Matthew A. Howard, MD

Portrait
Chair and DEO, Department of Neurosurgery
John C. VanGilder Chair in Neurosurgery
Professor of Neurosurgery
Professor of Neurology
Professor of Otolaryngology

Contact Information

Office: 1823 JPP
200 Hawkins Dr
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-356-8468

Education

BS, Physics and Biology, Tufts University
MD, University of Virginia-Charlottesville

Internship, General Surgery, University of Washington
Post Doctoral Fellow, University of Pittsburgh
Post Doctoral Fellow, University of Washington
Fellow, Atkinson Morley's Hospital
Fellow, Epilepsy, University of Washington
Resident, Neurosurgery, University of Washington

Licensure and Certifications

Board Certified in Neurosurgery
Iowa Medical License - Iowa Board of Medicine
Washington Medical License - Washington Board of Medicine

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Medical Scientist Training Program

Research Summary

Epilepsy, Neural Basis of Audition

Publications

Jeffery, N. D., Bate, S. T., Safayi, S., Howard, M., Moon, L. & Jeffery, U. (2018). When neuroscience met clinical pathology: partitioning experimental variation to aid data interpretation in neuroscience. Eur J Neurosci, Epub ahead of print. PMID: 29380453.

Nourski, K. V., Banks, M. I., Steinschneider, M., Rhone, A. E., Kawasaki, H., Mueller, R. N., Todd, M. M. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2017). Electrocorticographic delineation of human auditory cortical fields based on effects of propofol anesthesia. Neuroimage, 152, 78-93. PMID: 28254512.

Nagahama, Y., Kovach, C. K., Ciliberto, M., Joshi, C., Rhone, A. E., Vesole, A., Gander, P. E., Nourski, K. V., Oya, H., Howard 3rd, M. A., Kawasaki, H. & Dlouhy, B. J. (2017). Localization of musicogenic epilepsy to Heschl's gyrus and superior temporal plane: case report. J Neurosurg, Epub ahead of print. PMID: 28946181.

Nagel, S. J., Wilson, S., Johnson, M. D., Machado, A., Frizon, L., Chardon, M. K., Reddy, C. G., Gillies, G. T. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2017). Spinal Cord Stimulation for Spasticity: Historical Approaches, Current Status, and Future Directions. Neuromodulation, 20(4), 307-21. PMID: 28370802.

Schoenfeld, J. D., Sibenaller, Z. A., Mapuskar, K. A., Wagner, B. A., Cramer-Morales, K. L., Furqan, M., Sandhu, S., Carlisle, T. L., Smith, M. C., Abu Hejleh, T., Berg, D. J., Zhang, J., Keech, J., Parekh, K. R., Bhatia, S., Monga, V., Bodeker, K. L., Ahmann, L., Vollstedt, S., Brown, H., Kauffman, E. P., Schall, M. E., Hohl, R. J., Clamon, G. H., Greenlee, J. D., Howard, M. A., Schultz, M. K., Smith, B. J., Riley, D. P., Domann, F. E., Cullen, J. J., Buettner, G. R., Buatti, J. M., Spitz, D. R. & Allen, B. G. (2017). O2·- and H2O2-Mediated Disruption of Fe Metabolism Causes the Differential Susceptibility of NSCLC and GBM Cancer Cells to Pharmacological Ascorbate. (Vols. 32). (2), pp. 268. Cancer Cell. PMID: 28810149.

Jareczek, E. J., Holland, M. T., Howard 3rd, M. A., Walch, T. & Abel, T. J. (2017). The origins and persistence of psychosurgery in the state of Iowa. Neurosurg Focus, 43(3), E8. PMID: 28859559.

Wilson, S., Abode-Iyamah, K. O., Miller, J. W., Reddy, C. G., Safayi, S., Fredericks, D. C., Jeffery, N. D., DeVries-Watson, N. A., Shivapour, S. K., Viljoen, S., Dalm, B. D., Gibson-Corley, K. N., Johnson, M. D., Gillies, G. T. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2017). An ovine model of spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med, 40(3), 346-60. PMID: 27759502.

Kikuchi, Y., Attaheri, A., Wilson, B., Rhone, A. E., Nourski, K. V., Gander, P. E., Kovach, C. K., Kawasaki, H., Griffiths, T. D., Howard 3rd, M. A. & Petkov, C. O. (2017). Sequence learning modulates neural responses and oscillatory coupling in human and monkey auditory cortex. PLoS Biol, 15(4), e2000219. PMID: 28441393.

Abel, T., Zanaty, M., Walch, T. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2017). From Russian Refugee to Iowa's First Neurosurgeon and Pioneer of Cranial Hemostasis: The Legacy of Anatole Kolodny (1892-1948). Neurosurgery, 80(1), 159-64. PMID: 28362895.

Oya, H., Howard, M. A., Magnotta, V. A., Kruger, A., Griffiths, T. D., Lemieux, L., Carmichael, D. W., Petkov, C. I., Kawasaki, H., Kovach, C. K., Sutterer, M. J. & Adolphs, R. (2017). Mapping effective connectivity in the human brain with concurrent intracranial electrical stimulation and BOLD-fMRI. J Neurosci Methods, 277, 101-12. PMID: 28012852.

Katlowitz, K. A., Oya, H., Howard 3rd, M. A., Greenlee, J. D. & Long, M. A. (2017). Paradoxical vocal changes in a trained singer by focally cooling the right superior temporal gyrus. Cortex, 89, 111-9. PMID: 28282570.

Schoenfeld, J. D., Sibenaller, Z. A., Mapuskar, K. A., Wagner, B. A., Cramer-Morales, K. L., Furqan, M., Sandhu, S., Carlisle, T. L., Smith, M. C., Abue Hejleh, T., Berg, D. J., Zhang, J., Keech, J., Parekh, K. R., Bhatia, S., Monga, V., Bodeker, K. L., Ahmann, L., Vollstedt, S., Brown, H., Shanahan Kauffman, E. P., Schall, M. E., Hohl, R. J., Clamon, G. H., Greenlee, J. D., Howard, M. A., Shultz, M. K., Smith, B. J., Riley, D. P., Domann, F. E., Cullen, J. J., Buettner, G. R., Buatti, J. M., Spitz, D. R. & Allen, B. G. (2017). O2·- and H2O2-Mediated Disruption of Fe Metabolism Causes the Differential Susceptibility of NSCLC and GBM Cancer Cells to Pharmacological Ascorbate. Cancer Cell, 31(4), 487-500.e8. PMID: 28366679.

Roche, J. P., Goates, A. J., Hasan, D. M., Howard, M. A., Menezes, A. H., Hansen, M. R. & Gantz, B. J. (2017). Treatment of Lateral Skull Base and Posterior Cranial Fossa Lesions Utilizing the Extended Middle Cranial Fossa Approach. Otol Neurotol, 38(5), 742-50. PMID: 28234787.

Baroni, F., van Kempen, J., Kawasaki, H., Kovach, C. K., Oya, H., Howard, M. A., Adolphs, R. & Tsuchiya, N. (2017). Intracranial markers of conscious face perception in humans. Neuroimage, 162, 322-43. PMID: 28882629.

Flouty, O., Reddy, C., Holland, M., Kovach, C., Oya, H., Grenlee, J., Hitchon, P., Howard, M. (2017). Precision surgery of rolandic glioma and insights from extended functional mapping. Clin Neurol Neurosurg, 163, 60-6. PMID: 29073500.

Jareczek, F. J., Abode-Iyamah, K. O., Cox, E. M., Dahdaleh, N. S., Hitchon, P. W. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2017). Letter: Reconsidering Bone Morphogenetic Protein in the Cervical Spine: Selective Use for Managing Type II Odontoid Fractures in the Elderly. (Vols. 13). (6), pp. E39-42. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). PMID: 29040717.

Nagahama, Y., Dlouhy, B. J., Nakagawa, D., Kamm, J., Hasan, D., Howard 3rd, M. A. & Kawasaki, H. (2017). Bone flap elevation for intracranial EEG monitoring: technical note. J Neurosurg, Epub ahead of print. PMID: 28946179.

Oya, H., Gander, P. E., Petkov, C. I., Adolphs, R., Nourski, K. V., Kawasaki, H., Howard, M. A. & Griffiths, T. D. (2017). Neural phase locking predicts BOLD response in human auditory cortex. Neuroimage, Epub ahead of print. PMID: 29274745.

Dacey, R. G., Flouty, O. E., Grady, M. S., Howard 3rd, M. A. & Mayberg, M. R. (2017). Shunt scissors: technical note. J Neurosurg, Epub ahead of print. PMID: 29219754.

Haun, A. M., Oizumi, M., Kovach, C. K., Kawasaki, H., Oya, H., Howard, M. A., Adolphs, R. & Tsuchiya, N. (2017). Conscious Perception as Integrated Information Patterns in Human Electrocorticography. eNeuro, 4(5), pii: ENEURO.0085-17.2017. PMID: 29085895.

Dubois, J., Oya, H., Tyszka, J. M., Howard 3rd, M., Eberhardt, F. & Adolphs, R. (2017). Causal Mapping of Emotion Networks in the Human Brain: Framework and Initial Findings. Neuropsycholgia, Epub ahead of print. PMID: 29146466.

Nagel, S. J., Reddy, C. G., Frizon, L. A., Holland, M. T., Machado, A. G., Gillies, G. T. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2017). Intrathecal Therapeutics: Device Design, Access Methods, and Complication Mitigation. Neuromodulation, Epub ahead of print. PMID: 28961351.

Abel, T. J., Woodroffe, R. W., Nourski, K. V., Moritani, T., Capizzano, A. A., Kirby, P., Kawasaki, H., Howard 3rd, M. & Werz, M. A. (2017). Role of the temporal pole in temporal lobe epilepsy seizure networks: an intracranial electrode investigation. J Neurosurg, Epub ahead of print. PMID: 29027858.

Sun, D. Q., Menezes, A. H., Howard 3rd, M. A., Gantz, B. J., Hasan, D. M. & Hansen, M. R. (2017). Surgical Management of Tumors Involving Meckel's Cave and Cavernous Sinus: Role of an Extended Middle Fossa and Lateral Sphenoidectomy Approach. Otol Neurotol, 39(1), 82-91. PMID: 29135804.

Safyi, S., Miller, J. W., Wilson, S., Shivapour, S. K., Oelfke, T. F., Ford, A. L., Klarmann Staudt, A., Abode-Iyamah, K., Reddy, C. G., Jeffery, N. D., Fredericks, D. C., Gillies, G. T. & Howard III, M. A. (2016). Treadmill measures of ambulation rates in ovine models of spinal cord injury and neuropathic pain. J Med Eng Technol, 40(3), 72-9. PMID: 26785329.

Long, M. A., Katlowitz, K. A., Svirsky, M. A., Clary, R. C., Byun, T. M., Majaj, N., Oya, H., Howard 3rd, M. A. & Greenlee, J. D. (2016). Functional Segregation of Cortical Regions Underlying Speech Timing and Articulation. Neuron, 89(6), 1187-93. PMID: 26924439.

Reddy, C. G., Dalm, B. D., Flouty, O. E., Gillies, G. T., Howard 3rd, M. A. & Brennan, T. J. (2016). Comparison of Conventional and Kilohertz Frequency Epidural Stimulation in Patients Undergoing Trialing for Spinal Cord Stimulation: Clinical Considerations. World Neurosurg, 88, 586-91. PMID: 26585728.

Behroozmand, R., Oya, H., Nourski, K. V., Kawasaki, H., Larson, C. R., Brugge, J. F., Howard 3rd, M. A. & Greenlee, J. D. (2016). Neural Correlates of Vocal Production and Motor Control in Human Heschl's Gyrus. J Neurosci, 36(7), 2302-15. PMID: 26888939.

Sedley, W., Gander, P. E., Kumar, S., Kovach, C. K., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Howard, M. A. & Griffiths, T. D. (2016). Neural Signatures of Perceptual Inference. Elife, 5, e11476. PMID: 26949254.

Abode-Iyamah, K. O., Viljoen, S. V., McHenry, C. L., Petrie, M. A., Stoner, K. L., Dahdaleh, N. S., Grosland, N. M., Howard, M. A. & Shields, R. K. (2016). Effect of Surgery on Gait and Sensory Motor Performance in Patients With Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy. Neurosurgery, 79(5), 701-7. PMID: 27759677.

Abode-Iyamah, K. O., Stoner, K. E., Grossbach, A. J., Viljoen, S. V., McHenry, C. L., Petrie, M. A., Dahdaleh, N. S., Grosland, N. M., Shields, R. K. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2016). Effects of brain derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. J Clin Neurosci, 24, 117-21. PMID: 26461908.

Abode-Iyamah, K. O., Khanna, R., Rasmussen, Z. D., Flouty, O., Dahdaleh, N. S., Greenlee, J. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2016). Risk factors associated with distal catheter migration following ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. J Clin Neurosurg, 25, 46-9. PMID: 26549674.

Rhone, A. E., Nourski, K. V., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Howard 3rd, M. A. & McMurray, B. (2016). Can you hear me yet? An intracranial investigation of speech and non-speech audiovisual interactions in human cortex. Lang Cogn Neurosci, 31(2), 284-302. PMID: 27182530.

Stoner, K. E., Abode-Iyamah, K. O., Grosland, N. M. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2016). Volume of Brain Herniation in Ischemic Stroke Patients Following Decompressive Craniectomy. World Neurosurg, pii: S1878-8750(16)30779-3. PMID: 27591100.

Yang, J., Bassuk, A. G., Merl-Pham, J., Hsu, C. W., Colgan, D. F., Li, X., Au, K. S., Zhang, L., Smemo, S., Justus, S., Nagahama, Y., Grossbach, A. J., Howard 3rd, M. A., Kawasaki, H., Feldstein, N. A., Dobyns, W. B., Northrup, H., Hauck, S. M., Ueffing, M., Mahajan, V. B. & Tsang, S. H. (2016). Catenin delta-1 (CTNND1) phosphorylation controls the mesenchymal to epithelial transition in astrocytic tumors. Hum Mol Genet, 25(19), 4201-10. PMID: 27516388.

Abel, T. J., Walch, T. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2016). Russell Meyers (1905-1999): pioneer of functional and ultrasonic neurosurgery. J Neurosurg, 125(6), 1589-95. PMID: 26871378.

Abel, T. J., Rhone, A. E., Nourski, K. V., Ando, T. K., Oya, H., Kovach, C. K., Kawasaki, H., Howard 3rd, M. A. & Tranel, D. (2016). Beta modulation reflects name retrieval in the human anterior temporal lobe: an intracranial recording study. J Neurophysiol, 115(6), 3052-61. PMID: 27075536.

Nagahama, Y., Howard 3rd, M. A. (2016). IMAGES IN CLINICAL MEDICINE. Giant Thrombosed Intracranial Aneurysm. N Engl J Med, 375(8), 778. PMID: 27557304.

Abel, T. J., Manzel, K., Bruss, J., Belfi, A. M., Howard, M. A. & Tranel, D. (2016). The cognitive and behavioral effects of meningioma lesions involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex. J Neurosurg, 124(6), 1568-77. PMID: 26613174.

Abel, T. J., Manzel, K., Bruss, J., Belfi, A. M., Howard 3rd, M. A. & Tranel, D. (2016). The cognitive and behavioral effects of meningioma lesions involving the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. J Neurosurg, 124(6), 1568-77. PMID: 26613174.

Abel, T. J., Woodroffe, R., Moritani, T., Kirby, P., Howard, M. A., Kawasaki, H. & Werz, M. A. (2016). The Role of the Temporal Pole in Temporal Lobe Seizure Networks: An Intracranial Electrode Investigation. Neurosurgery, 63(Suppl 1), 194. PMID: 27399521.

Sedley, W., Gander, P. E., Kumar, S., Oya, H., Kovach, C. K., Nourski, K. V., Kawasaki, H., Howard 3rd, M. A. & Griffiths, T. D. (2015). Intracranial Mapping of a Cortical Tinnitus System using Residual Inhibition. Curr Biol, 25(9), 1208-14. PMID: 25913402.

Behroozmand, R., Shebek, R., Hansen, D. R., Oya, H., Robin, D. A., Howard 3rd, M. A. & Greenlee, J. D. (2015). Sensory-motor networks involved in speech production and motor control: an fMRI study. Neuroimage, 109, 418-28. PMID: 25623499.

Nourski, K. V., Howard 3rd, M. A. (2015). Invasive recordings in the human auditory cortex. Handb Clin Neurol, 129, 225-44. PMID: 25726272.

Abel, T. J., Rhone, A. E., Nourski, K. V., Kawasaki, H., Oya, H., Griffiths, T. D., Howard 3rd, M. A. & Tranel, D. (2015). Direct physiologic evidence of a heteromodal convergence region for proper naming in human left anterior temporal lobe. J Neurosci, 35(4), 1513-20. PMID: 25632128.

Dlouhy, B. J., Gehlbach, B. K., Kreple, C. J., Kawasaki, H., Oya, H., Buzza, C., Granner, M. A., Welsh, M. J., Howard, M. A., Wemmie, J. A. & Richerson, G. B. (2015). Breathing Inhibited When Seizures Spread to the Amygdala and upon Amygdala Stimulation. J Neurosci, 35(28), 10281-9. PMID: 26180203.

Holland, M. T., Flouty, O. E., Close, L. N., Reddy, C. G. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2015). A Unique Case of Primary Ewing's Sarcoma of the Cervical Spine in a 53-Year-Old Male: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Case Rep Med, 2015, 402313. PMID: 25802527.

Abel, T. J., Rhone, A. E., Nourski, K. V., Howard 3rd, M. A. & Tranel, D. (2015). Investigating the Anterior Temporal Lobe With Direct Intracranial Recordings. Neurosurgery, 62(Suppl 1), 085-9. DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000789.

Safayi, S., Jeffery, N. D., Shivapour, S. K., Zamanighomi, M., Zylstra, T. J., Bratsch-Prince, J., Wilson, S., Reddy, C. G., Fredericks, D. C., Gillies, G. T. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2015). Kinematic analysis of the gait of adult sheep during treadmill locomotion: Parameter values, allowable total error, and potential for use in evaluating spinal cord injury. J Neurol Sci, 358(1-2), 107-12. PMID: 26341152.

Dalm, B. D., Reddy, C. G., Howard, M. A., Kang, S. & Brennan, T. J. (2015). Conditioned place preference and spontaneous dorsal horn neuron activity in chronic constriction injury model in rats. Pain, 156(12), 2562-71. PMID: 26584420.

Jenison, R. L., Reale, R. A., Armstrong, A. L., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2015). Sparse Spectro-Temporal Receptive Fields Based on Multi-Unit and High-Gamma Responses in Human Auditory Cortex. PLoS One, 10(9), e0137915. PMID: 26367010.

Nourski, K. V., Steinschneider, M., Rhone, A. E., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Howard 3rd, M. A. & McMurray, B. (2015). Sound identification in human auditory cortex: Differential contribution of local field potentials and high gamma power as revealed by direct intracranial recordings. Brain Lang, 148, 37-50. PMID: 25819402.

Adolphs, R., Kawasaki, H., Tudusciuc, O., Howard, M. A., Heller, C., Sutherling, W., Philpott, L., Ross, I., Mamelak, A. & Rutishauser, U. (2014). Electrophysiological response to faces in the human amygdala. In , I. Fried , U. Rutishauser , M. Cerf , G. Kreiman (Eds.) Single Neuron Studies of the Human Brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Nourski, K. V., Steinschneider, M., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Jones, R. D. & Howard, M. A. (2014). Spectral organization of the human lateral superior temporal gyrus revealed by intracranial recordings. Cereb Cortex, 24(2), 340-52. PMID: 23048019.

Gibson-Corley, K. N., Flouty, O. E., Oya, H., Gillies, G. T. & Howard, M. A. (2014). Postsurgical pathologies associated with intradural electrical stimulation in the central nervous system: design implications for a new clinical device. Biomed Res Int, 2014(989175). PMID: 24800260.

Viljoen, S., Smittkamp, C. A., Dalm, B. D., Wilson, S., Reddy, C. G., Gillies, G. T. & Howard, M. A. (2014). MR-based measurement of spinal cord motion during flexion of the spine: implications for intradural spinal cord stimulator systems. J Med Eng Technol, 38(1), 1-4. PMID: 24144117.

Greenlee, J. D., Behroozmand, R., Nourski, K. V., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H. & Howard, M. A. (2014). Using speech and electrocorticography to map human auditory cortex. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 2014, 6798-801. PMID: 25571557.

Abel, T. J., Howard 3rd, M. A. & Menezes, A. (2014). Syringomyelia and spinal arachnoiditis resulting from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Report of two cases and review of the literature. J Craniovertebr Junction Spine, 5(1), 47/51. PMID: 25013348.

Bijanki, K. R., Kovach, C. K., McCormick, L. M., Kawasaki, H., Dlouhy, B. J., Feinstein, J., Jones, R. D. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2014). Case report: stimulation of the right amygdala induces transient changes in affective bias. Brain Stimul, 7(5), 690-3. PMID: 24972588.

Huang, Q., Oya, H., Flouty, O. E., Reddy, C. G., Howard 3rd, M. A., Gillies, G. T. & Utz, M. (2014). Comparison of spinal cord stimulation profiles from intra- and extradural electrode arrangements by finite element modelling. Med Biol Eng Comput, 52(6), 531-8. PMID: 24771203.

Nourski, K. V., Steinschneider, M., McMurray, B., Kovach, C. K., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2014). Functional organization of human auditory cortex: investigation of response latencies through direct recordings. Neuroimage, 101, 598-609. PMID: 25019680.

Chiang, H. Y., Kamath, A. S., Pottinger, J. M., Greenlee, J. D., Howard, M. A., Cavanaugh, J. E. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2014). Risk factors and outcomes associated with surgical site infections after craniotomy or craniectomy. J Neurosurg, 120(2), 509-21. PMID: 24205908.

Abel, T. J., Rhone, A. E., Nourski, K. V., Granner, M. A., Oya, H., Griffiths, T. D., Tranel, D. T., Kawasaki, H. & Howard, M. A. (2014). Mapping the temporal pole with a specialized electrode array: technique and preliminary results. Physiol Meas, 35(3), 323-37. PMID: 24480831.

Grosland, N. M., Gillies, G. T., Shurig, R., Stoner, K., Viljoen, S., Dalm, B. D., Oya, H., Fredericks, D. C., Gibson-Corley, K., Reddy, C., Wilson, S. & Howard III, M. A. (2014). Finite-Element Study of the Performance Characteristics of an Intradural Spinal Cord Stimulator. J Med Devices, 8(4), 041012. DOI: 10.1115/1.4028421.

Safayi, S., Jeffery, N. D., Fredericks, D. C., Viljoen, S., Dalm, B. D., Reddy, C. G., Wilson, S., Gillies, G. T. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2014). Biomechanical performance of an ovine model of intradural spinal cord stimulation. J Med Eng Technol, 38(5), 269-73. PMID: 24841845.

Steinschneider, M., Nourski, K. V., Rhone, A. E., Kawasaki, H., Oya, H. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2014). Differential activation of human core, non-core and auditory-related cortex during speech categorization tasks as revealed by intracranial recordings. Front Neurosci, 8, 240. PMID: 25157216.

Greenlee, j. D., Behroozmand, R., Larson, C. R., Jackson, A. W., Chen, F., Hansen, D. R., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H. & Howard, M. A. (2013). Sensory-motor interactions for vocal pitch monitoring in non-primary human auditory cortex. PLoS One, 8(4), e60783. PMID: 23577157.

Dlouhy, B. J., Dahdaleh, N. S. & Howard, M. A. (2013). Radiographic and intraoperative imaging of a hemisection of the spinal cord resulting in a pure Brown-Sequard syndrome: case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg Sci, 57(1), 81-6. PMID: 23584224.

Song, S. H., Gillies, G. T., Howard, M. A., Kuhnley, B. & Utz, M. (2013). Power and signal transmission protocol for a contactless subdural spinal cord stimulation device. Biomed Microdevices, 15(1), 27-36. PMID: 22892642.

Nourski, K. V., Brugge, J. F., Reale, R. A., Kovach, C. K., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Jenison, R. L. & Howard, M. A. (2013). Coding of repetitive transients by auditory cortex on posterolateral superior temporal gyrus in humans: an intracranial electrophysiology study. J Neurophysiol, 109(5), 1283-95. PMID: 23236002.

Oliynyk, M. S., Gillies, G. T., Oya, H., Wilson, S., Reddy, C. G. & Howard, M. (2013). Dynamic loading characteristics of an intradural spinal cord stimulator. J Appl Phys, 113(2), 026103-026103-3. DOI: 10.1063/1.4775835.

Grossbach, A. J., Abel, T. J., Menezes, A. H. & Howard, M. A. (2013). Transverse clival fracture associated with bilateral petrous fractures extending through the occipital bone. J Neurosurg, 118(4), 775. PMID: 23373798.

Flouty, O. E., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Reddy, C. G., Fredericks, D. C., Gibson-Corley, K. N., Jeffery, N. D., Gillies, G. T. & Howard, M. A. (2013). Intracranial somatosensory responses with direct spinal cord stimulation in anesthesized sheep. PLoS One, 8(2), e56266. PMID: 23457542.

Dahdaleh, N. S., Viljoen, S. V., Dalm, B. D., Howard, M. A. & Grosland, N. M. (2013). Posterior ligamentous complex healing following disruption in thoracolumbar fractures. Med Hypotheses, 81(1), 117-8. PMID: 23639281.

Nourski, K. V., Eitler, C. P., Brugge, J. F., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Reale, R. A., Abbas, P. J., Brown, C. J. & Howard, M. A. (2013). Direct recordings from the auditory cortex in a cochlear implant user. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol, 14(3), 435-50. PMID: 23519390.

Viljoen, S., Oya, H., Reddy, C. G., Dalm, B. D., Shurig, R., Odden, K., Gillies, G. T. & Howard 3rd, M. A. (2013). Apparatus for simulating dynamic interactions between the spinal cord and soft-coupled intradural implants. Rev Sci Instrum, 84(11), 114303. PMID: 24289414.

Viljoen, S., Dalm, B. D., Reddy, C. G., Wilson, S., Smittkamp, C., Gillies, G. T. & Howard III, M. A. (2013). Optimization of intradural spinal cord stimulator designs via analysis of thoracic spine imaging data. J Med Biol Engineering, 33(2), 193-8. DOI: 10.5405/jmbe.1317.

Kung, D. K., Chalouhi, N., Jabbour, P. M., Starke, R. M., Dumont, A. S., Winn, H. R., Howard, M. A. & Hasan, D. M. (2013). Cerebral blood flow dynamics and head-of-bed changes in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Biomed Res Int, 640638. PMID: 24371827.

Dalm, B. D., Brennan, T. J., Elahi, F., Howard, M. A. & Reddy, C. G. (2013). Successful conservative management of an intrathecal catheter-associated inflammatory mass. Spine J, 13(11), 1708-9. PMID: 24176809.

Wassef, S. N., Abel, T. J., Grossbach, A., Viljoen, S. V., Jackson, A. W., Howard, M. A. & Greenlee, J. D. (2013). Traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients taking dabigatran: report of 3 cases and review of the literature. Neurosurgery, 73(2), E368-73. PMID: 23670031.

Yin, T., Lindley, T. E., Albert, G. W., Ahmed, R., Schmeiser, P. B., Grady, M. S., Howard, M. A. & Welsh, M. J. (2013). Loss of acid sensing ion channel-1a and bicarbonate administration attenuate the severity of traumatic brain injury. PLoS One, 8(8), e72379. PMID: 23991103.

Garell, P. C., Bakken, H., Greenlee, J. D., Reale, R. A., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Howard, M. A. & Brugge, J. F. (2013). Functional connection between posterior superior temporal gyrus and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in human. Cereb Cortex, 23(10), 2309-21. PMID: 22879355.

Oya, H., Safayi, S., Jeffery, N. D., Viljoen, S., Reddy, C. G., Dalm, B. D., Kanwal, J. K., Gillies, G. T. & Howard, M. A. (2013). Soft-coupling suspension system for an intradural spinal cord stimulator: Biophysical performance characteristics. J Appl Phys, 114(16), 164701-7. DOI: 10.1063/1.4827195.

Dlouhy, B. J., Viljoen, S. V., Kung, D. K., Vogel, T. W., Granner, M. A., Howard, M. A. & Kawasaki, H. (2012). Vagus nerve stimulation after lead revision. Neurosurg Focus, 32(3), E11. PMID: 22380852.

Oya, H., Reddy, C. G., Dahdaleh, N. S., Wilson, S., Howard, M. A., Jeffery, N. D., Utz, M. & Gillies, G. T. (2012). Applier tool for intradural spinal cord implants. J Med Eng Technol, 36(3), 169-73. PMID: 22339111.

Nourski, K. V., Howard, M. A. Invasive recordings in human auditory cortex.

Flouty, O. E., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Wilson, S., Reddy, C. G., Jeffery, N. D., Brennan, T. J., Gibson-Corley, K. N., Utz, M., Gillies, G. T. & Howard, M. A. (2012). A new device concept for directly modulating spinal cord pathways: initial in vivo experimental results. Physiol Meas, 33(12), 2003-15. PMID: 23151433.

Wilson, S., Howard, M. A., Rossen, J. D., Brennan, T. J., Dalm, B. D., Dahdaleh, N. S., Utz, M. & Gillies, G. T. (2012). Pulsatile spinal cord surrogate for intradural neuromodulation studies. J Med Eng Technol, 36(1), 22-5. PMID: 22188575.

Kawasaki, H., Tsuchiya, N., Kovach, C. K., Nourski, K. V., Oya, H., Howard, M. A. & Adolphs, R. (2012). Processing of facial emotion in the human fusiform gyrus. J Cogn Neurosci, 24(6), 1358-70. PMID: 22185494.

Gibson-Corley, K. N., Oya, H., Flouty, O., Fredericks, D. C., Jeffery, N. D., Gillies, G. T. & Howard, M. A. (2012). Ovine tests of a novel spinal cord neuromodulator and dentate ligament fixation method. J Invest Surg, 25(6), 366-74. PMID: 23215793.

Oya, H., Howard, M. A., Shurig, R. & Gillies, G. T. (2012). Spinal cord surrogate for testing intradural implants. J Med Eng Technol, 36(8), 407-10. PMID: 22953718.

Dahdaleh, N. S., Dlouhy, B. J., Viljoen, S. V., Capuano, A. W., Kung, D. K., Torner, J. C., Hasan, D. M. & Howard, M. A. (2012). Clinical and radiographic predictors of neurological outcome following posterior fossa decompression for spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage. J Clin Neurosci, 19(9), 1236-41. PMID: 22721890.

Jenison, R. L., Rangel, A., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H. & Howard, M. A. (2011). Value encoding in single neurons in the human amygdala during decision making. J Neurosci, 31(1), 331-8. PMID: 21209219.

Kovach, C. K., Tsuchiya, N., Kawasaki, H., Oya, H., Howard, M. A. & Adolphs, R. (2011). Manifestation of ocular-muscle EMG contamination in human intracranial recordings. Neuroimage, 54(1), 213-33. PMID: 20696256.

Greenlee, J. D., Jackson, A. W., Chen, F., Larson, C. R., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Chen, H. & Howard, M. A. (2011). Human auditory cortical activation during self-vocalization. PLoS One, 6(3), e14744. PMID: 21390228.

Kung, D. K., Policeni, B. A., Capuano, A. W., Rossen, J. D., Jabbour, P. M., Torner, J. C., Howard, M. A. & Hasan, D. M. (2011). Risk of ventriculostomy-related hemorrhage in patients with acutely ruptured aneurysms treated using stent-assisted coiling. J Neurosurg, 114(4), 1021-7. PMID: 20950080.

Kumar, S., Sedley, W., Nourski, K. V., Kawasaki, H., Oya, H., Patterson, R. D., Howard, M. A., Friston, K. J. & Griffiths, T. D. (2011). Predictive coding and pitch processing in the auditory cortex. J Cogn Neurosci, 23(10), 3084-94. PMID: 21452943.

Steinschneider, M., Nourski, K. V., Kawasaki, H., Oya, H., Brugge, J. F. & Howard, M. A. (2011). Intracranial study of speech-elicited activity on the human posterolateral superior temporal gyrus. Cereb Cortex, 21(10), 2332-47. PMID: 21368087.

Vogel, T. W., Dlouhy, B. J. & Howard, M. A. (2011). Don't take the plunge: avoiding adverse events with cranial perforators. J Neurosurg, 115(3), 570-5. PMID: 21456895.

Chiang, H. Y., Steelman, V. M., Pottinger, J. M., Schlueter, A. J., Diekema, D. J., Greenlee, J. D., Howard, M. A. & Herwaldt, L. A. (2011). Clinical significance of positive cranial bone flap cultures and associated risk of surgical site infection after craniotomies or craniectomies. J Neurosurg, 114(6), 1746-54. PMID: 21375380.

Albert, G. W., Dahdaleh, N. S., Reddy, C. G., Hansen, D. R., Vogel, T. W., Kawasaki, H. & Howard, M. A. (2010). Postoperative radiographic findings in patients undergoing intracranial electrode monitoring for medically refractory epilepsy. J Neurosurg, 112(2), 449-54. PMID: 19698047.

Griffiths, T. D., Kumar, S., Sedley, W., Nourski, K. V., Kawasaki, H., Oya, H., Patterson, R. D., Brugge, J. F. & Howard, M. A. (2010). Direct recordings of pitch responses from human auditory cortex. Curr Biol, 20(12), 1128-32. PMID: 20605456.

Vogel, T. W., Dlouhy, B. J. & Howard, M. A. (2010). Use of confirmatory imaging studies to illustrate adequate treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leak in spontaneous intracranial hypotension. J Neurosurg, 113(5), 955-60. PMID: 20524824.

Reddy, C. G., Dahdaleh, N. S., Albert, G. W., Chen, F., Hansen, D., Nourski, K. V., Kawasaki, H., Oya, H. & Howard, M. A. (2010). A method for placing Heschl gyrus depth electrodes. J Neurosurg, 112(6), 1301-7. PMID: 19663547.

Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Dahdaleh, N. S., Wemmie, J. A. & Howard, M. A. (2009). Stereotactic atlas-based depth electrode localization in the human amygdale. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg, 87(4), 219-28. PMID: 19556831.

Brugge, J. F., Nourski, K. V., Oya, H., Reale, R. A., Kawasaki, H., Steinschneider, M. & Howard, M. A. (2009). Coding of repetitive transients by auditory cortex on Heschl's gyrus. J Neurophysiol, 102(4), 2358-74. PMID: 19675285.

Dahdaleh, N. S., Lindley, T. E., Kirby, P. A., Oya, H. & Howard, M. A. (2009). A "neurosurgical crisis" of sickle cell disease. J Neurosurg Pediatr, 4(6), 532-5. PMID: 19951039.

Nourski, K. V., Reale, R. A., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Kovach, C. K., Chen, H., Howard, M. A. & Brugge, J. F. (2009). Temporal envelope of time-compressed speech represented in the human auditory cortex. J Neurosci, 29(49), 15564-74. PMID: 20007480.

Reddy, C. G., Reddy, G. G., Kawasaki, H., Oya, H., Miller, L. E. & Howard, M. A. (2009). Decoding movement-related cortical potentials from electrocorticography. Neurosurg Focus, 27(1), E11. PMID: 19569886.

Ziemann, A. E., Allen, J. E., Dahdaleh, N. S., Drebot, I. I., Coryell, M. W., Wunsch, A. M., Lynch, C. M., Faraci, F. M., Howard, M. A., Welsh, M. J. & Wemmie, J. A. (2009). The amygdala is a chemosensor that detects carbon dioxide and acidosis to elicit fear behavior. Cell, 139(5), 1012-21. PMID: 19945383.

Brugge, J. F., Volkov, I. O., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Reale, R. A., Fenoy, A., Steinschneider, M. & Howard, M. A. (2008). Functional localization of auditory cortical fields of human: click-train stimulation. Hear Res, 238(1-2), 12-24. PMID: 18207680.

Ziemann, A. E., Schnizler, M. K., Albert, G. W., Severson, M. A., Howard, M. A., Welsh, M. J. & Wemmie, J. A. (2008). Seizure termination by acidosis depends on ASIC1a. Nat Neurosci, 11(7), 816-22. PMID: 18536711.

Tsuchiya, N., Kawasaki, H., Oya, H., Howard, M. A. & Adolphs, R. (2008). Decoding face information in time, frequency and space from direct intracranial recordings of the human brain. PLoS One, 3(12), e3892. PMID: 19065268.

Oya, H., Poon, P. W., Brugge, J. F., Reale, R. A., Kawasaki, H., Volkov, I. O. & Howard, M. A. (2007). Functional connections between auditory cortical fields in humans revealed by Granger causality analysis of intra-cranial evoked potentials to sounds: Comparison of two methods. Biosystems, 89(1-3), 198-207. PMID: 17184906.

Greenlee, J. D., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Volkov, I. O., Severson, M. A., Howard, M. A. & Brugge, J. F. (2007). Functional connections within the human inferior frontal gyrus. J Comp Neurol, 503(4), 550-9. PMID: 17534935.

Reale, R. A., Calvert, G. A., Thesen, T., Jenison, R. L., Kawasaki, H., Oya, H., Howard, M. A. & Brugge, J. F. (2007). Auditory-visual processing represented in the human superior temporal gyrus. Neuroscience, 145(1), 162-84. PMID: 17241747.

Fenoy, A. J., Severson, M. A., Volkov, I. O., Brugge, J. F. & Howard, M. A. (2006). Hearing suppression induced by electrical stimulation of human auditory cortex. Brain Res, 1118(1), 75-83. PMID: 16979144.

Steinschneider, M., Volkov, I. O., Fishman, Y. I., Oya, H., Arezzo, J. C. & Howard, M. A. (2005). Intracortical responses in human and monkey primary auditory cortex support a temporal processing mechanism for encoding of the voice onset time phonetic parameter. Cereb Cortex, 15(2), 170-86. PMID: 15238437.

Oya, H., Adolphs, R., Kawasaki, H., Bechara, A., Damasio, A. & Howard, M. A. (2005). Electrophysiological correlates of reward prediction error recorded in the human prefrontal cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 102(23), 8351-6. PMID: 15928095.

Kawasaki, H., Adolphs, R. A., Oya, H., Kovach, C. K., Damasio, H., Kaufman, O. & Howard, M. A. (2005). Analysis of single-unit responses to emotional scenes in human ventromedial prefrontal cortex. J Cogn Neurosci, 17(10), 1509-18. PMID: 16269093.

Greenlee, J. D., Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Volkov, I. O., Kaufman, O. P., Kovach, C. K., Howard, M. A. & Brugge, J. F. (2004). A functional connection between inferior frontal gyrus and orofacial motor cortex in human. J Neurophysiol, 92(2), 1153-64. PMID: 15056683.

Brugge, J., Volkov, I., Garrell, P., Reale, R. & Howard, M. A. (2003). Functional connections between auditory cortex on Heschl's gyrus and on the lateral superior temporal gyrus in humans. J Neurophysiol, 90(6), 3750-63. PMID: 12968011.

Bakken, H. E., Kawasaki, H., Oya, H., Greenlee, J. D. & Howard, M. A. (2003). A device for cooling localized regions of human cerebral cortex. Technical note. J Neurosurg, 99(3), 604-8. PMID: 12959453.

Brugge, J. F., Howard, M. A. (2002). Hearing. In , V. S. Ramachandran (Eds.) Encyclopedia of the Human Brain. New York, NY: Academic Press.

Gunnett, C. A., Lund, D. D., Howard, M. A., Chu, Y., Faraci, F. M. & Heistad, D. D. (2002). Gene transfer of inducible nitric oxide synthase impairs relaxation in human and rabbit cerebral arteries. Stroke, 33(9), 2292-6. PMID: 12215601.

Oya, H., Kawasaki, H., Howard, M. A. & Adolphs, R. (2002). Electrophysiological responses in the human amygdala discriminate emotion categories of complex visual stimuli. J Neurosci, 22(21), 9502-12. PMID: 12417674.

Kawasaki, H., Kaufman, O., Damasio, H., Damasio, A. R., Granner, M. A., Bakken, H., Hori, T., Howard, M. A. & Adolphs, R. (2001). Single-neuron responses to emotional visual stimuli recorded in human ventral prefrontal cortex. Nat Neurosci, 4(1), 15-6. PMID: 11135639.

Fishman, Y. I., Volkov, I. O., Noh, M. D., Garell, P. C., Bakken, H., Arezzo, J. C., Howard, M. A. & Steinschneider, M. (2001). Consonance and dissonance of musical chords: neural correlates in auditory cortex of monkeys and humans. J Neurophysiol, 86(6), 2761-88. PMID: 11731536.

Wang, G., Skinner, M. W., Rubinstein, J. T., Howard, M. A. & Vannier, M. W. (2000). Digital X-ray stereophotogrammetry for cochlear implantation. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 47(8), 1120-30. PMID: 10943062.

Heth, J. A., Howard, M. A. & Rossi, N. P. (2000). Paraparesis induced by inflammatory contents of a pneumonectomy cavity. Case report. J Neurosurg, 93(6), 1065-8. PMID: 11117852.

Grady, M. S., Howard, M. A., Dacey, R. G., Blume, W., Lawson, M., Werp, P. & Ritter, R. C. (2000). Experimental study of the magnetic stereotaxis system for catheter manipulation within the brain. J Neurosurg, 93(2), 282-8. PMID: 10930015.

Nawrot, M., Rizzo, M., Rockland, K. S. & Howard, M. A. (2000). A transient deficit of motion perception in human. Vision Res, 40(24), 3435-46. PMID: 11058740.

Howard, M. A., Abkes, B. A., Ollendieck, M. C., Noh, M. D., Ritter, R. C. & Gillies, G. T. (1999). Measurement of the force required to move a neurosurgical probe through in vivo human brain tissue. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 46(7), 891-4. PMID: 10396907.

Steinschneider, M., Volkov, I. O., Noh, M. D., Garell, P. C. & Howard, M. A. (1999). Temporal encoding of the voice onset time phonetic parameter by field potentials recorded directly from human auditory cortex. J Neurophysiol, 82(5), 2346-57. PMID: 10561410.

Garell, P. C., Granner, M. A., Noh, M. D., Howard III, M. A., Volkov, I. O. & Gillies, G. T. (1998). Introductory overview of research instruments for recording the electrical activity of neurons in the human brain. Rev Sci Instrum, 69, 4027-37. DOI: 10.1063/1.1149245.

Howard, M. A., Reed, L. K., Mirsky, R., Abkes, B. A. & Volkov, I. O. (1998). An integrated multipurpose lesion-making electrode. Neurosurgery, 42(1), 137-40 discussion 141-2. PMID: 9442515.

Mirsky, R., McCollough, T. M., Grady, M. S., Winn, H. R., Howard, M. A. & Gillies, G. T. (1998). An illuminating retractor for intracranial microneurosurgery. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 45(1), 129-31. PMID: 9444848.

Wellman, B. J., Loftus, C. M., Noh, D., Barnhart, W. H. & Howard, M. A. (1998). A combined surgical-endovascular device concept for giant aneurysm neck occlusion. Neurosurgery, 42(6), 1364-8 discussion 1368-9. PMID: 9632197.

Garell, P. C., Mirsky, R., Noh, M. D., Loftus, C. M., Hitchon, P. W., Grady, M. S., Dacey, R. G. & Howard, M. A. (1998). Posterior ventricular catheter burr-hole localizer. Technical note. J Neurosurg, 89(1), 157-60. PMID: 9647190.

Ritter, R. C., Quate, E. G., Gillies, G. T., Grady, M. S., Howard, M. A. & Broaddus, W. C. (1998). Measurement of friction on straight catheters in in vitro brain and phantom material. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 45(4), 476-85. PMID: 9556964.

Howard, M. A., Volkov, I. O., Noh, M. D., Granner, M. A., Mirsky, R. & Garell, P. C. (1997). Chronic microelectrode investigations of normal human brain physiology using a hybrid depth electrode. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg, 68(1-4 Pt 1), 236-42. PMID: 9711723.

Howard, M. A., Grady, M. S., Ritter, R. C., Gillies, G. T., Broaddus, W. C. & Dacey, R. G. (1996). Magnetic Neurosurgery. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg, 66(1-3), 102-7. PMID: 8938941.

Howard, M. A., Henegar, M. M., Dacey, R. G., Grady, M. S., Ritter, R. C. & Gillies, G. T. (1996). Magnetic neurosurgery: image-guided, remote-controlled movements of neurosurgical implants. Clin Neurosurg, 43, 382-91. PMID: 9247817.

Howard, M. A., Volkov, I. O., Abbas, P. J., Damasio, H., Ollendieck, M. C. & Granner, M. A. (1996). A chronic microelectrode investigation of the tonotopic organization of human auditory cortex. Brain Res, 724(2), 260-4. PMID: 8828578.

Howard, M. A., Volkov, I. O., Granner, M. A., Damasio, H. M., Ollendieck, M. C. & Bakken, H. E. (1996). A hybrid clinical-research depth electrode for acute and chronic in vivo microelectrode recording of human brain neurons. Technical note. J Neurosurg, 84(1), 129-32. PMID: 8613821.

Howard, M. A., Dacey, R. G., Henegar, M. M., Grady, M. S., Ritter, R. C. & Gillies, G. T. (1995). Review of magnetic neurosurgery research. J Image Guid Surg, 1(6), 295-9. PMID: 9080350.

Howard, M. A., Srinivasan, J., Winn, H. R. & Grady, M. S. (1995). A guide for placement of parietooccipital ventricular catheters. Technical note. J Neurosurg, 82(2), 300-4. PMID: 7815163.

McNeil, R. G., Ritter, R. C., Wang, B., Lawson, M. A., Gillies, G. T., Wika, K. G., Quate, E. G., Howard, M. A. & Grady, M. S. (1995). Characteristics of an improved magnetic-implant guidance system. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 42(8), 802-8. PMID: 7642194.

Howard, M. A., Dobbs, M. B., Simonson, T. M., LaVelle, W. E. & Granner, M. A. (1995). A noninvasive, reattachable skull fiducial marker system. Technical note. J Neurosurg, 83(2), 372-6. PMID: 7616289.

McNeil, R. G., Ritter, R. C., Wang, B., Lawson, M. A., Gillies, G. T., Wika, K. G., Quate, E. G., Howard, M. A. & Grady, M. S. (1995). Functional design features and initial performance characteristics of a magnetic-implant guidance system for stereotactic neurosurgery. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 42(8), 793-801. PMID: 7642193.

Gillies, G. T., Ritter, R. C., Broaddus, W. C., Grady, M. S., Howard III, M. A. & McNeil, R. G. (1994). Magnetic manipulation instrumentation for medical physics research. Rev Sci Instrum, 65, 533-62. DOI: 10.1063/1.1145242.

Howard, M. A., Simons, D. J. (1994). Physiological effects of nucleus basalis magnocellularis stimulation on rat barrel cortex neurons. Exp Brain Res, 102(1), 21-33. PMID: 7895796.

Howard, M. A., Bell, B. A. & Uttley, D. (1993). The pathophysiology of infant subdural hematomas. Br J Neurosurg, 7(4), 355-65. PMID: 8216905.

Ibayashi, S., Nagai, A. C., Howard, M. A., Meno, J. R., Mayberg, M. R. & Winn, H. R. (1991). Lack of sympathetic and cholinergic influences on cerebral vasodilation caused by sciatic nerve stimulation in the rat. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, 11(4), 678-83. PMID: 2050756.

Molloy, J. A., Ritter, R. C., Broaddus, W. C., Grady, M. S., Howard, M. A., Quate, E. G. & Gillies, G. T. (1991). Thermodynamics of movable inductively heated seeds for the treatment of brain tumors. Med Phys, 18(4), 794-803. PMID: 1921889.

Quate, E. G., Wika, K. G., Lawson, M. A., Gillies, G. T., Ritter, R. C., Grady, M. S. & Howard, M. A. (1991). Goniometric motion controller for the superconducting coil in a magnetic stereotaxis system. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 38(9), 899-905. PMID: 1743738.

Molloy, J. A., Ritter, R. C., Grady, M. S., Howard, M. A., Quate, E. G. & Gillies, G. T. (1990). Experimental determination of the force required for insertion of a thermoseed into deep brain tissue. Ann Biomed Eng, 18(3), 299-313. PMID: 2372165.

Grady, M. S., Howard, M. A., Broaddus, W. C., Molloy, J. A., Ritter, R. C., Quate, E. G. & Gillies, G. T. (1990). Magnetic stereotaxis: a technique to deliver stereotactic hyperthermia. J Neurosurg, 27(6), 1010-6. PMID: 2274121.

Grady, M. S., Howard, M. A., Molloy, J. A., Ritter, R. C., Quate, E. G. & Gillies, G. T. (1990). Nonlinear magnetic stereotaxis: three-dimensional, in vivo remote magnetic manipulation of a small object in canine brain. Med Phys, 17(3), 405-15. PMID: 2200950.

LeRoux, P. D., Howard, M. A. & Winn, H. R. (1990). Vancomycin pharmacokinetics in hydrocephalic shunt prophylaxis and relationship to ventricular volume. Surg Neurol, 34(6), 366-72. PMID: 2244299.

Grady, M. S., Howard, M. A., Molloy, J. A., Ritter, R. C., Quate, E. G. & Gillies, G. T. (1989). Preliminary experimental investigation of in vivo magnetic manipulation: results and potential application in hypothermia. Med Phys, 16(2), 263-72. PMID: 2654597.

Howard, M. A., Gross, A. S., Dacey, R. G. & Winn, H. R. (1989). Acute subdural hematomas: an age dependent clinical entity. J Neurosurg, 71(6), 858-64. PMID: 2585078.

Howard, M. A., Gross, A., Grady, M. S., Langer, R. S., Mathiowitz, E., Winn, H. R. & Mayberg, M. R. (1989). Intracerebral drug delivery in rats with lesion-induced memory deficits. J Neurosurg, 71(1), 105-12. PMID: 2567778.

Howard, M. A., Dacey, R. G. & Winn, H. R. (1988). Brain xenografts: the effect of cyclosporin A on graft survival. J Neurosurg, 69(1), 121-6. PMID: 3379465.

Howard, M. A., Grady, M. S., Park, T. S. & Scheld, W. M. (1986). Pharmacokinetics of intraventricular vancomycin in hydrocephalic rats. Neurosurgery, 18(6), 725-9. PMID: 3736800.

Grady, M. S., Howard, M. A., Jane, J. A. & Persing, J. A. (1986). Use of the Philadelphia collar as an alternative to the halo vest in patients with C-2, C-3 fractures. Neurosurgery, 18(2), 151-6. PMID: 3960291.