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Li Wu, PhD

Professor of Microbiology and Immunology
Chair and Department Executive Officer

Contact Information

Primary Office
3-403B Bowen Science Building (BSB)
51 Newton Road
Iowa City, IA 52242

Staff Contact
3-403 Bowen Science Building (BSB)
51 Newton Road
Iowa City, IA 52242

6-555 Bowen Science Building (BSB)
51 Newton Road
Iowa City, IA 52242


MS, Microbiology and Immunology, Lanzhou Institute of Biological Products
PhD, Molecular Virology, Shanghai Medical College (formerly Shanghai Medical University), Fudan University
Postdoctoral Research Fellow, HIV Dynamics and Replication Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Biomedical Science Program, Department of Microbiology Graduate Program, Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, Medical Scientist Training Program

Center, Program and Institute Affiliations

Center for Immunology and Immune-based Diseases

Research Summary

Defining the mechanisms of HIV replication and understanding the role of immune cells and host factors that participate in the process are essential for developing effective strategies to eradicate HIV infection. Dr. Wu’s lab studies the molecular and cellular mechanisms of HIV replication, virus interaction with host factors and anti-HIV innate immunity. The lab focuses on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying HIV-1 restriction by the host protein SAMHD1, which is the first identified mammalian dNTP triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase). We also investigate functional significance and the mechanisms by which N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral gene expression in immune cells. Our basic studies can lay the foundation to facilitate the development of more effective interventions against HIV infection.

Our current NIH-funded projects are:

1) SAMHD1-mediated regulation of HIV-1 innate immunity and viral gene expression. We use interdisciplinary approaches to further understand the mechanisms by which SAMHD1 regulates antiviral innate immune responses and viral gene expression in primary myeloid and CD4+ T cells. These studies aim to reveal novel physiological functions of SAMHD1 during HIV-1 infection of primary target cells, which are beyond its known function in restricting virus replication.

2) Mechanisms of HIV-1 RNA methylation in regulating viral replication. We investigate the molecular mechanisms by which m6A modification of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral gene expression and replication in primary CD4+ T-cells. Investigations of the HIV-1 RNA m6A modification and interactions with host proteins represent a new area of HIV-1 RNA biology, which can facilitate therapeutic development against HIV-1 infection.


Chen, S., Kumar, S., Espada, C. E., Tirumuru, N., Cahill, M. P., Hu, L., He, C. & Wu, L. (2021). N6-methyladenosine modification of HIV-1 RNA suppresses type-I interferon induction in differentiated monocytic cells and primary macrophages. PLoS Pathog, 17(3), e1009421. PMID: 33690734.

Espada, C. E., St Gelais, C., Bonifati, S., Maksimova, V. V., Cahill, M. P., Kim, S. H. & Wu, L. (2021). TRAF6 and TAK1 contribute to SAMHD1-mediated negative regulation of NF-kB signaling. J Virol, 95(3), e01970-20. PMID: 33177202.

Rojas Chávez, R. A., Boyt, D., Han, C., Wu, L. & Haim, H. (2020). The fusion peptide proximal region of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins regulates exposure of immunogenic epitopes at the trimer base. bioRxiv preprint. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.28.360131.

Qin, Z., Bonifati, S., St Gelais, C., Li, T. W., Kim, S. H., Antonucci, J. M., Mahboubi, B., Yount, J. S., Xiong, Y., Kim, B. & Wu, L. (2020). The dNTPase activity of SAMHD1 is important for its suppression of innate immune responses in differentiated monocytic cells. J Biol Chem, 295(6), 1575-1586. PMID: 31914403.

Wu, L. (2019). HIV Evades Immune Surveillance by Methylation of Viral RNA. Biochemistry, 58(13), 1699-1700. PMID: 30892021.

Lu, W., Chen, S., Yu, J., Behrens, R., Wiggins, J., Sherer, N., Liu, S. L., Xiong, Y., Xiang, S. H. & Wu, L. (2019). The Polar Region of the HIV-1 Envelope Protein Determines Viral Fusion and Infectivity by Stabilizing the gp120-gp41 Association. J Virol, 93(7), e02128-18. PMID: 30651369.

Tirumuru, N., Wu, L. (2019). HIV-1 envelope proteins up-regulate N6-methyladenosine levels of cellular RNA independently of viral replication. J Biol Chem, 294(9), 3249-3260. PMID: 30617182.

Chemudupati, M., Kenney, A. D., Bonifati, S., Zani, A., McMichael, T. M., Wu, L. & Yount, J. S. (2019). From APOBEC to ZAP: Diverse mechanisms used by cellular restriction factors to inhibit virus infections. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res, 1866(3), 382-394. PMID: 30290238.

Chen, S., Bonifati, S., Qin, Z., St Gelais, C. & Wu, L. (2019). SAMHD1 Suppression of Antiviral Immune Responses. Trends Microbiol, 27(3), 254-267. PMID: 30336972.

Lu, W., Tirumuru, N., St Gelais, C., Koneru, P. C., Liu, C., Kvaratskhelia, M., He, C. & Wu, L. (2018). N6-Methyladenosine-binding proteins suppress HIV-1 infectivity and viral production. J Biol Chem, 293(34), 12992-13005. PMID: 29976753.

Guo, J., Liu, X., Wu, C., Hu, J., Peng, K., Wu, L., Xiong, S. & Dong, C. (2018). The transmembrane nucleoporin Pom121 ensures efficient HIV-1 pre-integration complex nuclear import. Virology, 521, 169-174. PMID: 29957337.

Antonucci, J. M., Kim, S. H., St Gelais, C., Bonifati, S., Li, T. W., Buzovetsky, O., Knecht, K. M., Duchon, A. A., Xiong, Y., Musier-Forsyth, K. & Wu, L. (2018). SAMHD1 Impairs HIV-1 Gene Expression and Negatively Modulates Reactivation of Viral Latency in CD4+ T Cells. J Virol, 92(15), e00292-18. PMID: 29793958.

Liu, S., Wang, Q., Yu, X., Li, Y., Guo, Y., Liu, Z., Sun, F., Hou, W., Li, C., Wu, L., Guo, D. & Chen, S. (2018). HIV-1 inhibition in cells with CXCR4 mutant genome created by CRISPR-Cas9 and piggyBac recombinant technologies. Sci Rep, 8(1), 8573. PMID: 29872154.

Chen, S., Bonifati, S., Qin, Z., St Gelais, C., Kodigepalli, K. M., Barrett, B. S., Kim, S. H., Antonucci, J. M., Ladner, K. J., Buzovetsky, O., Knecht, K. M., Xiong, Y., Yount, J. S., Guttridge, D. C., Santiago, M. L. & Wu, L. (2018). SAMHD1 suppresses innate immune responses to viral infections and inflammatory stimuli by inhibiting the NF-kB and interferon pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 115(16), E3798-E3807. PMID: 29610295.

St Gelais, C., Kim, S. H., Maksimova, V. V., Buzovetsky, O., Knecht, K. M., Shepard, C., Kim, B., Xiong, Y. & Wu, L. (2018). A Cyclin-Binding Motif in Human SAMHD1 Is Required for Its HIV-1 Restriction, dNTPase Activity, Tetramer Formation, and Efficient Phosphorylation. J Virol, 92(6), e01787-17. PMID: 29321329.

Buzovetsky, O., Tang, C., Knecht, K. M., Antonucci, J. M., Wu, L., Ji, X. & Xiong, Y. (2018). The SAM domain of mouse SAMHD1 is critical for its activation and regulation. Nat Commun, 9(1), 411. PMID: 29379009.

Kodigepalli, K. M., Bonifati, S., Tirumuru, N. & Wu, L. (2018). SAMHD1 modulates in vitro proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia-derived THP-1 cells through the PI3K-Akt-p27 axis. Cell Cycle, 17(9), 1124-1137. PMID: 29911928.

Kodigepalli, K. M., Li, M., Bonifati, S., Panfil, A. R., Green, P. L., Liu, S. L. & Wu, L. (2018). SAMHD1 inhibits epithelial cell transformation in vitro and affects leukemia development in xenograft mice. Cell Cycle, 17(23), 2564-2576. PMID: 30474474.

Kenney, A. D., Dowdle, J. A., Bozzacco, L., McMichael, T. M., St Gelais, C., Panfil, A. R., Sun, Y., Schlesinger, L. S., Anderson, M. Z., Green, P. L., López, C. B., Rosenberg, B. R., Wu, L. & Yount, J. S. (2017). Human Genetic Determinants of Viral Diseases. Annu Rev Genet, 51, 241-263. PMID: 28853921.

Wang, Q., Chen, S., Xiao, Q., Liu, Z., Liu, S., Hou, P., Zhou, L., Hou, W., Ho, W., Li, C., Wu, L. & Guo, D. (2017). Genome modification of CXCR4 by Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 renders cells resistance to HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology, 14(1), 51. PMID: 29141633.

Antonucci, J. M., St Gelais, C. & Wu, L. (2017). The Dynamic Interplay between HIV-1, SAMHD1, and the Innate Antiviral Response. Front Immunol, 8, 1541. PMID: 29176984.

Duchon, A. A., St Gelais, C., Titkemeier, N., Hatterschide, J., Wu, L. & Musier-Forsyth, K. (2017). HIV-1 Exploits a Dynamic Multi-aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Complex To Enhance Viral Replication. J Virol, 91(21), e01240-17. PMID: 28814526.

Liu, Z., Chen, S., Jin, X., Wang, Q., Yang, K., Li, C., Xiao, Q., Hou, P., Liu, S., Wu, S., Hou, W., Xiong, Y., Kong, C., Zhao, X., Wu, L., Li, C., Sun, G. & Guo, D. (2017). Genome editing of the HIV co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 by CRISPR-Cas9 protects CD4+ T cells from HIV-1 infection. Cell Biosci, 7, 47. PMID: 28904745.

Kodigepalli, K. M., Li, M., Liu, S. L. & Wu, L. (2017). Exogenous expression of SAMHD1 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma-derived HuT78 cells. Cell Cycle, 16(2), 179-188. PMID: 27929746.

Kohnken, R., Kodigepalli, K. M., Mishra, A., Porcu, P. & Wu, L. (2017). MicroRNA-181 contributes to downregulation of SAMHD1 expression in CD4+ T-cells derived from Sèzary syndrome patients. Leuk Res, 52, 58-66. PMID: 27889686.

St Gelais, C., Kim, S. H., Ding, L., Yount, J. S., Ivanov, D., Spearman, P. & Wu, L. (2016). A Putative Cyclin-binding Motif in Human SAMHD1 Contributes to Protein Phosphorylation, Localization, and Stability. J Biol Chem, 291(51), 26332-26342. PMID: 27815502.

Li, C., Wang, H. B., Kuang, W. D., Ren, X. X., Song, S. T., Zhu, H. Z., Li, Q., Xu, L. R., Guo, H. J., Wu, L. & Wang, J. H. (2016). Naf1 Regulates HIV-1 Latency by Suppressing Viral Promoter-Driven Gene Expression in Primary CD4+ T Cells. J Virol, 91(1), e01830-16. PMID: 27795436.

Antonucci, J. M., St Gelais, C., de Silva, S., Yount, J. S., Tang, C., Ji, X., Shepard, C., Xiong, Y., Kim, B. & Wu, L. (2016). SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction in cells does not involve ribonuclease activity. Nat Med, 22(10), 1072-1074. PMID: 27711056.

Bonifati, S., Daly, M. B., St Gelais, C., Kim, S. H., Hollenbaugh, J. A., Shepard, C., Kennedy, E. M., Kim, D. H., Schinazi, R. F., Kim, B. & Wu, L. (2016). SAMHD1 controls cell cycle status, apoptosis and HIV-1 infection in monocytic THP-1 cells. Virology, 495, 92-100. PMID: 27183329.

Tirumuru, N., Zhao, B. S., Lu, W., Lu, Z., He, C. & Wu, L. (2016). N(6)-methyladenosine of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral infection and HIV-1 Gag protein expression. eLife, 5, e15528. PMID: 27371828.

Ren, X. X., Wang, H. B., Li, C., Jiang, J. F., Xiong, S. D., Jin, X., Wu, L. & Wang, J. H. (2016). HIV-1 Nef-associated Factor 1 Enhances Viral Production by Interacting with CRM1 to Promote Nuclear Export of Unspliced HIV-1 gag mRNA. J Biol Chem, 291(9), 4580-8. PMID: 26733199.

Wang, F., St Gelais, C., de Silva, S., Zhang, H., Geng, Y., Shepard, C., Kim, B., Yount, J. S. & Wu, L. (2016). Phosphorylation of mouse SAMHD1 regulates its restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, but not murine leukemia virus infection. Virology, 487, 273-84. PMID: 26580513.

Tang, C., Ji, X., Wu, L. & Xiong, Y. (2015). Impaired dNTPase activity of SAMHD1 by phosphomimetic mutation of Thr-592. J Biol Chem, 290(44), 26352-9. PMID: 26294762.

Kohnken, R., Kodigepalli, K. M. & Wu, L. (2015). Regulation of deoxynucleotide metabolism in cancer: novel mechanisms and therapeutic implications. Mol Cancer, 14, 176. PMID: 26416562.

St Gelais, C., Roger, J. & Wu, L. (2015). Non-POU Domain-Containing Octamer-Binding Protein Negatively Regulates HIV-1 Infection in CD4(+) T Cells. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 31(8), 806-16. PMID: 25769457.

Wong, H. K., Wu, L., de Silva, S., Porcu, P. & Mishra, A. (2015). Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma: Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome. In Q. Lu , C. C. Chang , B. C. Richardson (Eds.) Epigenetics and Dermatology. pp. 363-377. Academic Press.

Mates, J. M., de Silva, S., Lustberg, M., Van Deusen, K., Baiocchi, R. A., Wu, L. & Kwiek, J. J. (2015). A Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, AR-42, Reactivates HIV-1 from Chronically and Latently Infected CD4+ T-cells. Retrovirology (Auckl)., 7, 1-5. PMID: 26855567.

de Silva, S., St Gelais, C., Nagaraja, T. & Wu, L. (2015). Counteraction of SAMHD1 by Vpx. In T. Hope , D. Richman , M. Stevenson (Eds.) Encyclopedia of AIDS. (33), pp. 08. New York, NY: Springer.

Sharma, A., Slaughter, A., Jena, N., Feng, L., Kessl, J. J., Fadel, H. J., Malani, N., Male, F., Wu, L., Poeschla, E., Bushman, F. D., Fuchs, J. R. & Kvaratskhelia, M. (2014). A new class of multimerization selective inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase. PLoS Pathog, 10(5), e1004171. PMID: 24874515.

St Gelais, C., de Silva, S., Hach, J. C., White, T. E., Diaz-Griffero, F., Yount, J. S. & Wu, L. (2014). Identification of cellular proteins interacting with the retroviral restriction factor SAMHD1. J Virol, 88(10), 5834-44. PMID: 24623419.

Ren, X. X., Ma, L., Liu, Q. W., Li, C., Huang, Z., Wu, L., Xiong, S. D., Wang, J. H. & Wang, H. B. (2014). The molecule of DC-SIGN captures enterovirus 71 and confers dendritic cell-mediated viral trans-infection. Virol J, 11, 47. PMID: 24620896.

de Silva, S., Wang, F., Hake, T. S., Porcu, P., Wong, H. K. & Wu, L. (2014). Downregulation of SAMHD1 expression correlates with promoter DNA methylation in Sézary syndrome patients. (Vols. 134). (2), pp. 562-565. J Invest Dermatol. PMID: 23884314.

Wu, L. (2014). East or West, Virology is best: a personal journey. In Y. M. Wen , Z. H. Yuan (Eds.) Progress of Microbe and Infection Research. pp. 108-117. Shanghai: Fudan University Press.

Wu, L. (2013). SAMHD1 knockout mice: modeling retrovirus restriction in vivo. Retrovirology, 10, 142. PMID: 24257155.

Wu, L., Schwartz, O. (Eds.) (2013). HIV Interactions with Dendritic Cells: Infection and Immunity. In Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. (Vols. 762). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media.

Coleman, C. M., St Gelais, C. & Wu, L. (2013). Cellular and viral mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission mediated by dendritic cells. In L. Wu , O. Schwartz (Eds.) HIV Interactions with Dendritic Cells: Infection and Immunity. pp. 109-130. New York, NY: Springer.

Zhai, R. R., Jiang, A. P., Wang, H. B., Ma, L., Ren, X. X., Jiang, J. F., Wu, L., Wei, J. F. & Wang, J. H. (2013). Histamine enhances HIV-1-induced modulation of dendritic cells to skew naïve T cell differentiation toward regulatory T cells. Virology, 442(2), 163-72. PMID: 23652320.

Sharma, A., Larue, R. C., Plumb, M. R., Malani, N., Male, F., Slaughter, A., Kessl, J. J., Shkriabai, N., Coward, E., Aiyer, S. S., Green, P. L., Wu, L., Roth, M. J., Bushman, F. D. & Kvaratskhelia, M. (2013). BET proteins promote efficient murine leukemia virus integration at transcription start sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 110(29), 12036-41. PMID: 23818621.

Wu, L. (2013). Cellular and Biochemical Mechanisms of the Retroviral Restriction Factor SAMHD1. ISRN Biochem, 2013. PMID: 24523981.

Barrios, C. S., Castillo, L., Giam, C. Z., Wu, L. & Beilke, M. A. (2013). Inhibition of HIV type 1 replication by human T lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 Tax proteins in vitro. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 29(7), 1061-7. PMID: 23464580.

Dong, C., Zhao, G., Zhong, M., Yue, Y., Wu, L. & Xiong, S. (2013). RNA sequencing and transcriptomal analysis of human monocyte to macrophage differentiation. Gene, 519(2), 279-87. PMID: 23458880.

de Silva, S., Hoy, H., Hake, T. S., Wong, H. K., Porcu, P. & Wu, L. (2013). Promoter methylation regulates SAMHD1 gene expression in human CD4+ T cells. J Biol Chem, 288(13), 9284-92. PMID: 23426363.

Coleman, C. M., Gelais, C. S. & Wu, L. (2013). Cellular and viral mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission mediated by dendritic cells. Adv Exp Med Biol, 762, 109-30. PMID: 22975873.

St Gelais, C., de Silva, S., Amie, S. M., Coleman, C. M., Hoy, H., Hollenbaugh, J. A., Kim, B. & Wu, L. (2012). SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 infection in dendritic cells (DCs) by dNTP depletion, but its expression in DCs and primary CD4+ T-lymphocytes cannot be upregulated by interferons. Retrovirology, 9, 105. PMID: 23231760.

Coon, S., Wang, D. & Wu, L. (2012). Polymorphisms of the SAMHD1 gene are not associated with the infection and natural control of HIV type 1 in Europeans and African-Americans. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 28(12), 1565-73. PMID: 22530776.

Wu, L. (2012). SAMHD1: a new contributor to HIV-1 restriction in resting CD4+ T-cells. Retrovirology, 9, 88. PMID: 23092163.

Kessl, J. J., Jena, N., Koh, Y., Taskent-Sezgin, H., Slaughter, A., Feng, L., de Silva, S., Wu, L., Le Grice, S. F., Engelman, A., Fuchs, J. R. & Kvaratskhelia, M. (2012). Multimode, cooperative mechanism of action of allosteric HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. J Biol Chem, 287(20), 16801-11. PMID: 22437836.

St Gelais, C., Coleman, C. M., Wang, J. H. & Wu, L. (2012). HIV-1 Nef enhances dendritic cell-mediated viral transmission to CD4+ T cells and promotes T-cell activation. PLoS One, 7(3), e34521. PMID: 22479639.

de Silva, S., Planelles, V. & Wu, L. (2012). Differential effects of Vpr on single-cycle and spreading HIV-1 infections in CD4+ T-cells and dendritic cells. PLoS One, 7(5), e35385. PMID: 22570689.

Zhang, C., de Silva, S., Wang, J. H. & Wu, L. (2012). Co-evolution of primate SAMHD1 and lentivirus Vpx leads to the loss of the vpx gene in HIV-1 ancestor. PLoS One, 7(5), e37477. PMID: 22574228.

Wu, L. (2011). The role of monocyte-lineage cells in human immunodeficiency virus persistence: mechanisms and progress. Wei Sheng Wu Yu Gan Ran, 6(3), 129-132. PMID: 22091217.

Zhu, Y., Chen, G., Lv, F., Wang, X., Ji, X., Xu, Y., Sun, J., Wu, L., Zheng, Y. T. & Gao, G. (2011). Zinc-finger antiviral protein inhibits HIV-1 infection by selectively targeting multiply spliced viral mRNAs for degradation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 108(38), 15834-9. PMID: 21876179.

St Gelais, C., Wu, L. (2011). SAMHD1: a new insight into HIV-1 restriction in myeloid cells. Retrovirology, 8, 55. PMID: 21740548.

de Silva, S., Wu, L. (2011). TRIM5 acts as more than a retroviral restriction factor. Viruses, 3(7), 1204-9. PMID: 21866272.

Coleman, C. M., Spearman, P. & Wu, L. (2011). Tetherin does not significantly restrict dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 transmission and its expression is upregulated by newly synthesized HIV-1 Nef. Retrovirology, 8, 26. PMID: 21504576.

Qin, Y., Li, Y., Liu, W., Tian, R., Guo, Q., Li, S., Li, H., Zhang, D., Zheng, Y., Wu, L., Lan, K. & Wang, J. (2011). Penicillium marneffei-stimulated dendritic cells enhance HIV-1 trans-infection and promote viral infection by activating primary CD4+ T cells. PLoS One, 6(11), e27609. PMID: 22110688.

Raghavendra, N. K., Shkriabai, N., Graham, R. L., Hess, S., Kvaratskhelia, M. & Wu, L. (2010). Identification of host proteins associated with HIV-1 preintegration complexes isolated from infected CD4+ cells. Retrovirology, 7, 66. PMID: 20698996.

Blanchet, F. P., Moris, A., Nikolic, D. S., Lehmann, M., Cardinaud, S., Stalder, R., Garcia, E., Dinkins, C., Leuba, F., Wu, L., Schwartz, O., Deretic, V. & Piguet, V. (2010). Human immunodeficiency virus-1 inhibition of immunoamphisomes in dendritic cells impairs early innate and adaptive immune responses. Immunity, 32(5), 654-69. PMID: 20451412.

Chung, N. P., Breun, S. K., Bashirova, A., Baumann, J. G., Martin, T. D., Karamchandani, J. M., Rausch, J. W., Le Grice, S. F., Wu, L., Carrington, M. & Kewalramani, V. N. (2010). HIV-1 transmission by dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) is regulated by determinants in the carbohydrate recognition domain that are absent in liver/lymph node-SIGN (L-SIGN). J Biol Chem, 285(3), 2100-12. PMID: 19833723.

Kyei, G. B., Dinkins, C., Davis, A. S., Roberts, E., Singh, S. B., Dong, C., Wu, L., Kominami, E., Ueno, T., Yamamoto, A., Federico, M., Panganiban, A., Vergne, I. & Deretic, V. (2009). Autophagy pathway intersects with HIV-1 biosynthesis and regulates viral yields in macrophages. J Cell Biol, 186(2), 255-68. PMID: 19635843.

Coleman, C. M., Wu, L. (2009). HIV interactions with monocytes and dendritic cells: viral latency and reservoirs. Retrovirology, 6, 51. PMID: 19486514.

Janas, A. M., Wu, L. (2009). HIV-1 interactions with cells: from viral binding to cell-cell transmission. In Curr Protoc Cell Biol. pp. Unit 26.5. Wiley. PMID: 19499507.

Wang, J. H., Kwas, C. & Wu, L. (2009). Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), but not ICAM-2 and -3, is important for dendritic cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. J Virol, 83(9), 4195-204. PMID: 19211748.

Dong, C., Kwas, C. & Wu, L. (2009). Transcriptional restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression in undifferentiated primary monocytes. J Virol, 83(8), 3518-27. PMID: 19211771.

Wang, J. H., Wells, C. & Wu, L. (2008). Macropinocytosis and cytoskeleton contribute to dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 transmission to CD4+ T cells. Virology, 381(1), 143-54. PMID: 18804253.

Wu, L. (2008). Biology of HIV mucosal transmission. Curr Opin HIV AIDS, 3(5), 534-40. PMID: 18802490.

Janas, A. M., Dong, C., Wang, J. H. & Wu, L. (2008). Productive infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in dendritic cells requires fusion-mediated viral entry. Virology, 375(2), 442-51. PMID: 18329684.

Dong, C., Janas, A. M., Wang, J. H., Olson, W. J. & Wu, L. (2007). Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in immature and mature dendritic cells reveals dissociable cis- and trans-infection. J Virol, 81(20), 11352-62. PMID: 17686876.

Wang, J. H., Janas, A. M., Olson, W. J. & Wu, L. (2007). Functionally distinct transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mediated by immature and mature dendritic cells. J Virol, 81(17), 8933-43. PMID: 17567699.

Wang, J. H., Janas, A. M., Olson, W. J., KewalRamani, V. N. & Wu, L. (2007). CD4 coexpression regulates DC-SIGN-mediated transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol, 81(5), 2497-507. PMID: 17151103.

Wu, L., KewalRamani, V. N. (2006). Dendritic-cell interactions with HIV: infection and viral dissemination. Nat Rev Immunol, 6(11), 859-68. PMID: 17063186.

García-Piñeres, A. J., Hildesheim, A., Trivett, M., Williams, M., Wu, L., Kewalramani, V. N. & Pinto, L. A. (2006). Role of DC-SIGN in the activation of dendritic cells by HPV-16 L1 virus-like particle vaccine. Eur J Immunol, 36(2), 437-45. PMID: 16385626.

Wu, L., Martin, T. D., Han, Y. C., Breun, S. K. & KewalRamani, V. N. (2004). Trans-dominant cellular inhibition of DC-SIGN-mediated HIV-1 transmission. Retrovirology, 1, 14. PMID: 15222882.

Wu, L., Martin, T. D., Carrington, M. & KewalRamani, V. N. (2004). Raji B cells, misidentified as THP-1 cells, stimulate DC-SIGN-mediated HIV transmission. Virology, 318(1), 17-23. PMID: 14972530.

McDonald, D., Wu, L., Bohks, S. M., KewalRamani, V. N., Unutmaz, D. & Hope, T. J. (2003). Recruitment of HIV and its receptors to dendritic cell-T cell junctions. Science, 300(5623), 1295-7. PMID: 12730499.

Bashirova, A. A., Wu, L., Cheng, J., Martin, T. D., Martin, M. P., Benveniste, R. E., Lifson, J. D., KewalRamani, V. N., Hughes, A. & Carrington, M. (2003). Novel member of the CD209 (DC-SIGN) gene family in primates. J VIrol, 77(1), 217-27. PMID: 12477827.

Wu, L., Martin, T. D., Vazeux, R., Unutmaz, D. & KewalRamani, V. N. (2002). Functional evaluation of DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies reveals DC-SIGN interactions with ICAM-3 do not promote human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. J Virol, 76(12), 5905-14. PMID: 12021323.

Wu, L., Bashirova, A. A., Martin, T. D., Villamide, L., Mehlhop, E., Chertov, A. O., Unutmaz, D., Pope, M., Carrington, M. & KewalRamani, V. N. (2002). Rhesus macaque dendritic cells efficiently transmit primate lentiviruses independently of DC-SIGN. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99(3), 1568-73. PMID: 11818554.

Lin, X., Yuan, Z. H., Wu, L., Ding, J. P. & Wen, Y. M. (2001). A single amino acid in the reverse transcriptase domain of hepatitis B virus affects virus replication efficiency. J Virol, 75(23), 11827-33. PMID: 11689664.

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