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Zuhair K. Ballas, MD

Portrait
Professor of Internal Medicine - Immunology

Contact Information

Primary Office
C-42-E13 GH
Iowa City, IA 52242
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Education

MD, American University of Beirut
Internship, American University of Beirut
Resident, Rutgers Medical School
Resident, Thomas Jefferson University
Fellow, Allergy/Immunology, Johns Hopkins University
Fellow, Rheumatology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Univ of Washington

Licensure and Certifications

Board Certified, Diagnostic Labratory Immunology
Board Certified, Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Board Certified, Internal Medicine

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Translational Biomedicine

Center, Program and Institute Affiliations

Cardiovascular Research Center, Center for Immunology and Immune-based Diseases, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute for Clinical and Translational Science

Research Summary

Dr. Ballas has been actively engaged in immunology research for more than three decades. His focus has been on studying the role of natural killer (NK cells) in health and disease with focus on their role in tumor surveillance. In addition, Dr. Ballas has done some of the seminal studies on the lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) wherein he characterized several precursors and effectors with specific spectra of target cell susceptibility. More recently, he has been engaged in examining the effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on NK cell activation in vivo and in vitro using humans and mouse models. Current studies focus on examining the role of NK cell subsets in the tumor regression induced by CpG in mice using a B16 melanoma model with special emphasis on organ-specific metastases. Dr. Ballas has also been examining the modulation of NK cell activity by CpG in humans, in collaboration with Drs. George Weiner and Brian Link. Clinically, Dr. Ballas was one of the first to report a patient with NK cell deficiency who presented with recurrent, recalcitrant, wide-spread HPV associated tumors.

Dr. Ballas spends 60% of his time on research with the rest spread between teaching, patient care, and administration.


Publications

Vujkovic, M., Keaton, J. M., Lynch, J. A., Miller, D. R., Zhou, J., Tcheandjieu, C., Huffman, J. E., Assimes, T. L., Lorenz, K., Zhu, X., Hilliard, A. T., Judy, R. L., Huang, J., Lee, K. M., Klarin, D., Pyarajan, S., Danesh, J., Melander, O., Rasheed, A., Mallick, N. H., Hameed, S., Qureshi, I. H., Afzal, M. N., Malik, U., Jalal, A., Abbas, S., Sheng, X., Gao, L., Kaestner, K. H., Susztak, K., Sun, Y. V., DuVall, S. L., Cho, K., Lee, J. S., Gaziano, J. M., Phillips, L. S., Meigs, J. B., Reaven, P. D., Wilson, P. W., Edwards, T. L., Rader, D. J., Damrauer, S. M., O'Donnell, C. J., Tsao, P. S., Chang, K. M., Voight, B. F. & Saleheen, D. (2020). Discovery of 318 new risk loci for type 2 diabetes and related vascular outcomes among 1.4 million participants in a multi-ancestry meta-analysis. Nature genetics, 52(7), 680-691. PMID: 32541925.

Ballas, Z. K. (2020). Update on JACI'S evolution. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. PMID: 32474014.

Dass, C., Eyck, P. T., Ballas, Z. & Lee, S. (2020). Characterization of Serum Biomarkers during Anaphylaxis in Emergency Department Patients. The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice. PMID: 32442536.

Leisman, D. E., Harhay, M. O., Lederer, D. J., Abramson, M., Adjei, A. A., Bakker, J., Ballas, Z. K., Barreiro, E., Bell, S. C., Bellomo, R., Bernstein, J. A., Branson, R. D., Brusasco, V., Chalmers, J. D., Chokroverty, S., Citerio, G., Collop, N. A., Cooke, C. R., Crapo, J. D., Donaldson, G., Fitzgerald, D. A., Grainger, E., Hale, L., Herth, F. J., Kochanek, P. M., Marks, G., Moorman, J. R., Ost, D. E., Schatz, M., Sheikh, A., Smyth, A. R., Stewart, I., Stewart, P. W., Swenson, E. R., Szymusiak, R., Teboul, J. L., Vincent, J. L., Wedzicha, J. A. & Maslove, D. M. (2020). Development and Reporting of Prediction Models: Guidance for Authors From Editors of Respiratory, Sleep, and Critical Care Journals. Critical care medicine. PMID: 32141923.

Wiley, L. A., Binkley, E. M., DeLuca, A. P., Workalemahu, G., Tatro, N. J., Luse, M. A., Kennedy, E. L., Folk, J. C., Scheetz, T. E., Ballas, Z. K., Tucker, B. A., Mullins, R. F., Han, I. C. & Stone, E. M. (2019). Autoimmune retinopathy mimicking heritable retinal degeneration in a patient with common variable immune deficiency. Retinal cases & brief reports. PMID: 31764884.

Abu Hejleh, T., Furqan, M., Ballas, Z. & Clamon, G. (2019). The clinical significance of soluble PD-1 and PD-L1 in lung cancer. (Vols. 143). pp. 148-152. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. DOI: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2019.08.009.

Ballas, Z. K. (2019). The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: 90 years strong. (Vols. 144). (5), pp. 1161-1162. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. PMID: 31589879.

Harrington, K. M., Nguyen, X. M., Song, R. J., Hannagan, K., Quaden, R., Gagnon, D. R., Cho, K., Deen, J. E., Muralidhar, S., O'Leary, T. J., Gaziano, J. M., Whitbourne, S. B., Gaziano, J. M., Ramoni, R., Breeling, J., Chang, K. M., Huang, G., O'Donnell, C. J., Tsao, P. S., Moser, J., Brewer, J. V., Concato, J., Warren, S., D, P., Argyres, D. P., Stephens, B., Brophy, M. T., Humphries, D. E., Do, N., Shayan, S., Pyarajan, S., Hauser, E., Sun, Y., Zhao, H., Wilson, P., McArdle, R., Dellitalia, L., Harley, J., Whittle, J., Beckham, J., Wells, J., Gutierrez, S., Gibson, G., Kaminsky, L., Villareal, G., Kinlay, S., Xu, J., Hamner, M., Haddock, K. S., Bhushan, S., Iruvanti, P., Godschalk, M., Ballas, Z., Buford, M., Mastorides, S., Klein, J., Ratcliffe, N., Florez, H., Swann, A., Murdoch, M., Sriram, P., Yeh, S. S., Washburn, R., Jhala, D., Aguayo, S., Cohen, D., Sharma, S., Callaghan, J., Oursler, K. A., Whooley, M., Ahuja, S., Gutierrez, A., Schifman, R., Greco, J., Rauchman, M., Servatius, R., Oehlert, M., Wallbom, A., Fernando, R., Morgan, T., Stapley, T., Sherman, S., Anderson, G., Tsao, P., Sonel, E., Boyko, E., Meyer, L., Gupta, S., Fayad, J., Hung, A., Lichy, J., Hurley, R., Robey, B. & Striker, R. (2019). Gender Differences in Demographic and Health Characteristics of the Million Veteran Program Cohort. Women's Health Issues, 29, S56-S66. DOI: 10.1016/j.whi.2019.04.012.

Ballas, Z. K. (2019). The 2019 AAAAI Foundation Faculty Development awardees. (Vols. 143). (6), pp. 2019-2023. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. PMID: 31063736.

Lee, S., Hardy, C., Swanson, M. B., Harland, K., Ahmed, A. & Ballas, Z. (2019). Preliminary findings from a concise emergency department model to predict anaphylaxis and develop a clinical decision support tool. The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice. PMID: 30974208.

Lee, S., Hardy, C., Swanson, M. B., Harland, K., Ahmed, A. & Ballas, Z. (2019). Preliminary findings from a concise emergency department model to predict anaphylaxis and develop a clinical decision support tool. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract.

Cowdery, J. S., Kemp, J. D., Ballas, Z. K. & Weber, S. P. (2019). Interleukin 1 induces T cell mediated differentiation of murine Peyer's patch B cells to IgA secretion. Regional immunology, 1(1), 14-Sep. PMID: 3275131.

Schatz, M., Fiocchi, A., Jensen-Jarolim, E. & Ballas, Z. K. (2019). Controversies in drug allergy: Consensus documents from the world experts. (Vols. 143). (1), pp. 82-83. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. PMID: 30612666.

Schatz, M., Fiocchi, A., Jensen-Jarolim, E. & Ballas, Z. K. (2019). Controversies in Drug Allergy: Consensus Documents From the World Experts. (Vols. 7). (1), pp. 66-67. The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice. PMID: 30573420.

Ballas, Z. K. (2018). Asthma clinical practice guidelines: Time for an update. (Vols. 142). (3), pp. 787. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. PMID: 30053530.

Ballas, Z. K. (2018). The 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Foundation Faculty Development awardees. (Vols. 142). (1), pp. 67-70. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. PMID: 29870773.

Ballas, Z. K. (2018). The 2018 AAAAI Foundation Faculty Development Awardees. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. PMID: 29870773.

Mayor, P. C., Eng, K. H., Singel, K. L., Abrams, S. I., Odunsi, K., Moysich, K. B., Fuleihan, R., Garabedian, E., Lugar, P., Ochs, H. D., Bonilla, F. A., Buckley, R. H., Sullivan, K. E., Ballas, Z. K., Cunningham-Rundles, C. & Segal, B. H. (2018). Cancer in primary immunodeficiency diseases: Cancer incidence in the United States Immune Deficiency Network Registry. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 141(3), 1028-1035. PMID: 28606585.

Kumar, B., Aleem, S., Saleh, H., Petts, J. & Ballas, Z. K. (2017). A Personalized Diagnostic and Treatment Approach for Macrophage Activation Syndrome and Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in Adults. Journal of clinical immunology. PMID: 28871523.

Akdis, C. A., Byrne, J. & Ballas, Z. K. (2017). The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: An update on style and substance. (Vols. 140). (1), pp. 60-62. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. PMID: 28673404.

Davis, B. P., Ballas, Z. K. (2017). Biologic response modifiers: Indications, implications, and insights. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 139(5), 1445-1456. PMID: 28263774.

Barmettler, S., Otani, I. M., Minhas, J., Abraham, R. S., Chang, Y., Dorsey, M. J., Ballas, Z. K., Bonilla, F. A., Ochs, H. D. & Walter, J. E. (2017). Gastrointestinal Manifestations in X-linked Agammaglobulinemia. Journal of clinical immunology, 37(3), 287-294. PMID: 28236219.

McCullagh, B. N., Comellas, A. P., Ballas, Z. K., Newell, Jr, J. D., Zimmerman, M. B. & Azar, A. E. (2017). Antibody deficiency in patients with frequent exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). PloS one, 12(2), e0172437. PMID: 28212436.

Walsh, J. E., Gurrola, 2nd, J. G., Graham, S. M., Mott, S. L. & Ballas, Z. K. (2016). Immunoglobulin replacement therapy reduces chronic rhinosinusitis in patients with antibody deficiency. International forum of allergy & rhinology. PMID: 27552393.

Akdis, C. A., Ballas, Z. K. (2016). The Editors' Choice. (Vols. 138). (1), pp. 59-60. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. PMID: 27373327.

Akdis, C. A., Ballas, Z. K. (2016). The Editors' Choice. (Vols. 137). (6), pp. 1697-1698. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. PMID: 27264003.

Akdis, C. A., Ballas, Z. K. (2016). Precision medicine and precision health: Building blocks to foster a revolutionary health care model. (Vols. 137). (5), pp. 1359-61. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. PMID: 27155031.

Akdis, C. A., Ballas, Z. K. (2016). The Editors' Choice. (Vols. 137). (5), pp. 1362-3. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. PMID: 27155032.

Akdis, C. A., Ballas, Z. K. (2016). The Editors' Choice. (Vols. 137). (4), pp. 1015-6. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. PMID: 27059728.

Akdis, C. A., Ballas, Z. K. (2016). The Editors' Choice. (Vols. 137). (3), pp. 698-9. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. PMID: 26947982.

Akdis, C. A., Ballas, Z. K. (2016). The Editors' Choice. (Vols. 137). (2), pp. 377-8. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. PMID: 26853129.

Azar, A., Ballas, Z. K. (2016). Immune function in older adults [periodically updated, currently at version 10.0]. E. R. Stiehm , A. M. Feldweg (Eds.) UpToDate.com.

Harwani, S. C., Ratcliff, J., Sutterwala, F. S. & Ballas, Z. K. (2016). Nicotine Mediates CD161a+ Renal Macrophage Infiltration and Premature Hypertension in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat
. Circulation Research, 119(8).

Bonilla, F. A., Khan, D. A., Ballas, Z. K., Chinen, J., Frank, M. M., Hsu, J. T., Keller, M., Kobrynski, L. J., Komarow, H. D., Mazer, B., Nelson, Jr, R. P., Orange, J. S., Routes, J. M., Shearer, W. T., Sorensen, R. U., Verbsky, J. W., Bernstein, D. I., Blessing-Moore, J., Lang, D., Nicklas, R. A., Oppenheimer, J., Portnoy, J. M., Randolph, C. R., Schuller, D., Spector, S. L., Tilles, S. & Wallace, D. (2015). Practice parameter for the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiency. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 136(5), 1186-205.e1-78. PMID: 26371839.

Aung, T., Azar, A. E. & Ballas, Z. K. (2015). Hypogammaglobulinemia with normal antibody response progressing to common variable immunodeficiency. (Vols. 114). (6), pp. 522-3. Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology. PMID: 25843162.

Peña-Silva, R. A., Chalouhi, N., Wegman-Points, L., Ali, M., Mitchell, I., Pierce, G. L., Chu, Y., Ballas, Z. K., Heistad, D. & Hasan, D. (2015). Novel role for endogenous hepatocyte growth factor in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms. Hypertension, 65(3), 587-93. PMID: 25510828.

Shearer, W. T., Fleisher, T. A., Buckley, R. H., Ballas, Z., Ballow, M., Blaese, R. M., Bonilla, F. A., Conley, M. E., Cunningham-Rundles, C., Filipovich, A. H., Fuleihan, R., Gelfand, E. W., Hernandez-Trujillo, V., Holland, S. M., Hong, R., Lederman, H. M., Malech, H. L., Miles, S., Notarangelo, L. D., Ochs, H. D., Orange, J. S., Puck, J. M., Routes, J. M., Stiehm, E. R., Sullivan, K., Torgerson, T. & Winkelstein, J. (2014). Recommendations for live viral and bacterial vaccines in immunodeficient patients and their close contacts. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 133(4), 961-6. PMID: 24582311.

Ballas, Z. K. (2014). CD3/T cell receptor complex disorders causing immunodeficiency [periodically updated, currently at version 15.0]. E. R. Stiehm , E. TePas (Eds.) UpToDate.com.

Ballas, Z. K. (2014). T helper subsets: differentiation and role in disease [periodically updated, currently at version 11.0]. E. R. Stiehm , E. TePas (Eds.) UpToDate.com.

Chalouhi, N., Points, L., Pierce, G. L., Ballas, Z., Jabbour, P. & Hasan, D. (2013). Localized increase of chemokines in the lumen of human cerebral aneurysms. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation, 44(9), 2594-7. PMID: 23887838.

Witzig, T. E., Wiseman, G. A., Maurer, M. J., Habermann, T. M., Micallef, I. N., Nowakowski, G. S., Ansell, S. M., Colgan, J. P., Inwards, D. J., Porrata, L. F., Link, B. K., Zent, C. S., Johnston, P. B., Shanafelt, T. D., Allmer, C., Asmann, Y. W., Gupta, M., Ballas, Z. K., Smith, B. J. & Weiner, G. J. (2013). A phase I trial of immunostimulatory CpG 7909 oligodeoxynucleotide and (90) yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan radioimmunotherapy for relapsed B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. American journal of hematology. PMID: 23619698.

Ballas, Z. K., Buchta, C. M., Rosean, T. R., Heusel, J. W. & Shey, M. R. (2013). Role of NK cell subsets in organ-specific murine melanoma metastasis. PloS one, 8(6), e65599. PMID: 23776508.

Carlin, L. E., Guseva, N. V., Shey, M. R., Ballas, Z. K. & Heusel, J. W. (2013). The Glycophosphatidylinositol Anchor of the MCMV Evasin, m157, Facilitates Optimal Cell Surface Expression and Ly49 Receptor Recognition. PloS one, 8(6), e67295. PMID: 23840655.

Busse, W. W., Ballas, Z. K., Casale, T. B., Cox, L., Dimov, V., Honsinger, R. W., Jones, C. A. & Tracy, J. M. (2012). Future of allergy/immunology task force report. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 130(4), 1009-10. PMID: 22921869.

Harwani, S. C., Chapleau, M. W., Legge, K. L., Ballas, Z. K. & Abboud, F. M. (2012). Neurohormonal modulation of the innate immune system is proinflammatory in the prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rat, a genetic model of essential hypertension. Circulation research, 111(9), 1190-7. PMID: 22904093.

Orange, J. S., Ballow, M., Stiehm, E. R., Ballas, Z. K., Chinen, J., De La Morena, M., Kumararatne, D., Harville, T. O., Hesterberg, P., Koleilat, M., McGhee, S., Perez, E. E., Raasch, J., Scherzer, R., Schroeder, H., Seroogy, C., Huissoon, A., Sorensen, R. U. & Katial, R. (2012). Use and interpretation of diagnostic vaccination in primary immunodeficiency: a working group report of the Basic and Clinical Immunology Interest Section of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 130(3 Suppl), S1-24. PMID: 22935624.

Orange, J. S., Ballow, M., Stiehm, E. R., Ballas, Z. K., Chinen, J., De La Morena, M., Kumararatne, D., Harville, T. O., Hesterberg, P., Koleilat, M., McGhee, S., Perez, E. E., Raasch, J., Scherzer, R., Schroeder, H., Seroogy, C., Huissoon, A., Sorensen, R. U. & Katial, R. (2012). Use and interpretation of diagnostic vaccination in primary immunodeficiency: a working group report of the Basic and Clinical Immunology Interest Section of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 130(3 Suppl), S1-24. PMID: 22935624.

Ballow, M., Akdis, C. A., Casale, T. B., Wardlaw, A. J., Wenzel, S. E., Ballas, Z. & Lötvall, J. (2012). Immune response modifiers in the treatment of asthma: A PRACTALL document of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 130(2), 311-24. PMID: 22713596.

Ballas, Z. K., Cook, R. T., Shey, M. R. & Coleman, R. A. (2012). A dynamic flux in natural killer cell subsets as a function of the duration of alcohol ingestion. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 36(5), 826-34. PMID: 22150608.

Zent, C. S., Smith, B. J., Ballas, Z. K., Wooldridge, J. E., Link, B. K., Call, T. G., Shanafelt, T. D., Bowen, D. A., Kay, N. E., Witzig, T. E. & Weiner, G. J. (2012). Phase I clinical trial of CpG oligonucleotide 7909 (PF-03512676) in patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia & lymphoma, 53(2), 211-7. PMID: 21812536.

Ballas, Z. (2012). Approach to the patient with recurrent infections. In D. C. Adelman , T. B. Casale , J. Corren (Eds.) Manual of allergy and immunology. (5th ed.), pp. 383–392. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Laccheo, M., Szecsei, D., Ruggle, T. & Ballas, Z. K. (2011). iGout. Iowa City, IA: The University of Iowa.

Guseva, N. V., Fullenkamp, C. A., Naumann, P. W., Shey, M. R., Ballas, Z. K., Houtman, J. C., Forbes, C. A., Scalzo, A. A. & Heusel, J. W. (2010). Glycosylation contributes to variability in expression of murine cytomegalovirus m157 and enhances stability of interaction with the NK-cell receptor Ly49H. European journal of immunology, 40(9), 2618-31. PMID: 20662096.

Alqudah, M., Graham, S. M. & Ballas, Z. K. (2010). High prevalence of humoral immunodeficiency patients with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis.
. American journal of rhinology & allergy, 24(6), 409-12. PMID: 21144219.

Dowden, A. M., Rullo, O. J., Aziz, N., Fasano, M. B., Chatila, T. & Ballas, Z. K. (2009). Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome: novel therapy for acute attacks. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 124(5), 1111-3. PMID: 19703708.

Kelso, J. M., Li, J. T., Nicklas, R. A., Blessing-Moore, J., Cox, L., Lang, D. M., Oppenheimer, J., Portnoy, J. M., Randolph, C., Schuller, D. E., Spector, S. L., Tilles, S., Wallace, D., Ballas, Z. K., Baker, J. R., Bellanti, J. A., Ein, D. & Grammer, L. C. (2009). Adverse reactions to vaccines. Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 103(4 Suppl 2), S1-14. PMID: 19886402.

Moore, J. C., Ballas, Z. K. (2009). Hypereosinophilia: a case with an elusive etiology. Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 103(2), 176-7. PMID: 19739434.

Dowden, A. M., Ballas, Z. K. (2009). Eosinophilic fasciitis masquerading as angioedema. Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 102(3), 258-9. PMID: 19354076.

Moore, J. C., Ballas, Z. K. (2009). A novel therapy for lymphedema. Archives of internal medicine, 169(2), 201-2. PMID: 19171818.

Hare, N. D., Smith, B. J. & Ballas, Z. K. (2009). Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination as a function of preimmunization titer. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 123(1), 195-200. PMID: 18951616.

Svensson, R. U., Shey, M. R., Ballas, Z. K., Dorkin, J. R., Goldberg, M., Akinc, A., Langer, R., Anderson, D. G., Bumcrot, D. & Henry, M. D. (2008). Assessing siRNA pharmacodynamics in a luciferase-expressing mouse. Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 16(12), 1995-2001. PMID: 18781145.

Azar, A. E., Ballas, Z. K. (2008). Reversible panhypogammaglobulinemia associated with the antiepileptic agent levetiracetam. Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 101(1), 108-9. PMID: 18681095.

Ballas, Z. K. (2008). Immunomodulators: a brave new world. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 121(2), 331-3. PMID: 18269924.

Shey, M. R., Ballas, Z. K. (2008). Assessment of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in murine spleens and livers. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 447, 259-76. PMID: 18369924.

Cook, R. T., Schlueter, A. J., Coleman, R. A., Tygrett, L., Ballas, Z. K., Jerrells, T. R., Nashelsky, M. B., Ray, N. B., Haugen, T. H. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (2007). Thymocytes, pre-B cells, and organ changes in a mouse model of chronic ethanol ingestion--absence of subset-specific glucocorticoid-induced immune cell loss. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 31(10), 1746-58. PMID: 17681030.

Hare, N. D., Ballas, Z. K. (2007). Effectiveness of delayed epinephrine in anaphylaxis. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 120(3), 716-7. PMID: 17637471.

Azar, A. E., Ballas, Z. K. (2007). Evaluation of the adult with suspected immunodeficiency. The American journal of medicine, 120(9), 764-8. PMID: 17765042.

Ballas, Z. K. (2007). Modulation of NK cell activity by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. Immunologic research, 39(3-Jan), 15-21. PMID: 17917052.

Cac, N. N., Ballas, Z. K. (2006). Recalcitrant warts, associated with natural killer cell dysfunction, treated with systemic IFN-alpha. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 118(2), 526-8. PMID: 16890785.

Orange, J. S., Ballas, Z. K. (2006). Natural killer cells in human health and disease. Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.), 118(1), 10-Jan. PMID: 16337194.

Casale, T. B., Busse, W. W., Kline, J. N., Ballas, Z. K., Moss, M. H., Townley, R. G., Mokhtarani, M., Seyfert-Margolis, V., Asare, A., Bateman, K. & Deniz, Y. (2006). Omalizumab pretreatment decreases acute reactions after rush immunotherapy for ragweed-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 117(1), 134-40. PMID: 16387596.

Hatab, A. Z., Ballas, Z. K. (2005). Caseating granulomatous disease in common variable immunodeficiency treated with infliximab. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 116(5), 1161-2. PMID: 16275393.

Hatab, A. Z., McDanel, D. & Ballas, Z. K. (2005). Perilesional GM-CSF therapy of a chronic leg ulcer in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 116(2), 460-2. PMID: 16083806.

Win, P. H., Brown, H., Zankar, A., Ballas, Z. K. & Hussain, I. (2005). Rapid intravenous cephalosporin desensitization. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 116(1), 225-8. PMID: 15990801.

Bonilla, F. A., Bernstein, I. L., Khan, D. A., Ballas, Z. K., Chinen, J., Frank, M. M., Kobrynski, L. J., Levinson, A. I., Mazer, B., Nelson, R. P., Orange, J. S., Routes, J. M., Shearer, W. T. & Sorensen, R. U. (2005). Practice parameter for the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiency. Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 94(5 Suppl 1), S1-63. PMID: 15945566.

Knudson, M., Kulkarni, S., Ballas, Z. K., Bessler, M. & Goldman, F. (2005). Association of immune abnormalities with telomere shortening in autosomal-dominant dyskeratosis congenita. Blood, 105(2), 682-8. PMID: 15238429.

Cook, R. T., Zhu, X., Coleman, R. A., Ballas, Z. K., Waldschmidt, T. J., Ray, N. B., LaBrecque, D. R. & Cook, B. L. (2004). T-cell activation after chronic ethanol ingestion in mice. Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.), 33(3), 175-81. PMID: 15596085.

Orange, J. S., Jain, A., Ballas, Z. K., Schneider, L. C., Geha, R. S. & Bonilla, F. A. (2004). The presentation and natural history of immunodeficiency caused by nuclear factor kappaB essential modulator mutation. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 113(4), 725-33. PMID: 15100680.

Zhu, X., Coleman, R. A., Alber, C., Ballas, Z. K., Waldschmidt, T. J., Ray, N. B., Krieg, A. M. & Cook, R. T. (2004). Chronic ethanol ingestion by mice increases expression of CD80 and CD86 by activated macrophages. Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.), 32(2), 91-100. PMID: 15163560.

Heusel, J. W., Ballas, Z. K. (2003). Natural killer cells: emerging concepts in immunity to infection and implications for assessment of immunodeficiency. Current opinion in pediatrics, 15(6), 586-93. PMID: 14631204.

Brown, H. C., Ballas, Z. K. (2003). Acute thromboembolic events associated with intravenous immunoglobulin infusion in antibody-deficient patients. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 112(4), 797-9. PMID: 14564366.

Lenert, P., Rasmussen, W., Ashman, R. F. & Ballas, Z. K. (2003). Structural characterization of the inhibitory DNA motif for the type A (D)-CpG-induced cytokine secretion and NK-cell lytic activity in mouse spleen cells. DNA and cell biology, 22(10), 621-31. PMID: 14611683.

Song, K., Coleman, R. A., Zhu, X., Alber, C., Ballas, Z. K., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Cook, R. T. (2002). Chronic ethanol consumption by mice results in activated splenic T cells. Journal of leukocyte biology, 72(6), 1109-16. PMID: 12488491.

Goldman, F. D., Vibhakar, R., Puck, J. M., Straus, S. E., Ballas, Z. K., Hollenback, C., Loew, T., Thompson, A., Song, K. & Cook, R. T. (2002). Aberrant T-cell antigen receptor-mediated responses in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.), 104(1), 31-9. PMID: 12139945.

Orange, J. S., Brodeur, S. R., Jain, A., Bonilla, F. A., Schneider, L. C., Kretschmer, R., Nurko, S., Rasmussen, W. L., Köhler, J. R., Gellis, S. E., Ferguson, B. M., Strominger, J. L., Zonana, J., Ramesh, N., Ballas, Z. K. & Geha, R. S. (2002). Deficient natural killer cell cytotoxicity in patients with IKK-gamma/NEMO mutations. The Journal of clinical investigation, 109(11), 1501-9. PMID: 12045264.

Vollmer, J., Janosch, A., Laucht, M., Ballas, Z. K., Schetter, C. & Krieg, A. M. (2002). Highly immunostimulatory CpG-free oligodeoxynucleotides for activation of human leukocytes. Antisense & nucleic acid drug development, 12(3), 165-75. PMID: 12162699.

Kline, J., Ballas, Z. (2002). DNA immunomodulation in asthma. In B. Zweiman , L. B. Schwartz (Eds.) Inflammatory mechanisms in allergic diseases. (16), pp. 551–564. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc..

Kline, J. N., Ballas, Z. K. (2002). DNA immunomodulation of asthma. Clinical allergy and immunology, 16, 551-64. PMID: 11577559.

Ballas, Z. (2002). Immunology and cellular defense mechanisms in the lung. In G. G. Haddad , S. H. Abman , V. Chernick (Eds.) Chernick-Mellins basic mechanisms of pediatric respiratory disease. (2nd ed.), pp. 465–471. Hamilton, Ont.; Lewiston, NY: Decker.

Ballas, Z. K., Krieg, A. M., Warren, T., Rasmussen, W., Davis, H. L., Waldschmidt, M. & Weiner, G. J. (2001). Divergent therapeutic and immunologic effects of oligodeoxynucleotides with distinct CpG motifs. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 167(9), 4878-86. PMID: 11673492.

Chen, Y., Zhang, J., Moore, S. A., Ballas, Z. K., Portanova, J. P., Krieg, A. M. & Berg, D. J. (2001). CpG DNA induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin production. International immunology, 13(8), 1013-20. PMID: 11470771.

Krug, A., Rothenfusser, S., Hornung, V., Jahrsdörfer, B., Blackwell, S., Ballas, Z. K., Endres, S., Krieg, A. M. & Hartmann, G. (2001). Identification of CpG oligonucleotide sequences with high induction of IFN-alpha/beta in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. European journal of immunology, 31(7), 2154-63. PMID: 11449369.

Song, K., Coleman, R. A., Alber, C., Ballas, Z. K., Waldschmidt, T. J., Mortari, F., LaBrecque, D. R. & Cook, R. T. (2001). TH1 cytokine response of CD57+ T-cell subsets in healthy controls and patients with alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.), 24(3), 155-67. PMID: 11557301.

Chee, L., Graham, S. M., Carothers, D. G. & Ballas, Z. K. (2001). Immune dysfunction in refractory sinusitis in a tertiary care setting. The Laryngoscope, 111(2), 233-5. PMID: 11210866.

Schrand, L. M., Troester, T. S., Ballas, Z. K., Mutnick, A. H. & Ross, M. B. (2001). Preparing for drug shortages: One teaching hospital’s approach to the IVIG shortage. Formulary, 36(1), 52–52.

Hartmann, G., Weeratna, R. D., Ballas, Z. K., Payette, P., Blackwell, S., Suparto, I., Rasmussen, W. L., Waldschmidt, M., Sajuthi, D., Purcell, R. H., Davis, H. L. & Krieg, A. M. (2000). Delineation of a CpG phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide for activating primate immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 164(3), 1617-24. PMID: 10640783.

Ballas, Z. K. (2000). Allergic rhinitis. In UPCMD.com. University Pathology Consortium.

Ballas, Z. K. (2000). Asthma. In UPCMD.com. University Pathology Consortium.

Ballas, Z. K., Rasmussen, W. (2000). Murine natual killer cell cloning from fetal thymic organ cultures. In K. S. Campbell , M. Colonna (Eds.) Natural killer cell protocols: cellular and molecular methods. (121), pp. 39–47. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press.

Ballas, Z. K., Rasmussen, W. L. (2000). Murine natural killer cell cloning from fetal thymic organ cultures. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 121, 39-47. PMID: 10818715.

Ballas, Z. K., Rasmussen, W. L. (2000). pp. 39-47. Humana Press: Natural Killer Cell Protocols: Cellular and Molecular Methods.

Kline, J. N., Krieg, A. M., Waldschmidt, T. J., Ballas, Z. K., Jain, V. & Businga, T. R. (1999). CpG oligodeoxynucleotides do not require TH1 cytokines to prevent eosinophilic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 104(6), 1258-64. PMID: 10589010.

Peterson, E. J., Clements, J. L., Ballas, Z. K. & Koretzky, G. A. (1999). NK cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity occur independently of the SLP-76 adaptor protein. European journal of immunology, 29(7), 2223-32. PMID: 10427985.

Ballas, Z. K., Weiler, J. M. (1999). Biology of the immune system. In M. H. Beers , R. Berkow (Eds.) The Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy.. (17th ed.), pp. 1001–1023. Whitehouse Station, N.J.: Merck Research Laboratories.

Goldman, F. D., Ballas, Z. K., Schutte, B. C., Kemp, J., Hollenback, C., Noraz, N. & Taylor, N. (1998). Defective expression of p56lck in an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency. The Journal of clinical investigation, 102(2), 421-9. PMID: 9664084.

Rakasz, E., Blum, A. M., Metwali, A., Elliott, D. E., Li, J., Ballas, Z. K., Qadir, K., Lynch, R. & Weinstock, J. V. (1998). Localization and regulation of IFN-gamma production within the granulomas of murine schistosomiasis in IL-4-deficient and control mice. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 160(10), 4994-9. PMID: 9590248.

Gilman, A. L., Kooy, N. W., Atkins, D. L., Ballas, Z., Rumelhart, S., Holida, M., Lee, N. & Goldman, F. (1998). Complete heart block in association with graft-versus-host disease. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 21(1), 85–88. PMID: 9486500.

Graham, S. M., Ballas, Z. K. (1998). Preoperative steroids confuse the diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 101(1 Pt 1), 139-40. PMID: 9449519.

Cook, R. T., Li, F., Vandersteen, D., Ballas, Z. K., Cook, B. L. & LaBrecque, D. R. (1997). Ethanol and natural killer cells. I. Activity and immunophenotype in alcoholic humans. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 21(6), 974-80. PMID: 9309304.

Li, F., Cook, R. T., Alber, C., Rasmussen, W., Stapleton, J. T. & Ballas, Z. K. (1997). Ethanol and natural killer cells. II. Stimulation of human natural killer activity by ethanol in vitro. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 21(6), 981-7. PMID: 9309305.

Ballas, Z. K., Rasmussen, W. L., Alber, C. A. & Sandor, M. (1997). Ontogeny of thymic NK1.1+ cells. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 159(3), 1174-81. PMID: 9233611.

Cook, R. T., Stapleton, J. T., Ballas, Z. K. & Klinzman, D. (1997). Effect of a single ethanol exposure on HIV replication in human lymphocytes. Journal of investigative medicine : the official publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research, 45(5), 265-71. PMID: 9249999.

Wooldridge, J. E., Ballas, Z., Krieg, A. M. & Weiner, G. J. (1997). Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs enhance the efficacy of monoclonal antibody therapy of lymphoma. Blood, 89(8), 2994–2998. PMID: 9108420.

Wooldridge, J. E., Ballas, Z., Krieg, A. M. & Weiner, G. J. (1997). Immunostimulatory Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing CpG Motifs Enhance the Efficacy of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy of Lymphoma. Blood, 89(8), 2994–2998. PMID: 9108420.

Ballas, Z., Weiler, J. (1997). Biology of the immune system. In R. Berkow , M. H. Beers , A. J. Fletcher (Eds.) Merck manual of medical information. (Home ed.), pp. 807–816. Whitehouse Station, N.J.: Merck Research Laboratories.

Link, B. K., Ballas, Z. K., Weisdorf, D., Wooldridge, J. E., Bossler, A. D., Shannon, M., Rasmussen, W. L., Krieg, A. M. & Weiner, G. J. (1997). Oligodeoxynucleotide CpG 7909 delivered as intravenous infusion demonstrates immunologic modulation in patients with previously treated non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md. : 1997), 29(5), 558-68. PMID: 16971811.

(1997). Self-reported illness and health status among Gulf War veterans. A population-based study. The Iowa Persian Gulf Study Group. JAMA, 277(3), 238–245. PMID: 9005274.

Ballas, Z. K., Rasmussen, W. L. & Krieg, A. M. (1996). Induction of NK activity in murine and human cells by CpG motifs in oligodeoxynucleotides and bacterial DNA. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 157(5), 1840-5. PMID: 8757300.

Masterson, B. J., Galask, R. P. & Ballas, Z. K. (1996). Natural killer cell function in women with vestibulitis. The Journal of reproductive medicine, 41(8), 562-8. PMID: 8866382.

Go, E. S., Ballas, Z. K. (1996). Anti-pneumococcal antibody response in normal subjects: a meta-analysis. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 98(1), 205-15. PMID: 8765836.

Cook, R. T., Ballas, Z. K., Waldschmidt, T. J., Vandersteen, D., LaBrecque, D. R. & Cook, B. L. (1995). Modulation of T-cell adhesion markers, and the CD45R and CD57 antigens in human alcoholics. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 19(3), 555-63. PMID: 7573774.

Grossman, D., Lewis, D. E., Ballas, Z. K. & Duvic, M. (1994). Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia in a patient with mycosis fungoides. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 31(2 Pt 1), 275-6. PMID: 8040416.

Bittleman, D. B., Maves, K. K., Bertolatus, J. A., Bonsib, S. M., Densen, P., Ballas, Z. K. & Weiler, J. M. (1994). Recurrent infections, pericarditis and renal disease in a patient with total C2 deficiency and decreased NK cell function consistent with acute rheumatic fever and systemic lupus erythematosus. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 53(4), 280-1. PMID: 8203960.

Cook, R. T., Waldschmidt, T. J., Ballas, Z. K., Cook, B. L., Booth, B. M., Stewart, B. C. & Garvey, M. J. (1994). Fine T-cell subsets in alcoholics as determined by the expression of L-selectin, leukocyte common antigen, and beta-integrin. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 18(1), 71-80. PMID: 7515214.

Ballas, Z., Blumenthal, M., Tinkelman, D. G., Kriz, R. & Rupp, G. (1993). Clinical evaluation of ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% ophthalmic solution for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Survey of Ophthalmology, 38 Suppl, 141–148. PMID: 8236005.

Cavanah, D. K., Ballas, Z. K. (1993). Pseudoephedrine reaction presenting as recurrent toxic shock syndrome. Annals of internal medicine, 119(4), 302-3. PMID: 8328739.

Ballas, Z. K., Rasmussen, W. (1993). Lymphokine-activated killer cells. VII. IL-4 induces an NK1.1+CD8 alpha+beta- TCR-alpha beta B220+ lymphokine-activated killer subset. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 150(1), 17-30. PMID: 7678028.

Ballas, Z., Weiler, J. (1992). Biology of the immune system. In R. Berkow (Eds.) The Merck Manual.. (16th ed.), pp. 279–303. Rahway, N.J.: Merck Research Laboratories.

Cook, G. A., Blum, A. M., Ballas, Z. & Weinstock, J. V. (1991). Substance P does not alter interleukin-1 expression by splenic or granuloma macrophages in murine schistosomiasis. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 33(3), 217–225. PMID: 1714919.

Ballas, Z. K., Rasmussen, W. (1991). Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. VI. NK1.1+, CD3+ LAK effectors are derived from CD4-, CD8-, NK1.1- precursors. Cellular immunology, 134(2), 296-313. PMID: 1827045.

Thompson, R. A., Ballas, Z. K. (1990). Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. V. 8-Mercaptoguanosine as an IL-2-sparing agent in LAK generation. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 145(10), 3524-31. PMID: 1700014.

Ballas, Z. K., Rasmussen, W. (1990). NK1.1+ thymocytes. Adult murine CD4-, CD8- thymocytes contain an NK1.1+, CD3+, CD5hi, CD44hi, TCR-V beta 8+ subset. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 145(4), 1039-45. PMID: 1696293.

Meltzer, E. O., Orgel, H. A., Bush, R. K., Haltom, J. R., Metzger, W. J., Moss, B. A., Mitchell, D. Q., Ballas, Z. K., Seltzer, J. M. & Shapiro, G. G. (1990). Evaluation of symptom relief, nasal airflow, nasal cytology, and acceptability of two formulations of flunisolide nasal spray in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Annals of allergy, 64(6), 536-40. PMID: 2189319.

Ballas, Z. K., Turner, J. M., Turner, D. A., Goetzman, E. A. & Kemp, J. D. (1990). A patient with simultaneous absence of "classical" natural killer cells (CD3-, CD16+, and NKH1+) and expansion of CD3+, CD4-, CD8-, NKH1+ subset. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 85(2), 453-9. PMID: 2303649.

Ballas, Z. K., Rasmussen, W. L. (1990). Murine natural killer cells express the Ly24 (Pgp-1) marker on their surface. Cellular immunology, 125(2), 449-58. PMID: 2404614.

Ballas, Z. K., Rasmussen, W. (1990). Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. IV. Characterization of murine LAK effector subpopulations. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 144(1), 386-95. PMID: 2104892.

Casale, T. B., Ballas, Z. K., Kaliner, M. A. & Keahey, T. M. (1990). The effects of intravenous endotoxin on various host-effector molecules. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 85(1 Pt 1), 45-51. PMID: 2137152.

Kemp, J. D., Thorson, J. A., Gomez, F., Smith, K. M., Cowdery, J. S. & Ballas, Z. K. (1989). Inhibition of lymphocyte activation with anti-transferrin receptor Mabs: a comparison of three reagents and further studies of their range of effects and mechanism of action. Cellular immunology, 122(1), 218-30. PMID: 2526689.

Goeken, N. E., Staggs, T. S. & Ballas, Z. K. (1989). Monocyte suppressor factor is plasminogen activator inhibitor inhibition of membrane bound but not soluble IL-1. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 143(2), 603-8. PMID: 2525589.

Ballas, Z. K. (1988). Asthma in the adolescent and the adult. In R. E. Rakel , H. F. Conn (Eds.) Conn’s current therapy, 1988: latest approved methods of treatment for the practicing physician. (40 ed.), pp. 628–633. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Cowdery,, J.S., Kemp, J., Ballas, Z. & Weber,, S.P. (1988). Interleukin 1 selectively induced IgA secretion in cultured Murine Peyer’s patch cells. In R. P. MacDermott (Eds.) Inflammatory bowel disease: current status and future approach : proceedings of the International Symposium on Future Research Approaches to Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Mechanisms of Chronic Infection and Inflammation, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA, October 7-11, 1987. (775), pp. 165–170. Amsterdam; New York; New York, NY, USA: Excerpta Medica ; Sole distributors for the USA and Canada, Elsevier Science Pub. Co..

Ballas, Z. K., Rasmussen, W. (1987). Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. III. Characterization of LAK precursors and susceptible target cells within the murine thymus. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 139(10), 3542-9. PMID: 3500221.

Naldini, A., Fleischmann, W. R., Ballas, Z. K., Klimpel, K. D. & Klimpel, G. R. (1987). Interleukin 2 inhibits in vitro granulocyte-macrophage colony formation. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 139(6), 1880-4. PMID: 2442258.

Kemp, J. D., Thorson, J. A., McAlmont, T. H., Horowitz, M., Cowdery, J. S. & Ballas, Z. K. (1987). Role of the transferrin receptor in lymphocyte growth: a rat IgG monoclonal antibody against the murine transferrin receptor produces highly selective inhibition of T and B cell activation protocols. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 138(8), 2422-6. PMID: 2951439.

Ballas, Z. K., Rasmussen, W. & van Otegham, J. K. (1987). Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. II. Delineation of distinct murine LAK-precursor subpopulations. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 138(5), 1647-52. PMID: 2879870.

Nasrallah, H., Ballas, Z., Kronfol, A. & Chapman, S. (1987). Natural killer cell activity in major depression.

Reyes, V. E., Ballas, Z. K., Singh, H. & Klimpel, G. R. (1986). Interleukin 2 induces interferon alpha/beta production in mouse bone marrow cells. Cellular immunology, 102(2), 374-85. PMID: 3100059.

Ballas, Z. K. (1986). Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. I. Differential recovery of LAK, natural killer cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes after a sublethal dose of cyclophosphamide. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 137(7), 2380-4. PMID: 3489763.

Goeken, N. E., Ballas, Z. K. & Staggs, T. S. (1986). Alteration of human accessory cell function by heat treatment: role of IL-1 and class II MHC antigens. Human immunology, 16(3), 234-46. PMID: 3487535.

Shanley, J. D., Ballas, Z. K. (1985). Alteration of bronchoalveolar cells during murine cytomegalovirus interstitial pneumonitis. The American review of respiratory disease, 132(1), 77-81. PMID: 2990272.

Ballas, Z. K. (1985). Cryopreservation of CTLL, a murine IL2-dependent cell line. (Vols. 6). (5), pp. 145. Immunology today. PMID: 25289777.

Feldbush, T. L., Ballas, Z. K. (1985). Lymphokine-like activity of 8-mercaptoguanosine: induction of T and B cell differentiation. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 134(5), 3204-11. PMID: 3872330.

Weiler, J. M., Freiman, P., Sharath, M. D., Metzger, W. J., Smith, J. M., Richerson, H. B., Ballas, Z. K., Halverson, P. C., Shulan, D. J. & Matsuo, S. (1985). Serious adverse reactions to protamine sulfate: are alternatives needed?. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 75(2), 297-303. PMID: 2857186.

Feldbush, T. L., Hobbs, M. V., Severson, C. D., Ballas, Z. K. & Weiler, J. M. (1984). Role of complement in the immune response. Federation proceedings, 43(10), 2548-52. PMID: 6610570.

Ballas, Z. K. (1984). The use of 5-azacytidine to establish constitutive interleukin 2-producing clones of the EL4 thymoma. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 133(1), 9-Jul. PMID: 6202793.

Ballas, Z. K., Feldbush, T. L., Needleman, B. W. & Weiler, J. M. (1983). Complement inhibits immune responses: C3 preparations inhibit the generation of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes. European journal of immunology, 13(4), 279-84. PMID: 6189721.

Ballas, Z. K., Ahmann, G. B. (1983). Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes against modified self in the absence of antigen by interleukin 2-containing preparations. Cellular immunology, 76(1), 81-93. PMID: 6187486.

Weiler, J. M., Ballas, Z. K., Needleman, B. W., Hobbs, M. V. & Feldbush, T. L. (1982). Complement fragments suppress lymphocyte immune responses. Immunology today, 3(9), 238-43. PMID: 25290053.

Weiler, J. M., Ballas, Z. K., Feldbush, T. L. & Needleman, B. W. (1982). Inhibition of human lymphocyte blastogenesis by C3: the role of serum in the tissue culture medium. Immunology, 46(2), 247-52. PMID: 6979506.

Ballas, Z. K., Donta, S. T. (1982). Sulindac-induced aseptic meningitis. Archives of internal medicine, 142(1), 165-6. PMID: 7053720.

Ballas, Z. K. (1981). Limitations of recognition of modified-self by alloantigen-activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 127(4), 1589-91. PMID: 6168697.

Kuppers, R. C., Ballas, Z. K., Green, W. R. & Henney, C. S. (1981). Quantitative appraisal of H-2 products in T cell-mediated lysis by allogeneic and syngeneic effector cells. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 127(2), 500-4. PMID: 6972966.

Ballas, Z. K., Green, W. R. & Henney, C. S. (1981). Studies on the mechanism of T-Cell-mediated lysis. XIII. Lectin-dependent T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity is supported by con A-coupled sepharose beads. Cellular immunology, 59(2), 411-8. PMID: 6974603.

Henney, C. S., Ballas, Z. K. & Ozato, K. (1981). Hapten recognition by cytotoxic T cells. In R. A. Reisfeld , S. Ferrone (Eds.) Current trends in histocompatibility. pp. 59–80. New York: Plenum Press.

Ballas, Z. K., Kuppers, R. C. (1980). Naturally occurring antibodies directed to TNBS-modified cell surface but not the trinitrophenyl moiety. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 125(4), 1644-9. PMID: 7410849.

Ballas, Z. K., Henney, C. S. (1979). Generation of H-2 restricted cytotoxic T cells by trinitrophenylated proteins in vitro: specificity and requirements. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 123(4), 1696-704. PMID: 90099.

Ballas, Z., Henney, C. (1979). Relationship between lymphokines and cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In S. Cohen , E. Pick , J. J. Oppenheim (Eds.) Biology of the lymphokines. pp. 165. New York: Academic Press.

Green, W. R., Ballas, Z. K. & Henney, C. S. (1978). Studies on the mechanism of lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis. XI. The role of lectin in lectin-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 121(4), 1566-72. PMID: 359710.

Ballas, Z. K., Uthman, S. M. (1973). Amebic liver abscess in Lebanon. A report of 37 cases and a review of the literature. American journal of proctology, 24(3), 228-36. PMID: 4707978.

Salem, A. A., Ballas, Z. (1973). Inflammatory bowel disease. 10 years experience at the hospital of the American University at Beirut. American Journal of Proctology, 24(3), 209–213. PMID: 4707976.