Antibiotics for Clinicians, 4, 5-10.

Diekema, D. J., Jones, R. N. (2000). Microbiology of infections in the coronary care unit. Antibiotics for Clinicians, 23, 5-10.

Diekema, D. J., Beekmann, S. E., Brueggemann, A. B., Herwaldt, L. A., Pfaller, M. A., Jones, R. N. & Doern, G. V. (2000). Molecular epidemiology of community-acquired oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from the Emerging Infections and the Epidemiology of Iowa Organisms (EIEIO) Study.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Turnidge, J., Bell, J., Verhoef, J., Fluit, A. C., Beach, M., Stillwell, M. & Jones, R. N. (2000). Oxacillin- and multiple-drug resistance among Staphylococcus aureus: Results of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program, 1997-1999.

Richter, S. S., Diekema, D. J., Beach, M. L., Doern, G. V., Jones, R. N. & Pfaller, M. A. (2000). Agreement between referring laboratory antimicrobial susceptibility test results with the central monitor laboratory when testing bloodstream isolates: SENRY Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Beach, M. L., Doern, G. V. & Jones, R. N. (2000). Antimicrobial susceptibility of viridans group streptococci bloodstream isolates from cancer patients at SENTRY centers in the US, Canada, and Latin America.

Diekema, D. J., Brueggemann, A. B. & Doern, G. V. (2000). Antimicrobial-drug use and changes in resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerging infectious diseases, 6(5), 552-6. PMID: 10998390.

Diekema, D. J. (2000). Drug Resistance.

Beekmann, S. E., Diekema, D. J., Chapin, K. C., Morel, K. A. & Doern, G. V. (2000). Effects of rapid detection of bacteremia using a continuous monitoring blood culture system on measures of patient outcome.

Franciscus, C. J., Vaughn, T. E., Ward, M. M., Diekema, D. J. & Woolson, R. F. (2000). Epidemiology and control of antimicrobial resistance in VA and non-VA hospitals.

Beekmann, S. E., Diekema, D. J., Brueggemann, A. B., Pfaller, M. A., Jones, R. N., Doern, G. V. & Herwaldt, L. a. (2000). Epidemiology of mecthicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and prevalance of true community-acquired MRSA in an Iowa Statewide Surveillance Network.

Klepser, M., Klepser, D., Brooks, J., Ernst, E., Diekema, D. J., Hoffman, H., Mozaffari, E., Hkendrickson, J. & Doern, G. (2000). Examination of healthcare resource utilization associated with the treatment of infections caused by susceptible and non-susceptible isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Houston, A., Hollis, R. J., Doern, G. V. & Jones, R. N. (1999). In vitro activities of BMS-207147 against over 600 contemporary clinical bloodstream isolates of Candida species from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program in North America and Latin America. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 43(9), 2236-9. PMID: 10471571.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Jones, R. N., Doern, G. V., Winokur, P. L., Gales, A. C., Sader, H. S., Kugler, K. & Beach, M. (1999). Survey of bloodstream infections due to gram-negative bacilli: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, and Latin America for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 29(3), 595-607. PMID: 10530454.

Diekema, D. J., Marchesseault, A. (1999). Clinical impact of changing to an automated blood-culture system at a small community hospital. Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 5(9), 590-593. PMID: 11851718.

Deshpande, L. M., Diekema, D. J. & Jones, R. N. (1999). Comparative activity of clinafloxacin and nine other compounds tested against 2000 contemporary clinical isolates from patients in United States hospitals. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 35(1), 81-8. PMID: 10529885.

Diekema, D. J., Jones, R. N. & Rolston, K. V. (1999). Antimicrobial activity of gatifloxacin compared to seven other compounds tested against gram-positive organisms isolated at 10 cancer-treatment centers. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 34(1), 37-43. PMID: 10342106.

Diekema, D. J., Coffman, S. L., Marshall, S. A., Beach, M. L., Rolston, K. V. & Jones, R. N. (1999). Comparison of activities of broad-spectrum beta-lactam compounds against 1,128 gram-positive cocci recently isolated in cancer treatment centers. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 43(4), 940-3. PMID: 10103204.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Turnidge, J., Verhoef, J., Fluit, A., Doern, G. V. & Jones, R. N. (1999). Genetic relatedness of multidrug-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing bloodstream infection at SENTRY centers on five continents during 1998.

Diekema, D. J., Brueggemann, A. B. & Doern, G. V. (1999). Relationship between outpatient antimicrobial usage in metropolitan areas and changes in resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae at 23 hospitals in the United States.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Jones, R. N. & Doern, G. V. (1999). Survey of bloodstream infections due to gram-negative bacilli: Frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada and Latin America for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Houston, A., Hollis, R. J., Doern, G. V. & Jones, R. N. (1999). Antifungal activity of BMS-207147, a new triazole antifungal agent, tested against 613 bloodstream isolates of Candida spp. from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program in North America and Latin America.

Diekema, D. J., Jones, R. N. & Rolston, K. (1999). Antimicrobial activity of gatifloxacin compared to seven other compounds tested against gram-positive organisms isolated at 10 cancer-treatment centers.

Diekema, D. J., Jones, R. N. (1999). Antimicrobial activity of quinuprstin-dalfopristin against gram-positive bacteria: results from recent studies. Infect Oncol, 3, 6-9.

Diekema, D. J., Marshall, S. A., Deshpande, L. M. & Jones, R. N. (1999). Comparative activity update of clinafloxacin testing against 2,000 contemporary clinical isolates from patients in United States Hospitals.

Lewis, R. E., Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., faller, M. A. & Klepser, M. E. (1999). Comparison of Etest checkerboard dilution, and time-kill testing for the detection of synergy or antagonism among Candida spp.

Pfaller, M. A., Diekema, D. J., Jones, R. N. & Doern, G. V. (1999). Frequency of occurrence and trends in antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with bloodstream infections in the United States, Canada, and Latin America: Report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

Diekema, D. J., Marchesseault, A. (1998). Clinical impact of a continuous-monitoring blood culture system at a small community hospital.

Diekema, D. J., Doebbeling, B. N. (1998). Employee health and infection control.

Diekema, D. J., Barr, J., Boyken, L. D., Buschelman, B. J., Jones, R. N., Pfaller, M. A. & Herwaldt, L. A. (1997). A cluster of serious Escherichia coli infections in a neonatal intensive-care unit. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 18(11), 774-6. PMID: 9397375.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Wenzel, R. P. & Pfaller, M. A. (1997). An outbreak of Candida parapsilosis prosthetic valve endocarditis. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 29(3), 147-53. PMID: 9401807.

Diekema, D. J., Albanese, M. A., Densen, P. & Doebbeling, B. N. (1996). Student health policies of U.S. medical schools. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 71(10), 1090-2. PMID: 9177643.

Diekema, D. J., Albanese, M. A., Schuldt, S. S. & Doebbeling, B. N. (1996). Blood and body fluid exposures during clinical training: relation to knowledge of universal precautions. Journal of general internal medicine, 11(2), 109-11. PMID: 8833019.

Diekema, D. J., Schuldt, S. S., Albanese, M. A. & Doebbeling, B. N. (1995). Universal precautions training of preclinical students: impact on knowledge, attitudes, and compliance. Preventive medicine, 24(6), 580-5. PMID: 8610081.

Diekema, D. J., Doebbeling, B. N. (1995). Employee health and infection control. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 16(5), 292-301. PMID: 7657978.

Diekema, D. J., Ferguson, K. J. & Doebbeling, B. N. (1995). Motivation for hepatitis B vaccine acceptance among medical and physician assistant students. Journal of general internal medicine, 10(1), 1-6. PMID: 7699480.

Diekema, D. J., Messer, S. A., Hollis, R. J., Pfaller, M. A. & Wenzel, R. P. (1995). An outbreak of Candida parapsilosis prosthetic valve endocarditis.

Diekema, D. J., Albanese, M. A., Densen, P. & Doebbeling, B. N. (1995). Protecting medical students from infection: A survey of United States medical schools.

Doebbeling, B. N., Garvin, M. L., Diekema, D. J. & Weismann, D. N. (1994). Evaluation of interventions to reduce percutaneous injuries in healthcare workers.

Diekema, D. J., Albanese, M. A., Schulte, S. S. & Doebbeling, B. N. (1994). Long term impact of universal precautions training on knowledge, compliance, attitudes and exposures.

Diekema, D. J., Ferguson, K. M. & Doebbeling, B. N. (1994). Motivation for compliance with hepatitis B vaccination among medical student.

Diekema, D. J., Garvin, M. L., Weismann, D. N., Rasley, D. A., Streed, S. & Doebbling, B. N. (1994). The impact of interventions to reduce sharps injuries: a decade of experience.

Schuldt, S. S., Diekema, D. J., Albanese, M. A. & Doebbeling, B. N. (1994). Universal precautions training of preclinical students: Impact on knowledge, attitudes and behavior.

Diekema, D. J., Albanese, M. A., Schulte, S. S. & Doebbeling, B. N. (1994). Universal precautions training of preclinical students: relationship of knowledge to exposure rates during clinical training.

Philbrick, J. T., Becker, D. M., Ballew, K. A., Buckley, R. S., Diekema, D. J. & Koberna, P. A. (1992). Risk factors for stroke in nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. (Vols. 92). (6), pp. 709-10. The American journal of medicine. PMID: 1605159.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A. Infection Control Epidemiology and Clinical Microbiology. In Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. pp. 73-84. American Society for Microbiology. DOI: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch6.