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Thorsten Rudroff, PhD

Assistant Professor of Health and Human Physiology
Assistant Professor of Neurology - Movement Disorders

Contact Information

Primary Office
E432 Field House


MS, Exercise Physiology, German Sports University
MS, Physical Therapy, German Association of Sports Therapy
PhD, Exercise Physiology, University of Constance, Germany
Postdoctoral Scholar, Neurophysiology of Movement, University of Colorado
Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Neurophysiology of Movement, University of Colorado


Workman, C., Kindred, j., Ponto, L., Kamholz, J. & Rudroff, T. (2020). The effects of chronic ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) use on cerebral glucose metabolism in multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism.

(2020). Different effects of 2 mA and 4 mA transcranial direct current stimulation on muscle activity and torque in a maximal isokinetic fatigue task. Frontiers in Human Neurosciences
Brain Imaging and Stimulation.

(2020). Response Variability in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Why Sex Matters. Frontiers in Psychiatry, Jun 19(11).

(In Press). Different effects of 2 mA and 4 mA transcranial direct current stimulation on muscle activity and torque in a maximal isokinetic fatigue task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Brain Imaging and Stimulation.

(In Press). Response variability in transcranial direct current stimulation: Why sex matters. Frontiers in Psychiatry
Neuroimaging and Stimulation.

(2020). Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation at 4 mA Induces Greater Leg Muscle Fatigability in Women Compared to Men.

(2020). Imaging Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) with Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Brain Sciences.

(2020). Associations of lower limb joint asymmetry with fatigue and disability in people with multiple sclerosis. Clinical Biomechanics.

(2020). Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in People with Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study. Brain Sciences.

(2020). No Immediate Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation at Various Intensities on Cerebral Blood Flow in People with Multiple Sclerosis. Brain Sciences.

(2020). The tolerability and efficacy of 4 mA transcranial direct current stimulation on leg muscle fatigability. Brain Sciences.

(2020). Increased leg muscle fatigability during 2 mA and 4 mA transcranial direct current stimulation over the left motor cortex. Experimental Brain Research.

(2019). Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) to Improve Gait in Multiple Sclerosis: A Timing Window Comparison. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

(2019). Cannabis for Neuropathic Pain in Multiple Sclerosis – High Expectations, Poor Data. Frontiers in Pharmacology.

Rudroff, T., Proessl, F., Kamholz, J. & Ponto, L. L. (2019). Increased thalamic activity and less neuropathic pain after tDCS observed with PET in a patient with multiple sclerosis: A case report. (Vols. 12). (1), pp. 198-199. Brain stimulation. PMID: 30322820.

Kindred, J. H., Honce, J. M., Kwak, J. J. & Rudroff, T. (2018). Multiple Sclerosis, Cannabis Use, and Clinical Disability: A Preliminary [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Study. Cannabis and cannabinoid research, 3(1), 213-218. PMID: 30324138.

Ketelhut, N. B., Kindred, J. H., Pimentel, R. E., Hess, A. M., Tracy, B. L., Reiser, R. F. & Rudroff, T. (2018). Functional factors that are important correlates to physical activity in people with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Disability and rehabilitation, 40(20), 2416-2423. PMID: 28589732.

Proessl, F., Ketelhut, N. B. & Rudroff, T. (2018). No association of leg strength asymmetry with walking ability, fatigability, and fatigue in multiple sclerosis. International journal of rehabilitation research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Rehabilitationsforschung. Revue internationale de recherches de readaptation, 41(3), 267-269. PMID: 29517640.

Proessl, F., Swanson, C. W., Rudroff, T., Fling, B. W. & Tracy, B. L. (2018). Good agreement between smart device and inertial sensor-based gait parameters during a 6-min walk. Gait & posture, 64, 63-67. PMID: 29859414.

Rudroff, T., Proessl, F. (2018). Effects of Muscle Function and Limb Loading Asymmetries on Gait and Balance in People With Multiple Sclerosis. Frontiers in physiology, 9, 531. PMID: 29867571.

Rudroff, T., Sosnoff, J. (2018). Cannabidiol to Improve Mobility in People with Multiple Sclerosis. Frontiers in neurology, 9, 183. PMID: 29623067.

Rudroff, T., Ketelhut, N. B. & Kindred, J. H. (2018). Metabolic imaging in exercise physiology. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 124(2), 497-503. PMID: 28153945.

Proessl, F., Poston, B. & Rudroff, T. (2018). Does a single application of anodal tDCS improve knee extensor fatigability in people with multiple sclerosis?. (Vols. 11). (6), pp. 1388-1390. Brain stimulation. PMID: 30146429.

Kindred, J. H., Li, K., Ketelhut, N. B., Proessl, F., Fling, B. W., Honce, J. M., Shaffer, W. R. & Rudroff, T. (2017). Cannabis use in people with Parkinson's disease and Multiple Sclerosis: A web-based investigation. Complementary therapies in medicine, 33, 99-104. PMID: 28735833.

Rudroff, T., Honce, J. M. (2017). Cannabis and Multiple Sclerosis-The Way Forward. Frontiers in neurology, 8, 299. PMID: 28690588.

Kindred, J. H., Ketelhut, N. B., Benson, J. M. & Rudroff, T. (2016). FDG-PET detects nonuniform muscle activity in the lower body during human gait. Muscle & nerve, 54(5), 959-966. PMID: 27011051.

Rudroff, T., Kindred, J. H. & Ketelhut, N. B. (2016). Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Misconceptions and Future Research Directions. Frontiers in neurology, 7, 122. PMID: 27531990.

Kindred, J. H., Tuulari, J. J., Simon, S., Luckasen, G. J., Bell, C. & Rudroff, T. (2016). Brown adipose and central nervous system glucose uptake is lower during cold exposure in older compared to young men: a preliminary PET study. Aging clinical and experimental research, 28(3), 557-60. PMID: 26754046.

Hebert, J. R., Kindred, J. H., Bucci, M., Tuulari, J. J., Brenner, L. A., Forster, J. E., Koo, P. J. & Rudroff, T. (2016). Cognitive-Motor Related Brain Activity During Walking: Differences Between Men and Women With Multiple Sclerosis. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 97(1), 61-6. PMID: 26450771.

Rudroff, T., Kindred, J. H. & Kalliokoski, K. K. (2015). [18F]-FDG positron emission tomography--an established clinical tool opening a new window into exercise physiology. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 118(10), 1181-90. PMID: 25767034.

Kindred, J. H., Kalliokoski, K. K., Bojsen-Møller, J. & Rudroff, T. (2015). Regional differences of [(18)F]-FDG uptake within the brain during fatiguing muscle contractions. Brain and behavior, 5(4), e00319. PMID: 25798334.

Kindred, J. H., Tuulari, J. J., Bucci, M., Kalliokoski, K. K. & Rudroff, T. (2015). Walking Speed and Brain Glucose Uptake are Uncoupled in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 9, 84. PMID: 25741275.

Kindred, J. H., Ketelhut, N. B. & Rudroff, T. (2015). Glucose uptake heterogeneity of the leg muscles is similar between patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls during walking. Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon), 30(2), 159-65. PMID: 25541392.

Ketelhut, N. B., Kindred, J. H., Manago, M. M., Hebert, J. R. & Rudroff, T. (2015). Core muscle characteristics during walking of patients with multiple sclerosis. Journal of rehabilitation research and development, 52(6), 713-24. PMID: 26562753.

Kindred, J. H., Koo, P. J. & Rudroff, T. (2014). Glucose uptake of the spinal cord in patients with multiple sclerosis detected by ¹8F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT after walking. Spinal cord, 52 Suppl 3, S11-3. PMID: 25376308.

Rudroff, T., Holmes, M. R., Melanson, E. L. & Kelsey, M. M. (2014). Sex differences in time to task failure during early pubertal development. Muscle & nerve, 49(6), 887-94. PMID: 24037802.

Rudroff, T., Kindred, J. H., Benson, J. M., Tracy, B. L. & Kalliokoski, K. K. (2014). Greater glucose uptake heterogeneity in knee muscles of old compared to young men during isometric contractions detected by [(18)F]-FDG PET/CT. Frontiers in physiology, 5, 198. PMID: 24904432.

Rudroff, T., Weissman, J. A., Bucci, M., Seppänen, M., Kaskinoro, K., Heinonen, I. & Kalliokoski, K. K. (2014). Positron emission tomography detects greater blood flow and less blood flow heterogeneity in the exercising skeletal muscles of old compared with young men during fatiguing contractions. The Journal of physiology, 592(2), 337-49. PMID: 24247981.

Rudroff, T., Kindred, J. H., Koo, P. J., Karki, R. & Hebert, J. R. (2014). Asymmetric glucose uptake in leg muscles of patients with Multiple Sclerosis during walking detected by [18F]-FDG PET/CT. NeuroRehabilitation, 35(4), 813-23. PMID: 25323085.

Rudroff, T., Kelsey, M. M., Melanson, E. L., McQueen, M. B. & Enoka, R. M. (2013). Associations between neuromuscular function and levels of physical activity differ for boys and girls during puberty. The Journal of pediatrics, 163(2), 349-54. PMID: 23415611.

Rudroff, T., Kalliokoski, K. K., Block, D. E., Gould, J. R., Klingensmith, 3rd, W. C. & Enoka, R. M. (2013). PET/CT imaging of age- and task-associated differences in muscle activity during fatiguing contractions. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 114(9), 1211-9. PMID: 23412899.

Gordon, N. M., Rudroff, T., Enoka, J. A. & Enoka, R. M. (2012). Handedness but not dominance influences variability in endurance time for sustained, submaximal contractions. Journal of neurophysiology, 108(5), 1501-10. PMID: 22696537.

Enoka, R. M., Baudry, S., Rudroff, T., Farina, D., Klass, M. & Duchateau, J. (2011). Unraveling the neurophysiology of muscle fatigue. Journal of electromyography and kinesiology : official journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology, 21(2), 208-19. PMID: 21071242.

Rudroff, T., Justice, J. N., Holmes, M. R., Matthews, S. D. & Enoka, R. M. (2011). Muscle activity and time to task failure differ with load compliance and target force for elbow flexor muscles. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 110(1), 125-36. PMID: 21030676.

Jesunathadas, M., Rudroff, T. & Enoka, R. M. (2010). Changes in muscle fascicles of tibialis anterior during anisometric contractions are not associated with motor-output variability of the ankle dorsiflexors in young and old adults. European journal of applied physiology, 110(6), 1175-86. PMID: 20714768.

Rudroff, T., Justice, J. N., Matthews, S., Zuo, R. & Enoka, R. M. (2010). Muscle activity differs with load compliance during fatiguing contractions with the knee extensor muscles. Experimental brain research, 203(2), 307-16. PMID: 20358188.

Rudroff, T., Jordan, K., Enoka, J. A., Matthews, S. D., Baudry, S. & Enoka, R. M. (2010). Discharge of biceps brachii motor units is modulated by load compliance and forearm posture. Experimental brain research, 202(1), 111-20. PMID: 20012532.

Mendez-Villanueva, A., Baudry, S., Riley, Z. A. & Rudroff, T. (2009). Influence of rest duration on muscle activation during submaximal intermittent contractions with the elbow flexor muscles. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 49(3), 255-64. PMID: 19884876.

Baudry, S., Rudroff, T., Pierpoint, L. A. & Enoka, R. M. (2009). Load type influences motor unit recruitment in biceps brachii during a sustained contraction. Journal of neurophysiology, 102(3), 1725-35. PMID: 19625539.

Staudenmann, D., Rudroff, T. & Enoka, R. M. (2009). Pronation-supination torque and associated electromyographic activity varies during a sustained elbow flexor contraction but does not influence the time to task failure. Muscle & nerve, 40(2), 231-9. PMID: 19358235.

Rudroff, T., Staudenmann, D. & Enoka, R. M. (2008). Electromyographic measures of muscle activation and changes in muscle architecture of human elbow flexors during fatiguing contractions. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 104(6), 1720-6. PMID: 18356480.

Rudroff, T., Christou, E. A., Poston, B., Bojsen-Møller, J. & Enoka, R. M. (2007). Time to failure of a sustained contraction is predicted by target torque and initial electromyographic bursts in elbow flexor muscles. Muscle & nerve, 35(5), 657-66. PMID: 17294440.

Christou, E. A., Rudroff, T., Enoka, J. A., Meyer, F. & Enoka, R. M. (2007). Discharge rate during low-force isometric contractions influences motor unit coherence below 15 Hz but not motor unit synchronization. Experimental brain research, 178(3), 285-95. PMID: 17091298.

Rudroff, T., Barry, B. K., Stone, A. L., Barry, C. J. & Enoka, R. M. (2007). Accessory muscle activity contributes to the variation in time to task failure for different arm postures and loads. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 102(3), 1000-6. PMID: 17095642.

Rudroff, T., Poston, B., Shin, I. S., Bojsen-Møller, J. & Enoka, R. M. (2005). Net excitation of the motor unit pool varies with load type during fatiguing contractions. Muscle & nerve, 31(1), 78-87. PMID: 15570580.

Rudroff, T. (2003). Functional capability is enhanced with semitendinosus than patellar tendon ACL repair. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 35(9), 1486-92. PMID: 12972866.