Natalie Denburg, MA, PhD

Portrait
Specialty: Cognitive Neuroscience
Associate Professor of Neurology

Contact Information

Primary Office: 2155 RCP
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-356-7619

Education

BA, Psychology, State University of New York at Binghamton
MA, Psychology, Michigan State University
PhD, Clinical Psychology, Michigan State University

Internship, Adult and Child Neuropsychology, University of California, San Diego
Fellow, Clinical Neuropsychology, University of Iowa College of Medicine

Licensure and Certifications

State Board of Psychology Examiners - State of Iowa

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience

Research Summary

Natalie Denburg, Ph.D., is an assistant professor of neurology and neuroscience at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine. Her research interests involve the neural basis of decision-making abilities in older adults, consumer, medical and financial decision making, neuroepidemiology, social and affective neuroscience, and cancer survivorship.

Publications

Moreno, G. L., Bruss, J. & Denburg, N. L. (2017). Increased perceived stress is related to decreased prefrontal cortex volumes among older adults. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, 39(4), 313-325. PMID: 27615373.

Warren, D. E., Denburg, N. L., Power, J. D., Bruss, J., Waldron, E. J., Sun, H., Petersen, S. E. & Tranel, D. (2017). Brain Network Theory Can Predict Whether Neuropsychological Outcomes Will Differ from Clinical Expectations. Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists, 32(1), 40-52. PMID: 27789443.

Folts, E., Denburg, N. L. & Moreno, G. (2016). Risk Taking in Older Adulthood. In Encyclopedia of Geropsychology. pp. 1–6. Springer Singapore.

Halfmann, K., Hedgcock, W., Kable, J. & Denburg, N. L. (2016). Individual differences in the neural signature of subjective value among older adults. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 11(7), 1111-20. PMID: 26089342.

Koestner, B. P., Hedgcock, W., Halfmann, K. & Denburg, N. L. (2016). The Role of the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Purchase Intent Among Older Adults. Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 8, 189. PMID: 27536238.

Ramchandran, K., Colbert, A. E., Brown, K. G., Denburg, N. L. & Tranel, D. (2016). Exploring the Neuropsychological Antecedents of Transformational Leadership: the Role of Executive Function. Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology, 2(4), 325-343. DOI: 10.1007/s40750-016-0051-y.

Denburg, N. L., Hedgcock, W. M. (2015). Age-Associated Executive Dysfunction, the Prefrontal Cortex, and Complex Decision Making. In Aging and Decision Making. pp. 79-101. Elsevier BV. DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-417148-0.00005-4.

Yamada, T. H., Denburg, N. L. & Tranel, D. (2015). Approach to the Patient with Memory Impairment. In Practical Neurology. (5th), pp. 33-44. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer.

Levin, I. P., McElroy, T., Gaeth, G. J., Hedgcock, W., Denburg, N. L. & Tranel, D. (2015). Studying decision processes through behavioral and neuroscience analyses of framing effects. In Neuroeconomics, judgment, and decision making. pp. 131–156. New York, NY, US: Psychology Press.

Derksen, B. J., Duff, M. C., Weldon, K., Zhang, J., Zamba, K. D., Tranel, D. & Denburg, N. L. (2015). Older adults catch up to younger adults on a learning and memory task that involves collaborative social interaction. Memory (Hove, England), 23(4), 612-24. PMID: 24841619.

Ponto, L. L., Menda, Y., Magnotta, V. A., Yamada, T. H., Denburg, N. L. & Schultz, S. K. (2015). Frontal hypometabolism in elderly breast cancer survivors determined by [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET): a pilot study. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 30(6), 587-94. PMID: 25176562.

Weller, J. A., Buchanan, T. W., Shackleford, C., Morganstern, A., Hartman, J. J., Yuska, J. & Denburg, N. L. (2014). Diurnal cortisol rhythm is associated with increased risky decision-making in older adults. Psychology and aging, 29(2), 271-83. PMID: 24955995.

Warren, D. E., Power, J. D., Bruss, J., Denburg, N. L., Waldron, E. J., Sun, H., Petersen, S. E. & Tranel, D. (2014). Network measures predict neuropsychological outcome after brain injury. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(39), 14247-52. PMID: 25225403.

Levin, I. P., McElroy, T., Gaeth, G. J., Hedgcock, W. & Denburg, N. L. (2014). Behavioral and neuroscience methods for studying neuroeconomic processes: What we can learn from framing effects. In The neuroscience of risky decision making.. pp. 43-69. American Psychological Association (APA). DOI: 10.1037/14322-003.

Kershaw, K. N., Brenes, G. A., Charles, L. E., Coday, M., Daviglus, M. L., Denburg, N. L., Kroenke, C. H., Safford, M. M., Savla, T., Tindle, H. A., Tinker, L. F. & Van Horn, L. (2014). Associations of stressful life events and social strain with incident cardiovascular disease in the Women's Health Initiative. Journal of the American Heart Association, 3(3), e000687. PMID: 24973226.

Dehning, M., Kim, J., Nguyen, C. M., Shivapour, E. & Denburg, N. L. (2014). Neuropsychological performance, brain imaging, and driving violations in multiple sclerosis. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 95(10), 1818-23. PMID: 24929025.

Halfmann, K., Hedgcock, W., Bechara, A. & Denburg, N. L. (2014). Functional neuroimaging of the Iowa Gambling Task in older adults. Neuropsychology, 28(6), 870-80. PMID: 25068669.

Nguyen, C. M., Yamada, T. H., Beglinger, L. J., Cavanaugh, J. E., Denburg, N. L. & Schultz, S. K. (2013). Cognitive features 10 or more years after successful breast cancer survival: comparisons across types of cancer interventions. Psycho-oncology, 22(4), 862-8. PMID: 22585465.

Baur, A., Timpe, J., Edmonds, E. C., Bechara, A., Tranel, D. & Denburg, N. L. (2013). Myopia for the future or a positivity bias? Performance of older adults on two versions of the Iowa Gambling Task. Emotion, 13(1), 19-24.

Uebelacker, L. A., Eaton, C., Weisberg, R., Sands, M., Williams, C., Calhoun, D., Manson, J., Taylor, T. & Denburg, N. L. (2013). Social support and physical activity as moderators of life stress in predicting change in depression over time in the Women’s Health Initiative study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 48(12), 1971-1982. DOI: 10.1007/s00127-013-0693-z.

Nguyen, C. M., Barrash, J., Koenigs, A. L., Bechara, A., Tranel, D. & Denburg, N. L. (2013). Decision-making deficits in normal elderly persons associated with executive personality disturbances. International Psychogeriatrics, 25(11), 1811–1819. DOI: 10.1017/S1041610213001270.

Halfmann, K., Hedgcock, W. & Denburg, N. L. (2013). Age-Related Differences in Discounting Future Gains and Losses. Journal of neuroscience, psychology, and economics, 6(1), 42-54. PMID: 24976878.

Xiao, L., Wood, S. M., Denburg, N. L., Moreno, G. L., Hernandez, M. & Bechara, A. (2013). Is there a recovery of decision-making function after frontal lobe damage? A study using variant versions of the Iowa Gambling Task. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 35(5), 518-529.

Ammann, E. M., Pottala, J. V., Harris, W. S., Espeland, M. A., Wallace, R., Denburg, N. L., Carnahan, R. M. & Robinson, J. G. (2013). ?-3 fatty acids and domain-specific cognitive aging: secondary analyses of data from WHISCA. Neurology, 81(17), 1484-91. PMID: 24068783.

Asp, E., Manzel, K., Koestner, B., Denburg, N. L. & Tranel, D. (2013). Benefit of the doubt: a new view of the role of the prefrontal cortex in executive functioning and decision making. Frontiers in neuroscience, 7, 86. PMID: 23745103.

Asp, E., Manzel, K., Koestner, B., Cole, C. A., Denburg, N. L. & Tranel, D. (2012). A neuropsychological test of belief and doubt: damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex increases credulity for misleading advertising. Frontiers in neuroscience, 6, 100. PMID: 22787439.

Tranel, D., Yamada, T. H. & Denburg, N. L. (2012). Approach to the patient with memory impairment. In J. Biller (Eds.) Practical Neurology (4th ed.). Lippincott-Raven.

Philippi, C. L., Duff, M. C., Denburg, N. L., Tranel, D. & Rudrauf, D. (2012). Medial PFC damage abolishes the self-reference effect. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 24(2), 475-81. PMID: 21942762.

Shivapour, S. K., Nguyen, C. M., Cole, C. A. & Denburg, N. L. (2012). Effects of age, sex, and neuropsychological performance on financial decision-making. Frontiers in neuroscience, 6, 82. PMID: 22715322.

Harshman, L. A., Barron, S., Button, A. M., Smith, B. J., Link, B. K., Lynch, C. F. & Denburg, N. L. (2012). Population-based exploration of academic achievement outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors. Journal of pediatric psychology, 37(4), 458-66. PMID: 22271791.

Waters, S. M., Xiao, L., Hernandez, M., Bechara, A. & Denburg, N. L. (2012). Failure to learn from repeated mistakes: Persistent decision-making impairment as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task in patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society.

Goveas, J. S., Hogan, P. E., Kotchen, J. M., Smoller, J. W., Manson, J., Tummala, A., Mysiw, W. J., Ockene, J. K., Woods, N. F., Espeland, M. A., Smoller-Wassertheil, S. & Denburg, N. L. (2012). Depressive symptoms, antidepressant use, and future cognitive health in postmenopausal women: The Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study. International Psychogeriatrics.

Beadle, J. N., Paradiso, S., Kovach, C., Polgreen, L., Denburg, N. L. & Tranel, D. (2012). Effects of age-related differences in empathy on social economic decision-making. International psychogeriatrics / IPA, 24(5), 822-33. PMID: 22237008.

Ramchandran, K., Nayakankuppam, D. J., Berg, J., Tranel, D. & Denburg, N. L. (2011). Can the market protect the aging brain?. Neuropsychologia, 49, 2533-2540.

Nguyen, C. M., Koenigs, M., Yamada, T. H., Teo, S. H., Cavanaugh, J. E., Tranel, D. & Denburg, N. L. (2011). Trustworthiness and negative affect predict economic decision-making. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23, 748-759.

Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L. (2011). Acalculia and disturbances of the body schema. In K. M. Heilman , E. Valenstein (Eds.) Clinical Neuropsychology (5th ed.). pp. 169-197. Oxford.

Weller, J., Levin, I. & Denburg, N. L. (2011). Trajectory of adaptive decision making for risky gains and losses from ages 5 to 85. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 24, 331-344.

Beglinger, L. J., Mills, J. A., Vik, S. M., Duff, K., Denburg, N. L., Weckmann, M. T., Paulsen, J. S. & Gingrich, R. (2011). The neuropsychological course of acute delirium in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients. Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists, 26(2), 98-109. PMID: 21183605.

Shih, R. A., Ghosh-Dastidar, B., Margolis, K. L., Slaughter, M. E., Jewell, A., Bird, C. E., Eibner, C., Ockene, J., Messina, C. R., Espeland, M. A. & Denburg, N. L. (2011). Neighborhood socioeconomic status and cognitive function in women. American Journal of Public Health, 101, 1721-1728.

Ramchandran, K., Nayakankuppam, D., Berg, J., Tranel, D. & Denburg, N. L. (2011). Market mechanisms protect the vulnerable brain. Neuropsychologia, 49(9), 2533-40. PMID: 21600226.

Calamia, M., Markon, K., Denburg, N. L. & Tranel, D. (2011). Developing a short form of Benton's Judgment of Line Orientation Test: an item response theory approach. The Clinical neuropsychologist, 25(4), 670-84. PMID: 21469016.

Timpe, J., Rowe, K. C., Matsui, J., Magnotta, V. A. & Denburg, N. L. (2011). White matter integrity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging, distinguishes between impaired and unimpaired older adult decision-makers: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23, 760-767.

Harshman, L., Denburg, N. L. (2010). Why so many seniors get swindled: Brain anomalies and poor decision-making in older adults. In The Dana Foundation’s Cerebrum: Emerging Ideas in Brain Science. pp. 123-131. Dana Press.

Yamada, T. H., Denburg, N. L., Beglinger, L. J. & Schultz, S. K. (2010). Neuropsychological outcomes of older breast cancer survivors: cognitive features ten or more years after chemotherapy. The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 22(1), 48-54. PMID: 20160209.

Hourcade, J. P., Nguyen, C. M., Perry, K. B. & Denburg, N. L. (2010). PointAssist for older adults: Analyzing sub-movement characteristics to aid in pointing tasks. ACM Press, 1115-1124.

Schneider-Bakos, D. D., Fonesca, R. P., Parente, M. A. & Denburg, N. L. (2010). A cultural study on decision-making: Performance differences on the Iowa Gambling Task between selected groups of Brazilians and Americans. Psychology & Neuroscience, 3, 101-107.

Denburg, N. L. (2009). Research featured in the journal of the Dana Foundation, Cerebrum. In Cerebrum. the Dana Foundation.

Gupta, R., Duff, M. C., Denburg, N. L., Cohen, N. J., Bechara, A. & Tranel, D. (2009). Declarative memory is critical for sustained advantageous complex decision-making. Neuropsychologia, 47(7), 1686-93. PMID: 19397863.

Denburg, N. L. (2009). Why so many seniors get swindled: Brain anomalies and poor decision-making in older adults. Cerebrum: Emerging Ideas in Brain Science.

Denburg, N. L., Weller, J. A., Yamada, T. H., Shivapour, D. M., Kaup, A. R., LaLoggia, A., Cole, C. A., Tranel, D. & Bechara, A. (2009). Poor decision making among older adults is related to elevated levels of neuroticism. Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 37(2), 164-72. PMID: 19350336.

Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L. (2009). Approach to the patient with memory impairment. In J. Biller (Eds.) Practical Neurology (3rd ed.). Lippincott-Raven.

Krajbich, I., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Camerer, C. & Denburg, N. L. (2009). Economic games quantify diminished sense of guilt in patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 2188-1292.

Denburg, N. L., Jones, R. D. & Tranel, D. (2009). Recognition without awareness in a patient with simultanagnosia. International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology, 72(1), 5-12. PMID: 18824046.

Hernandez, M., Tranel, D. & Denburg, N. L. (2009). Decision-making, aging, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In J. C. Dreher , L. Tremblay (Eds.) Handbook of Reward and Decision Making. pp. 291-306. Elsevier Press.

Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L. (2008). Agnosia. In L. R. Squire (Eds.) New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Elsevier.

Anderson, S. W., Tranel, D. & Denburg, N. L. (2008). Agraphia. In L. R. Squire (Eds.) New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Elsevier.

Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L. (2008). Alexia. In L. R. Squire (Eds.) New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Elsevier.

Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L. (2008). Balint’s syndrome. In L. R. Squire (Eds.) New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Elsevier.

Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L. (2008). Prosopagnosia. In L. R. Squire (Eds.) New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Elsevier.

McDade-Montez, E. A., Watson, D., O'Hara, M. W. & Denburg, N. L. (2008). The effect of symptom visibility on informant reporting. Psychology and aging, 23(4), 940-6. PMID: 19140663.

Denburg, N. L. (2008). Research featured in the New York Times column Vital Signs. the New York Times.

Barrash, J., Denburg, N. L. (2007). Iowa Scales of Personality Change: Adaptation for Healthy Adults. University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Department of Neurology.

Cole, C. A., Hernandez, M., Yamada, T. H., Tranel, D., Bechara, A., Wallace, R. B. & Denburg, N. L. (2007). The orbitofrontal cortex, real-world decision-making, and normal aging. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1121, 480-498. DOI: 10.1196/annals.1401.031.

Barrash, J., Denburg, N. L., Moser, D. J., Woolson, R. F., Schumacher, A. J. & Doebbeling, B. N. (2007). Credibility of neuropsychological performances of Persian Gulf War veterans and military control subjects participating in clinical epidemiological research. Military medicine, 172(7), 697-707. PMID: 17691681.

Denburg, N. L., Recknor, E. C., Bechara, A. & Tranel, D. (2006). Psychophysiological anticipation of positive outcomes promotes advantageous decision-making in normal older persons. International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology, 61(1), 19-25. PMID: 16426691.

Denburg, N. L., Tranel, D. & Bechara, A. (2005). The ability to decide advantageously declines prematurely in some normal older persons. Neuropsychologia, 43(7), 1099-106. PMID: 15769495.

Bar-On, R., Tranel, D., Bechara, A. & Denburg, N. L. (2005). Exploring the neurological substrate of emotional and social intelligence. Social Neuroscience/Psychology Press, 223-237.

Tranel, D., Damasio, H., Denburg, N. L. & Bechara, A. (2005). Does gender play a role in functional asymmetry of ventromedial prefrontal cortex?. Brain : a journal of neurology, 128(Pt 12), 2872-81. PMID: 16195242.

Martin, C. O., Denburg, N. L., Tranel, D., Granner, M. A. & Bechara, A. (2004). The effects of vagus nerve stimulation on decision-making. Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior, 40(4-5), 605-12. PMID: 15505970.

Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L. (2003). Alexia. In , G. Adelman , B. H. Smith (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. (3rd edition) Elsevier.

Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L. (2003). Acalculia and disturbances of the body schema. In , K. M. Heilman , E. Valenstein (Eds.) Clinical Neuropsychology. (4th edition), pp. 161-184. Oxford.

Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L. (2003). Agnosia. In , G. Adelman , B. H. Smith (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. (3rd edition) Elsevier.

Anderson, S. W., Tranel, D. & Denburg, N. L. (2003). Agraphia. In , G. Adelman & B. H. Smith (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. (3rd edition) Elsevier.

Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L. (2003). Prosopagnosia. In , G. Adelman , B. H. Smith (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (3rd ed.). (3rd ed.) Elsevier.

Fastenau, P. S., Abeles, N. & Denburg, N. L. (2003). The ROCF and the ECFT: A lifespan perspective. In , J. A. Knight & E. Kaplan (Eds.) The Handbook of Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Usage: Clinical and Research Applications. pp. 335-347. Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc..

Denburg, N. L., Buchanan, T. W., Tranel, D. & Adolphs, R. (2003). Evidence for preserved emotional memory in normal older persons. Emotion (Washington, D.C.), 3(3), 239-53. PMID: 14498794.

Bar-On, R., Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L. & Bechara, A. (2003). Exploring the neurological substrate of emotional and social intelligence. Brain : a journal of neurology, 126(Pt 8), 1790-800. PMID: 12805102.

Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L. (2003). Approach to the patient with memory impairment. In , J. Biller (Eds.) Practical Neurology (2nd ed.). (2nd ed.), pp. 40-53. Lippincott-Raven.

Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L. (2003). Balint’s syndrome. In , G. Adelman , B. H. Smith (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (3rd ed.). (3rd ed.) Elsevier.

Tranel, D., Bechara, A. & Denburg, N. L. (2002). Asymmetric functional roles of right and left ventromedial prefrontal cortices in social conduct, decision-making, and emotional processing. Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior, 38(4), 589-612. PMID: 12465670.

Persad, C. C., Abeles, N., Zacks, R. T. & Denburg, N. L. (2002). Inhibitory changes after age 60 and the relationship to measures of attention and memory. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 57, 223-232.

Tranel, D., Bechara, A., Damasio, A. R. & Denburg, N. L. (2001). Normal aging may compromise the ability to decide advantageously. Brain and Cognition, 47, 156-159.

Buchanan, T. W., Denburg, N. L., Tranel, D. & Adolphs, R. (2001). Verbal and nonverbal emotional memory following unilateral amygdala damage. Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.), 8(6), 326-35. PMID: 11773432.

Adolphs, R., Denburg, N. L. & Tranel, D. (2001). The amygdala's role in long-term declarative memory for gist and detail. Behavioral neuroscience, 115(5), 983-92. PMID: 11584931.

Buchanan, T. W., Tranel, D., Adolphs, R. & Denburg, N. L. (2001). Verbal and visual emotional memory following unilateral amygdala damage. Learning and Memory, 8, 326-335.

Bechara, A., Dolan, S., Denburg, N., Hindes, A., Anderson, S. W. & Nathan, P. E. (2001). Decision-making deficits, linked to a dysfunctional ventromedial prefrontal cortex, revealed in alcohol and stimulant abusers. Neuropsychologia, 39(4), 376-89. PMID: 11164876.

Adolphs, R., Tranel, D. & Denburg, N. (2000). Impaired emotional declarative memory following unilateral amygdala damage. Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.), 7(3), 180-6. PMID: 10837507.

Fastenau, P. S., Denburg, N. L. (1999). Modality, intentionality, age and verbal memory: Extension of the resource-reduction model of aging memory. Brain and Cognition, 39, 28-32.

Fastenau, P. S., Koehly, L. M., Ables, N. & Denburg, N. L. (1999). Modeling the contributions of processing resources to executive functioning and memory in older adults. Brain and Cognition, 39, 22-25.

Fastenau, P. S., Hufford, B. J. & Denburg, N. L. (1999). Adult norms for the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and for supplemental recognition and matching trials from the Extended Complex Figure Test (ECFT). The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 13, 30-47.

Fastenau, P. S., Mauer, B. A. & Denburg, N. L. (1998). Parallel short forms for the Boston Naming Test: Psychometric properties and elder norms. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Psychology, 20, 828-834.

Fastenau, P. S., Domitrovic, L. A. & Denburg, N. L. (1997). Intentional and incidental memory: Order effects in clinical testing. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 32-35.

Denburg, N. L. (1997). Attentional abilities in the able elderly: Examination of structure, correlates, and self-report. United States – Michigan: Michigan State University.

Fastenau, P. S., Abeles, N. & Denburg, N. L. (1996). The role of attention in aging retrieval: Relative sparing with greater visual involvement. Brain and Cognition, 30, 393-396.

Fastenau, P. S., Bennett, J. M. & Denburg, N. L. (1996). Application of psychometric standards to scoring system evaluation: Is "new" necessarily "improved"?. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 18, 462-472.

Fastenau, P. S., Abeles, N. & Denburg, N. L. (1996). Age differences in retrieval: Further support for the resource-reduction hypothesis. Psychology and Aging, 11, 140-146.