Linda L. McCarter, PhD

Portrait
Professor of Microbiology and Immunology

Contact Information

Office: 3-430 Bowen Science Building
51 Newton Rd
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-335-9721

Lab: 3-401 Bowen Science Building
51 Newton Rd
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-353-5421

Education

BA, Chemistry, University of Hawaii
PhD, Microbiology, University of California, Davis

Post Doctoral Fellow, Microbiology, The Agouron Institute

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Biomedical Science Program, Department of Microbiology Graduate Program, Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Translational Biomedicine, Medical Scientist Training Program

Center, Program and Institute Affiliations

Center for Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing

Research Summary

In order to survive in changing environments, bacteria possess enormous adaptive capabilities that allow them to modulate their behavior and reprogram gene expression in response to environmental cues. One important survival strategy for bacteria is adhesion to and colonization of surfaces. My laboratory is focused on understanding how bacteria adapt to life on surfaces and in biofilms. We ask the following kinds of questions. How do bacteria recognize surfaces? What genes are turned on by growth on a surface? How is behavior coordinated? How do bacteria interact to develop surface-attached communities or biofilms? How do bacteria process information and make decisions-for example, make the decision to swim, swarm or stick? And, what is the role of the social life of bacteria (specifically, cell-cell communication) in all of these processes? We also are probing the significance of surface sensing with respect to virulence of the organism. We study Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a worldwide pathogen and a model organism for surface sensing-as it undergoes the remarkable differentiation known as swarming when transitioning from liquid to surfaces. Our ultimate goal is to trace the regulatory circuitry that enable bacteria to establish growth, communicate and coordinate behavior, and develop structured communities on surfaces. How cells respond to their environment and each other—or to other species—while growing as communities on surfaces may be key to understanding pathogenesis of many organisms.

Publications

Floyd, M., Winn, M., Cullen, C., Sil, P., Chassaing, B., Yoo, D. G., Gewirtz, A. T., Goldberg, J. B., McCarter, L. L. & Rada, B. (2016). Swimming Motility Mediates the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Induced by Flagellated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PLoS Pathog, 12(11), e1005987. PMID: 27855208.

McCarter, L. L., Gomelsky, M. (2015). Fifty ways to inhibit motility via cyclic di-GMP: the emerging Pseudomonas aeruginosa swarming story. J Bacteriol, 197(3), 406-9. PMID: 25448814.

Kernell Burke, A., Guthrie, L. T., Modise, T., Cormier, G., Jensen, R. V., McCarter, L. L. & Stevens, A. M. (2015). OpaR controls a network of downstream transcription factors in Vibrio parahaemolyticus BB22OP. PLoS One, 10(4), e0121863. PMID: 25901572.

Jensen, R. V., Depasquale, S. M., Harbolick, E. A., Hong, T., Kernell, A. L., Kruchko, D. H., Modise, T., Smith, C. E., McCarter, L. L. & Stevens, A. M. (2013). Complete Genome Sequence of Prepandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus BB22OP. Genome Announc, 1(1), e00002-12. PMID: 23469330.

Ferreira, R. B., Chodur, D. M., Antunes, L. C., Trimble, M. J. & McCarter, L. L. (2012). Output targets and transcriptional regulation by a cyclic dimeric GMP-responsive circuit in the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Scr network. J Bacteriol, 194(5), 914-24. PMID: 22194449.

Trimble, M. J., McCarter, L. L. (2011). Bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric GMP-linked quorum sensing controls swarming in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 108(44), 18079-84. PMID: 22006340.

Gode-Potratz, C. J., McCarter, L. L. (2011). Quorum sensing and silencing in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol, 193(16), 4224-37. PMID: 21705592.

Gode-Potratz, C. J., Kustusch, R. J., Breheny, P. J., Weiss, D. S. & McCarter, L. L. (2011). Surface sensing in Vibrio parahaemolyticus triggers a programme of gene expression that promotes colonization and virulence. Mol Microbiol, 79(1), 240-63. PMID: 21166906.

Matz, C., Nouri, B., McCarter, L. L. & Martinez-Urtaza, J. (2011). Acquired type III secretion system determines environmental fitness of epidemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the interaction with bacterivorous protists. PLoS One, 6(5), e20275. PMID: 21629787.

McCarter, L. L. (2010). The Scr circuit in Vibrio parahaemolyticus modulates swarming and sticking. In A. J. Wolfe , K. L. Visick (Eds.) The Second Messenger Cyclic Di-GMP. pp. Chapter 12. ASM Press, Washington, DC.

McCarter, L. L. (2010). Bacterial acrobatics on a surface: swirling packs, collisions, and reversals during swarming. J Bacteriol, 192(13), 3246-8. PMID: 20435735.

Gode-Potratz, C. J., Chodur, D. M. & McCarter, L. L. (2010). Calcium and iron regulate swarming and type III secretion in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol, 192(22), 6025-38. PMID: 20851895.

Ferreira, R. B., Antunes, L. C., Greenberg, E. P. & McCarter, L. L. (2008). Vibrio parahaemolyticus ScrC modulates cyclic dimeric GMP regulation of gene expression relevant to growth on surfaces. J Bacteriol, 190(3), 851-60. PMID: 17993539.

Kim, Y. K., McCarter, L. L. (2007). ScrG, a GGDEF-EAL protein, participates in regulating swarming and sticking in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol, 189(11), 4094-107. PMID: 17400744.

McCarter, L. L. (2006). Motility and chemotaxis. In F. L. Thompson , B. Austin , J. Swings (Eds.) The Biology of Vibrios. pp. Chapter 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC.

McCarter, L. L. (2006). Regulation of flagella. Curr Opin Microbiol, 9, 180-6. PMID: 16487743.

Jaques, S., McCarter, L. L. (2006). Three new regulators of swarming in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol, 188(7), 2625-35. PMID: 16547050.

McCarter, L. L. (2005). Multiple modes of motility: a second flagellar system in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol, 187(4), 1207-9. PMID: 15687183.

Enos-Berlage, J. L., Guvener, Z. T., Keenan, C. E. & McCarter, L. L. (2005). Genetic determinants of biofilm development of opaque and translucent Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Mol Microbiol, 55(4), 1160-82. PMID: 15686562.

McCarter, L. L. (2004). Dual flagellar systems enable motility under different circumstances. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol, 7, 18-29. PMID: 15170400.

Doyle, T. B., Hawkins, A. C. & McCarter, L. L. (2004). The complex flagellar torque generator of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol, 186(19), 6341-50. PMID: 15375113.

Kim, Y. K., McCarter, L. L. (2004). Cross-regulation in Vibrio parahaemolyticus: compensatory activation of polar flagellar genes by the lateral flagellar regulator LafK. J Bacteriol, 186(12), 4014-8. PMID: 15175315.

Trosky, J. E., Mukherjee, S., Burdette, D. L., Roberts, M., McCarter, L. L., Siegel, R. M. & Orth, K. (2004). Inhibition of MAPK signaling pathways by VopA from Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Biol Chem, 279(50), 51953-7. PMID: 15459200.

Stewart, B. J., McCarter, L. L. (2003). Lateral flagellar gene system of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol, 185(15), 4508-18. PMID: 12867460.

Güvener, Z. T., McCarter, L. L. (2003). Multiple regulators control capsular polysaccharide production in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol, 185(18), 5431-41. PMID: 12949095.

Boles, B. R., McCarter, L. L. (2002). Vibrio parahaemolyticus scrABC, a novel operon affecting swarming and capsular polysaccharide regulation. J Bacteriol, 184(21), 5946-54. PMID: 12374828.

McCarter, L. L. (2001). Polar flagellar motility of the Vibrionaceae. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 65, 445-62, table of contents. PMID: 11528005.

Gestwicki, J. E., Lamanna, A. C., Harshey, R. M., McCarter, L. L., Kiessling, L. L. & Adler, J. (2000). Evolutionary conservation of methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein location in Bacteria and Archaea. J Bacteriol, 182(22), 6499-502. PMID: 11053396.

Enos-Berlage, J. L., McCarter, L. L. (2000). Relation of capsular polysaccharide production and colonial cell organization to colony morphology in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol, 182(19), 5513-20. PMID: 10986256.

McCarter, L. L. (2000). Surface-induced gene expression in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In D. Bartlett (Eds.) Molecular Marine Microbiology. pp. 99. Horizon Scientific Press, Norfolk, England.

Boles, B. R., McCarter, L. L. (2000). Insertional inactivation of genes encoding components of the sodium-type flagellar motor and switch of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol, 182(4), 1035-45. PMID: 10648530.

Kim, Y. K., McCarter, L. L. (2000). Analysis of the polar flagellar gene system of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol, 182(13), 3693-704. PMID: 10850984.

Jaques, S., Kim, Y. K. & McCarter, L. L. (1999). Mutations conferring resistance to phenamil and amiloride, inhibitors of sodium-driven motility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96(10), 5740-5. PMID: 10318954.

McCarter, L. L. (1999). The multiple identities of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol, 1, 51-7. PMID: 10941784.

McCarter, L. L. (1998). OpaR, a homolog of Vibrio harveyi LuxR, controls opacity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol, 180(12), 3166-73. PMID: 9620967.

Stewart, B. J., Enos-Berlage, J. L. & McCarter, L. L. (1997). The lonS gene regulates swarmer cell differentiation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol, 179(1), 107-14. PMID: 8981986.

Kawagishi, I., Imagawa, M., Imae, Y., McCarter, L. L. & Homma, M. (1996). The sodium-driven polar flagellar motor of marine Vibrio as the mechanosensor that regulates lateral flagellar expression. Mol Microbiol, 20(4), 693-9. PMID: 8793868.

Stewart, B. J., McCarter, L. L. (1996). Vibrio parahaemolyticus FlaJ, a homologue of FliS, is required for production of a flagellin. Mol Microbiol, 20(1), 137-49. PMID: 8861212.

McCarter, L. L. (1995). Genetic and molecular characterization of the polar flagellum of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol, 177(6), 1595-609. PMID: 7883718.

McCarter, L. L. (1994). MotY, a component of the sodium-type flagellar motor. J Bacteriol, 176(14), 4219-25. PMID: 8021208.

McCarter, L. L. (1994). MotX, the channel component of the sodium-type flagellar motor. J Bacteriol, 176(19), 5988-98. PMID: 7928960.

McCarter, L. L., Wright, M. E. (1993). Identification of genes encoding components of the swarmer cell flagellar motor and propeller and a sigma factor controlling differentiation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol, 175(11), 3361-71. PMID: 8501040.

Atsumi, T., McCarter, L. L. & Imae, Y. (1992). Polar and lateral flagellar motors of marine Vibrio are driven by different ion-motive forces. Nature, 355(6356), 182-4. PMID: 1309599.

Silverman, M., Showalter, R. & McCarter, L. L. (1991). Genetic analysis in vibrio. Methods Enzymol, 204, 515-36. PMID: 1943785.

McCarter, L. L., Silverman, M. (1990). Surface-induced swarmer cell differentiation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Mol Microbiol, 4, 1057-62. PMID: 2233248.

Sar, N., McCarter, L. L., Simon, M. & Silverman, M. (1990). Chemotactic control of the two flagellar systems of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol, 172(1), 334-41. PMID: 2294089.

McCarter, L. L., Silverman, M. (1989). Iron regulation of swarmer cell differentiation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol, 171(2), 731-6. PMID: 2914871.

McCarter, L. L., Hilmen, M. & Silverman, M. (1988). Flagellar dynamometer controls swarmer cell differentiation of V. parahaemolyticus. Cell, 54(3), 345-51. PMID: 3396074.

McCarter, L. L., Silverman, M. (1987). Phosphate regulation of gene expression in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol, 169(8), 3441-9. PMID: 3038839.

Simon, M., Belas, R., McCarter, L. L., Bartlett, D. & Silverman, M. (1987). Microbial role of biodeterioration. In M. F. Thompson , R. Sarojini , R. Nagabhushanam (Eds.) Marine Biodeterioration: Advanced Techniques Applicable to the Indian Ocean. pp. 265-86. American Institute of Biological Sciences, Oxford, and IBH Publishing, New Delhi, India.

Belas, R., McCarter, L. L., Simon, M. & Silverman, M. (1985). Recognition of surfaces by Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In R. Colwell , E. Paviser , A. Sinskey (Eds.) Biotechnology of marine polysaccharides. pp. 131-45. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual MIT Sea Grant Lecture, Hemisphere, NY.

McCarter, L. L., Krajewska-Grynkiewicz, K., Trinh, D., Wei, G. & Kustu, S. (1984). Characterization of mutations that lie in the promoter-regulatory region for glnA, the structural gene encoding glutamine synthetase. Mol Gen Genet, 197(1), 150-60. PMID: 6151113.

McFarland, N., McCarter, L. L., Artz, S. & Kustu, S. (1982). Characterization of ?glnA + phages used as templates for in vitro synthesis of glutamine synthetase. Mol Gen Genet, 185(1), 152-7.

McFarland, N., McCarter, L. L., Artz, S. & Kustu, S. (1981). Nitrogen regulatory locus "glnR" of enteric bacteria is composed of cistrons ntrB and ntrC: identification of their protein products. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 78(4), 2135-9. PMID: 6113591.

Kustu, S., Burton, D., Garcia, E., McCarter, L. L. & McFarland, N. (1980). Nitrogen regulation in Salmonella typhimurium. In J. Mora , R. Palacios (Eds.) Glutamine: Metabolism, Enzymology, and Regulation. pp. 95-105. Academic Press, New York.

Kustu, S., Burton, D., Garcia, E., McCarter, L. L. & McFarland, N. (1979). Nitrogen control in Salmonella: regulation by the glnR and glnF gene products. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 76(9), 4576-80. PMID: 41244.