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Matthew D. Krasowski, MD, PhD

Walter L. Bierring Professor of Clinical Education
Vice Chair for Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Services
Medical Director, Clinical Chemistry and Point of Service Laboratories
Medical Director, Iowa River Landing Laboratory
Associate Director, Residency Program
Clinical Professor of Pathology

Contact Information

Primary Office
C671 General Hospital (GH)
200 Hawkins Drive
Iowa City, IA 52242


BA, East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Chicago
PhD, Neurobiology, University of Chicago
MD, University of Chicago
Clinical Pathology, University of Chicago
Fellow, Clinical Pharmacology & Pharmacogenomics, University of Chicago

Licensure and Certifications

State of Iowa Medical License - Iowa Board of Medicine
Fellow - College of American Pathologists
Diplomat, Clinical Pathology - American Board of Pathology

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Informatics

Research Summary

Clinical: 1) Toxicology and therapeutic drug monitoring, 2) Novel methods of teaching laboratory medicine to medical students and 3) Application of pharmacogenetics to clinical practice.

Informatics: Methods to predict interferences in clinical chemistry.

Basic Research: 1)Liver metabolism of drugs and endogenous compounds, 2) Bile salt biology, 3) Evolution of nuclear hormone receptors and enzymes and 4) Transcription regulators of liver and intestinal metabolism.


Humble, R. M., Merrill, A. E., Ford, B. A., Diekema, D. J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2021). Practical Considerations for Implementation of SARS-CoV-2 Serological Testing in the Clinical Laboratory: Experience at an Academic Medical Center. Acad Pathol, 8, 23742895211002802. PMID: 33889715.

Krasowski, M. D. (2021). Commentary on Unexpected Presence of an Unusual Opioid in a Patient with Chronic Pain. Clin Chem, 67(4), 600-601. PMID: 33788937.

Snozek CLH,, Baskin, L. B., Boyd, J. M., Kelly, B. N., Krasowski, M. D., Sadrzadeh SMH, & Tacker, D. H. (2021). How Can Routine Clinical Laboratories Keep Up with the Opioid Crisis?. Clinical chemistry, 67(2), 338-344. PMID: 33523216.

Cirrincione, L. R., Winston McPherson, G., Rongitsch, J., Sadilkova, K., Drees, J. C., Krasowski, M. D., Dickerson, J. A. & Greene, D. N. (2021). Sublingual Estradiol Is Associated with Higher Estrone Concentrations than Transdermal or Injectable Preparations in Transgender Women and Gender Nonbinary Adults. LGBT Health. PMID: 33439749.

Merrill, A. E., Jackson, J. B., Ehlers, A., Voss, D. & Krasowski, M. D. (2020). Head-to-Head Comparison of Two SARS-CoV-2 Serology Assays. The journal of applied laboratory medicine. PMID: 32717056.

Hodgson, C. K., Krasowski, M. D. & Ford, B. A. (2020). Data on the relationship of signal-to-cutoff ratio of two HIV antigen/antibody combination assays to subsequent confirmation of HIV-1 infection in a low-prevalence population. Data in brief, 31, 105707. PMID: 32462068.

Greene, D. N., Schmidt, R. L., Winston McPherson, G., Rongitsch, J., Imborek, K. L., Dickerson, J. A., Drees, J. C., Humble, R. M., Nisly, N., Dole, N. J., Dane, S. K., Frerichs, J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2020). Reproductive Endocrinology Reference Intervals for Transgender Women on Stable Hormone Therapy. The journal of applied laboratory medicine. PMID: 32674116.

Eigsti, R. L., Krasowski, M. D., Vidholia, A. & Merrill, A. E. (2020). Review of interference indices in body fluid specimens submitted for clinical chemistry analyses. Practical laboratory medicine, 19, e00155. PMID: 32099890.

Wood, K. E., Krasowski, M. D. (2020). Academic E-Mail Overload and the Burden of "Academic Spam". Academic pathology, 7, 2374289519898858. PMID: 32010761.

Krasowski, M., Snozek, C. (2020). Chapter 19: Club Drugs. In: Magnani B et al, eds. In Clinical Toxicology Testing: A Guide for Laboratory Professionals. 2nd edition. (2nd Edition) Northfield, IL .

Greene, H. R., Krasowski, M. D. (2019). Correlation of osmolal gap with measured concentrations of acetone, ethylene glycol, isopropanol, methanol, and propylene glycol in patients at an academic medical center. Toxicology reports, 7, 81-88. PMID: 31908969.

Radke, J. B., Kingery, J. M., Maakestad, J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2019). Diagnostic pitfalls and laboratory test interference after hydroxychloroquine intoxication: A case report. Toxicology reports, 6, 1040-1046. PMID: 31673506.

Ter Heine, R., Kane, S. P., Huitema, A. D., Krasowski, M. D. & van Maarseveen, E. M. (2019). Nonlinear protein binding of phenytoin in clinical practice: Development and validation of a mechanistic prediction model. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 85(10), 2360-2368. PMID: 31269540.

Krasowski, M. D. (2019). Educational Case: Regulatory Issues With Laboratory Testing. Academic pathology, 6, 2374289519877549. PMID: 31598547.

Skaugen, J. M., Scoccimarro, A., Pizon, A. F., Rymer, J. A., Giannoutsos, S., Ekins, S., Krasowski, M. D. & Tamama, K. (2019). Novel ketamine analogues cause a false positive phencyclidine immunoassay. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 56(5), 598-607. PMID: 31154806.

Ussavarungsi, K., Nugent, K., Gerke, A. K., Krasowski, M. D., Tuetken, R. S. & Lenert, P. S. (2019). Interstitial lung disease associated with anti-PM-Scl antibody: A single center experience. (Vols. 18). (9) Autoimmunity Reviews. PMID: 31323356.

Krasowski, M. D., McMillin, G. A., Melanson SEF,, Dizon, A., Magnani, B. & Snozek CLH, (2019). Interpretation and Utility of Drug of Abuse Screening Immunoassays: Insights From Laboratory Drug Testing Proficiency Surveys. Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine. PMID: 31313960.

Wood, K. E., McMillin, G. A. & Krasowski, M. D. (2019). Risk-Based Newborn Drug Testing in a Setting With a Low Prevalence of Maternal Drug Use. Hospital pediatrics. PMID: 31278167.

Foster, B., Krasowski, M. D. (2019). The Use of an Electronic Health Record Patient Portal to Access Diagnostic Test Results by Emergency Patients at an Academic Medical Center: Retrospective Study. Journal of medical Internet research, 21(6), e13791. PMID: 31254335.

Krasowski, M. D., Lawrence, J. C., Briggs, A. S. & Ford, B. A. (2019). Burden and Characteristics of Unsolicited Emails from Medical/Scientific Journals, Conferences, and Webinars to Faculty and Trainees at an Academic Pathology Department. Journal of pathology informatics, 10, 16. PMID: 31149367.

Martinez-Brokaw, C. D., Radke, J. B., Pierce, J. G., Ehlers, A., Ekins, S., Wood, K. E., Maakestad, J., Rymer, J. A., Tamama, K. & Krasowski, M. D. (2019). Accidental intoxications in toddlers: lack of cross-reactivity of vilazodone and its urinary metabolite M17 with drug of abuse screening immunoassays. BMC Clin Pathol, 19, 2. PMID: 30820187.

Greene, D. N., McPherson, G. W., Rongitsch, J., Imborek, K. L., Schmidt, R. L., Humble, R. M., Nisly, N., Dole, N. J., Dane, S. K., Frerichs, J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2019). Hematology reference intervals for transgender adults on stable hormone therapy. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. PMID: 30771301.

Krasowski, M. D., Wagar, E. A., Cohen, M. B. (2019). Chapter 15: Ethics for Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. In E. S. Wagar , M. B. Cohen , D. S. Karcher & G. P. Siegal (Eds.) Laboratory Administration for Pathologists. 2nd edition.. (2nd), pp. 261-272. Northfield (Illinois): College of American Pathologists.

Krasowski, M. D. (2019). Educational Case: Hemolysis and Lipemia Interference With Laboratory Testing. Academic Pathology, 6. DOI: 10.1177/2374289519888754.

Krasowski, M. D., Lawrence, J. C., Briggs, A. S. & Ford, B. A. (2019). Burden and characteristics of unsolicited emails from medical/scientific journals, conferences, and webinars to faculty and trainees at an academic pathology department. Journal of Pathology Informatics, 10(1). DOI: 10.4103/jpi.jpi-12-19.

Palmer, K. L., Krasowski, M. D. (2019). Alternate matrices: Meconium, cord tissue, hair, and oral fluid. In Methods in Molecular Biology. pp. 191-197. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-8823-5_18.

Reschly-Krasowski, J. M., Krasowski, M. D. (2018). A Difficult Challenge for the Clinical Laboratory: Accessing and Interpreting Manufacturer Cross-Reactivity Data for Immunoassays Used in Urine Drug Testing. Acad Pathol, 5, 2374289518811797. PMID: 30480089.

Wood, K. E., McCarthy, P. J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2018). A case series involving young children presenting with accidental ingestion of amphetamine based stimulants. Toxicology reports, 5, 1129-1133. PMID: 30510906.

Nisly, N. L., Imborek, K. L., Miller, M. L., Dole, N., Priest, J. B., Sandler, L., Krasowski, M. D. & Hightower, M. (2018). Developing an Inclusive and Welcoming LGBTQ Clinic. Clinical obstetrics and gynecology. PMID: 30303816.

Oest, S. E., Hightower, M. & Krasowski, M. D. (2018). Activation and utilization of an electronic health record patient portal at an academic medical center - impact of patient demographics and geographic location. Acad Pathol, 5, 2374289518797573. PMID: 30302394.

Humble, R. M., Imborek, K. L., Nisly, N., Greene, D. N. & Krasowski, M. D. (2018). Common hormone therapies used to care for transgender patients influence laboratory results. J Appl Lab Med, 3(2). PMID: 31639755.

Ehlers, A., Dyson, R. L., Hodgson, C. K., Davis, S. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2018). Impact of Daylight Saving Time on the Clinical Laboratory. Acad Pathol, 5(Jan-Dec), 2374289518784222. PMID: 30023429.

Krasowski, M. D. (2018). Biotin interference with laboratory testing. (Vols. CC 1803). ASCP Case Reports.

Krasowski, M. D., Ekins, S. (2018). Cheminformatics in a Clinical Setting. In S. Ekins (Eds.) Computational Toxicology: Risk Assessment for Chemicals. pp. 175-210. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Krasowski, M. D. (2018). Illegal street drugs and prescription medications in the criminal justice system. In J. Brown , E. Weinkauf (Eds.) Forensic Mental Health: A Source Guide for Professionals. pp. 216-241. St. Paul, MN: Forensic Science International.

Brown, J., Stinchfield, R., Hesse, M. L., Krasowski, M. D., Harris, B., Von Eschen, J., Cardwell, E. & Burger, P. (2018). Problem gambling: a beginner’s guide for clinical and forensic considerations. In J. Brown , E. Weinkauf (Eds.) Forensic Mental Health: A Source Guide for Professionals. pp. 317-352. St. Paul, MN: Forensic Science International.

Brown, J., Jordan, B., Watts, E. J., Arndt, C., Krasowski, M. D., Beltrani, A., Patrick, A., Asp, E., Trnka, A., Burger, P., Huntley, D., Kivisalu, T. M., Eckberg, D. A., Conception, E. & Carter, S. L. (2018). Schizophrenia: a beginner's guide for criminal justice and forensic mental health professionals. J. Brown , E. Weinkauf (Eds.) pp. 371-403. St. Paul, MN: Forensic Science International.

Lee, J. P., Tansey, M., Jetton, J. G. & Krasowski, M. D. (2018). Vitamin D toxicity: A 16-year retrospective study at an academic medical center. Lab Med, 49(2), 123-9. PMID: 29346630.

Kurt-Mangold, M. E., Grieme, C. V., Krasowski, M. D. & Rosenthal, N. S. (2018). Clinical Utility of Ordered Pathology Blood Smear Reviews - an Overused Resource?. Clin Lab, 64(1), 99-104. PMID: 29479875.

Brown, J., Arndt, C. & Krasowski, M. D. (2018). A review for marriage and family therapists: neonatal abstinence syndrome:. Family Therapy Magazine / The American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, 17(4), 22-26.

Palmer, K. L., Krasowski, M. D. (2018). Alternate matrices: meconium, cord tissue, hair, and oral fluid (Chapter 18). In L. J. Langman , C. L. Snozek (Eds.) LC-MS in Drug Analysis: Methods and Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology.

Blau, J. L., Wilford, J. D., Dane, S. K., Karandikar, N. J., Fuller, E. S., Jacobsmeier, D. J., Jans, M. A., Horning, E. A., Krasowski, M. D., Ford, B. A., Becker, K. R., Beranek, J. M. & Robinson, R. A. (2017). Implementation of Epic Beaker Anatomic Pathology at an Academic Medical Center. J Pathol Inform, 8, 47. PMID: 29387505.

Krasowski, M. D., Wood, K. E. (2017). Accidental amphetamine ingestion: High levels of use for ADHD raise the risk of intoxication in young children. (Vols. December 2017). pp. 1-4. Clinical and Forensic Toxicology News (Quarterly, AACC/CAP).

Krasowski, M. D., Grieme, C. V., Cassady, B., Dreyer, N. R., Wanat, K. A., Hightower, M. & Nepple, K. G. (2017). Variation in results release and patient portal access to diagnostic test results at an academic medical center. J Pathol Inform, 8, 45. PMID: 29226008.

Kurogi, K., Yoshihama, M., Horton, A., Schiefer, I. T., Krasowski, M. D., Hagey, L. R., Williams, F. E., Sakakibara, Y., Kenmochi, N., Suiko, M. & Liu, M. C. (2017). Identification and characterization of 5a-cyprinol-sulfating cytosolic sulfotransferases (Sults) in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 174, 120-7. PMID: 28807679.

Imborek, K. L., Nisly, N. L., Hesseltine, M. J., Grienke, J., Zikmund, T. A., Dreyer, N. R., Blau, J. L., Hightower, M., Humble, R. M. & Krasowski, M. D. (2017). Preferred names, preferred pronouns, and gender identity in the electronic medical record and laboratory information system: Is pathology ready?. J Pathol Inform, 8, 42. PMID: 29114436.

Krasowski, M. D., Ford, B. A., Klutts, J. S., Jensen, C. S., Briggs, A. S., Robinson, R. A., Bruch, L. A. & Karandikar, N. J. (2017). Using focused laboratory management and quality improvement projects to enhance resident training and foster scholarship. Acad Pathol, 4(Jan-Dec), 2374289517722152. PMID: 28913416.

Dhungana, N., Morris, C. & Krasowski, M. D. (2017). Operational impact of using a vanadate oxidase method for direct bilirubin measurements at an academic medical center clinical laboratory. Pract Lab Med, 8, 77-85. PMID: 28856232.

Dunseth, C. D., Ford, B. A. & Krasowski, M. D. (2017). Traditional versus reverse syphilis algorithms: A comparison at a large academic medical center. Pract Lab Med, 8, 52-9. PMID: 28856228.

Andresen, N. S., Olson, T. S. & Krasowski, M. D. (2017). Medical student and medical school teaching faculty perceptions of conflict of interest. BMC research notes, 10(1), 272. PMID: 28693566.

Palmer, K. L., Wood, K. E. & Krasowski, M. D. (2017). Evaluating a switch from meconium to umbilical cord tissue for newborn drug testing: A retrospective study at an academic medical center. Clin Biochem, 50(6), 255-61. PMID: 27890824.

Grieme, C. V., Voss, D. R., Davis, S. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2017). Impact of endogenous and exogenous interferences on clinical chemistry parameters measured on blood gas analyzers. Clin Lab, 63(3), 561-568. PMID: 28271676.

Mainali, S., Davis, S. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2017). Frequency and causes of lipemia interference of clinical chemistry laboratory tests. Pract Lab Med, 8, 1-9. PMID: 28856220.

Wood, K. E., Smith, P. & Krasowski, M. D. (2017). Newborn drug testing practices in Iowa birthing hospitals. Journal of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, 10(4), 445-450. PMID: 29286931.

Steussy, B. W., Capper, M., Krasowski, M. D., Rosenthal, N. S. & Schlueter, A. J. (2016). Algorithms utilizing peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cell counts in lieu of some CD34+ cell counts predict successful peripheral blood stem cell collections with substantial time and cost savings. ISBT Science Series, 11(3), 153-162. DOI: 10.1111/voxs.12289.

Humble, R. M., Hounkponou, H. G. & Krasowski, M. D. (2016). The "rainbow" of extra blood tubes-useful or wasteful practice?. JAMA internal medicine. PMID: 27820611.

Grieme, C. V., Voss, D. R., Olson, K. E., Davis, S. R., Kulhavy, J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2016). Prevalence and clinical utility of "incidental" critical values resulting from critical care laboratory testing. Lab Medicine, 47(4), 338-349. PMID: 27708170.

Fierro-Fine, A. C., Harland, K., House, H. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2016). Ethanol values during college football season: University policy change and emergency department blood ethanol values from 2006 through 2014. Lab Medicine, 47(4), 300-305. PMID: 27572874.

Rooney, S. L., Ehlers, A. & Krasowski, M. D. (2016). Reply to Dr. Kim and Colleagues Regarding Use of a Rapid Ethylene Glycol Assay. (Vols. 12). (3) J Med Toxicol: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology. PMID: 27055453.

Gupta, S., Imborek, K. L. & Krasowski, M. D. (2016). Challenges in transgender healthcare: The pathology perspective. Lab Medicine, 47(3), 180-8. PMID: 27287942.

Schouweiler, K. E., Krasowski, M. D. (2016). Ovarian cancer and the utility of current ovarian tumor markers. (Vols. CC16-3). ASCP Case Reports.

Abbi, K. K., Silverman, M., Farooq, U., Tricot, A., Dozeman, L., Nadiminti, K., Krasowski, M. D. & Tricot, G. J. (2016). Potential pitfalls of serum free light chain analysis to assess treatment response for multiple myeloma. Br J Haematol, 174(4), 536-40. PMID: 27172326.

Wood, K. E., Krasowski, M. D. (2016). An infant with a prolonged sympathomimetic toxidrome after lisdexamfetamine dimesylate ingestion. J Med Toxicol. PMID: 27277955.

Rosean, T. R., Holman, C. J., Tompkins, V. S., Jing, X., Krasowski, M. D., Rose-John, S. & Janz, S. (2016). KSHV-encoded vIL-6 collaborates with deregulated c-Myc to drive plasmablastic neoplasms in mice. Blood Cancer J, 6, e398. PMID: 26918362.

Pasquel, D., Doricakova, A., Li, H., Kortagere, S., Krasowski, M. D., Biswas, A., Walton, W. G., Redinbo, M. M., Dvorak, Z. & Mani, S. (2016). Acetylation of lysine 109 modulates pregnane X receptor DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1859(9), 1155-1169. PMID: 26855179.

Krasowski, M. D., Wilford, J. D., Howard, W., Dane, S. K., Davis, S. R., Karandikar, N. J., Blau, J. L. & Ford, B. A. (2016). Implementation of Epic Beaker Clinical Pathology at an academic medical center. J Pathol Inform, 7, 7. PMID: 26955505.

Krasowski, M. D. (2016). Data mining to improve laboratory utilization and patient care. Critical Values, 24-27.

Genzen, J. R., Hunsaker, J. J., Nelson, L. S., Faine, B. A. & Krasowski, M. D. (2016). N-acetylcysteine interference of Trinder-based assays. Clin Biochem, 49(1), 100-4. PMID: 26500003.

Nelson, L. S., Steussy, B., Morris, C. S. & Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Effect of specimen type on free immunoglobulin light chains analysis on the Roche Diagnostics Cobas 8000 analyzer. SpringerPlus, 4, 760. PMID: 26682113.

Palmer, K. L., Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Hair testing for illicit drugs: do the advantages of this matrix outweigh the disadvantages?. Clinical & Forensic Toxicology News, 1-3.

Krasowski, M. D., Savage, J., Ehlers, A., Maakestad, J., Schmidt, G. A., La'ulu, S. L., Rasmussen, N. N., Strathmann, F. G. & Genzen, J. R. (2015). Ordering of the serum angiotensin-converting enzyme test in patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy: An avoidable but common error. Chest, 148(6), 1447-53. PMID: 26225637.

Humble, R. M., Ehlers, A., Pakalniskis, B. L., Morris, C., Drees, D., Kulhavy, J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Therapeutic drug monitoring of pentobarbital: Experience at an academic medical center. Ther Drug Monit, 37(6), 783-791. PMID: 26565790.

Rooney, S. L., Ehlers, A., Morris, C., Drees, D., Davis, S. R., Kulhavy, J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Use of a rapid ethylene glycol assay: a 4-Year retrospective study at an academic medical center. J Med Toxicol, 12(2), 172-179. PMID: 26553280.

Klutts, J. S., Guerin, L. A., Bruch, L. A., Firchau, D. J., Knudson, C. M., Rosenthal, N. S., Samuelson, M. I., Jensen, C. S., Delwiche, J. L. & Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Pathology milestones: Assessing clinical competency by committee. Academic Pathology, 2(4), 2374289515614003. PMID: 28725752.

McMillin, G. A., Wood, K. E., Strathmann, F. G. & Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Patterns of drugs and drug metabolites observed in meconium: What do they mean?. Ther Drug Monit, 37(5), 568-80. PMID: 25565668.

Ogrin, C., Ford, B. A., Stauffer, S. L., Krasowski, M. D. & Azar, A. E. (2015). Positive test for antithyroglobulin antibodies due to administration of immunoglobulin replacement therapy in a patient with thyroid cancer. Endocrine Practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, 21(8), 966-71. PMID: 26151422.

Krasowski, M. D., Schriever, A., Mathur, G., Blau, J. L., Stauffer, S. L. & Ford, B. A. (2015). Use of a data warehouse at an academic medical center for clinical pathology quality improvement, education, and research. J Pathol Inform, 6(1), 45. PMID: 26284156.

Stauffer, S. L., Wood, S. M. & Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases. J Forensic Leg Med, 33, 61-7. PMID: 26048499.

Kurt-Mangold, M., Van Voorhis, B. J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Persistent human chorionic gonadotropin after methotrexate treatment and an emergency surgical procedure for ectopic pregnancy. Lab Medicine, 46(3), 254-8. PMID: 26199268.

Krasowski, M. D., Chudzik, D., Dolezal, A., Steussy, B., Gailey, M. P., Koch, B., Kilborn, S. B., Darbro, B. W., Rysgaard, C. D. & Klesney-Tait, J. A. (2015). Promoting improved utilization of laboratory testing through changes in an electronic medical record: Experience at an academic medical center. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, 15(11). PMID: 25880934.

Nelson, L. S., Davis, S. R., Humble, R. M., Kulhavy, J., Aman, D. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Impact of add-on laboratory testing at an academic medical center: a five year retrospective study. BMC Clin Pathol, 15, 11. PMID: 26052250.

Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Pharmacogenomics. In , J. E. South-Paul , S. C. Matheny , E. L. Lewis (Eds.) Current Diagnosis and Treatment in Family Medicine. (4th Edition), pp. 523-528. New York: McGraw Education.

Mathur, G., Haugen, T. H., Davis, S. L. & Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Streamlined sign-out of capillary protein electrophoresis using middleware and an open-source macro application. J Pathol Inform,(5), 36. PMID: 25337433.

Krasowski, M. D., McMillin, G. A. (2014). Advances in anti-epileptic drug testing. Clin Chim Acta, 436, 224-36. PMID: 24925169.

Wood, K. E., Krasowski, M. D., Strathmann, F. G. & McMillin, G. A. (2014). Meconium drug testing in multiple births in the USA. J Anal Toxicol, 38(7), 397-403. PMID: 24927721.

Wood, K. E., Krasowski, M. D. & McMillin, G. A. (2014). Drug tests in multiple births largest study examines incidence of mismatches in meconium test results. Clinical & Forensic Toxicology News, 6-9.

Wood, K. E., Sinclair, L. L., Rysgaard, C. D., Strathmann, F. G., McMillin, G. A. & Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Retrospective analysis of the diagnostic yield of newborn drug testing. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 14(1), 250. PMID: 25073780.

Krasowski, M. D., Drees, D., Morris, C. S., Maakestad, J., Blau, J. L. & Ekins, S. (2014). Cross-reactivity of steroid hormone immunoassays: clinical significance and two-dimensional molecular similarity prediction. BMC Clin Pathol, 14, 33. PMID: 25071417.

Krasowski, M. D., Ekins, S. (2014). Using cheminformatics to predict cross reactivity of "designer drugs" to their currently available immunoassays. J Cheminform, 6, 22. PMID: 24851137.

Krasowski, M. D., Davis, S. R., Drees, D., Morris, C., Kulhavy, J., Crone, C., Bebber, T., Clark, I., Nelson, D. L., Teul, S., Voss, D., Aman, D., Fahnle, J. & Blau, J. L. (2014). Autoverification in a core clinical chemistry laboratory at an academic medical center. J Pathol Inform, 5, 13. PMID: 24843824.

Rysgaard, C. D., Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Drug testing in the newborn. Chicago, IL: American Society for Clinical Pathology.

Ahmed, A., Tschetter, P. A., Krasowski, M. D. & Engelman, A. (2014). Massive ethylene glycol poisoning triggers osmotic demyelination syndrome. J Emerg Med, 46(3), e69-74. PMID: 24199725.

Marin, S. J., Metcalf, A., Krasowski, M. D., Linert, B. S., Clark, C. J., Strathmann, F. G. & McMillin, G. A. (2014). Detection of neonatal drug exposure using umbilical cord tissue and liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Ther Drug Monit, 36(1), 119-24. PMID: 24061447.

Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In Decision Support in Medicine (online book). Wilmington, DE: Decision Support in Medicine, LLC.

Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Hypercalcemia of malignancy. In Decision Support in Medicine (online book). Wilmington, DE: Decision Support in Medicine, LLC.

Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Milk-Alkali Syndrome. In Decision Support in Medicine (online book). Wilmington, DE: Decision Support in Medicine, LLC.

Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Primary hyperparathyroidism. In Decison Support in Medicine. Wilmington, DE: Decison Support in Medicine, LLC.

Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Pseudohyperparathyroidism. In Decision Support in Medicine (online book). Wilmington, DE: Decision Support in Medicine, LLC.

Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Secondary hyperparathyroidism. In Decision Support in Medicine (online book). Wilmington, DE: Decision Support in Medicine, LLC.

Genzen, J. R., Gosselin, J. T., Wilson, T. C., Racila, E. & Krasowski, M. D. (2013). Analysis of vitamin D status at two academic medical centers and a national reference laboratory: result patterns vary by age, gender, season, and patient location. BMC Endocr Disor, 13(1), 52. PMID: 24188187.

Krasowski, M. D. (2013). The challenge of detecting prescription opioid abuse in pregnancy. E. Link , L. Huffman (Eds.) (Vols. 20). (3), pp. 1-3. Coralville, IA/EPSDT: Care for Kids: Early & Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, & Treatment.

Krasowski, M. D. (2013). Anti-epileptic drugs: therapeutic drug monitoring of the newer generation drugs. Clin Lab News, 39(6), 8-10.

Ehlers, A., Morris, C. & Krasowski, M. D. (2013). A rapid analysis of plasma/serum ethylene and propylene glycol by headspace gas chromatography. Springerplus, 2(1), 203. PMID: 23741644.

Jackson, B. R., Krasowski, M. D. & Sims, P. J. (2013). Laboratory diagnostic oversight committees and the profession of laboratory medicine. Am J Clin Pathol, 139(3), 273-4. PMID: 23429362.

Petrie, M., Lynch, K. L., Ekins, S., Chang, J. S., Goetz, R. J., Wu, A. H. & Krasowski, M. D. (2013). Cross-reactivity studies and predictive modeling of "Bath Salts" and other amphetamine-type stimulants with amphetamine screening immunoassays. Clin Toxicol (Phila)., 51(2), 83-91. PMID: 23387345.

Hagey, L. R., Krasowski, M. D. (2013). Microbial biotransformations of bile acids as detected by electrospray mass spectrometry. Adv Nutr, 4(1), 29-35. PMID: 23319120.

Kurt-Mangold, M., Drees, D. & Krasowski, M. D. (2012). Extremely high myoglobin plasma concentrations producing hook effect in a critically ill patient. Clin Chim Acta, 414, 179-181. PMID: 22960204.

Rysgaard, C. D., Morris, C. S., Drees, D., Bebber, T., Davis, S. R., Kulhavy, J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2012). Positive hepatitis B surface antigen tests due to recent vaccination: a persistent problem. BMC Clin Pathol, 12(1), 15. PMID: 23006828.

Barakauskas, V. E., Davis, R., Krasowski, M. D. & McMillin, G. A. (2012). Unresolved discrepancies between cannabinoid test results for infant urine. Clin Chem, 58(9), 1364-7. PMID: 22829312.

Kortagere, S., Krasowski, M. D. & Ekins, S. (2012). Ligand and structure-based pregnane x receptor models. Methods Mol Biol, 929, 359-75. PMID: 23007437.

King, A. M., Pugh, J. L., Menke, N. B., Krasowski, M. D., Lynch, M. J. & Pizon, A. F. (2012). Nonfatal tramadol overdose may cause false-positive phencyclidine on Emit-II assay. Am J Emerg Med, 31(2), 444.e5-444.e9. PMID: 22944551.

Krasowski, M. D., Penrod, L. E. (2012). Clinical decision support of therapeutic drug monitoring of phenytoin: measured versus adjusted phenytoin plasma concentrations. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, 12, 7. PMID: 22333264.

Fidler, A. E., Holland, P. T., Reschly, E. J., Ekins, S. & Krasowski, M. D. (2012). Activation of a tunicate (Ciona intestinalis) xenobiotic receptor orthologue by both natural toxins and synthetic toxicants. Toxicon, 59(2), 365-72. PMID: 22206814.

Krasowski, M. D. (2012). Toxic Alcohols: Practical challenges in laboratory diagnosis of ingestions. Clin Lab News, 38(2), 8-10.

Krasowski, M. D., Wilcoxon, R. M. & Miron, J. (2012). A retrospective analysis of glycol and toxic alcohol ingestion: utility of anion and osmolal gaps. BMC Clin Pathol, 12(1), 1. PMID: 22240170.

Ekins, S., Kortagere, S., Krasowski, M. D., Williams, A. J., Xu, J. & Zientek, M. (2012). Ligand-based modeling of toxicity. In D. J. Livingstone , A. Davis (Eds.) Drug Design Strategies: Quantitative Approaches. pp. 310-42. Cambridge (UK): RSC Publishing.

Krasowski, M. D. (2012). Pharmacogenomics aspect of warfarin therapy. In L. J. Langman , A. Dasgupta (Eds.) Pharmacogenomics in Clinical Therapeutics. pp. 26-38. Oxford (UK): Wiley-Blackwell Publisher.

Kurogi, K., Krasowski, M. D., Injeti, E., Liu, M. Y., Williams, F. E., Sakakibara, Y., Suiko, M. & Liu, M. C. (2011). A comparative study of the sulfation of bile acids and a bile alcohol by the Zebra danio (Danio rerio) and human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs). J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 127(3-5), 307-14. PMID: 21839837.

Krasowski, M. D., Hopfinger, A. J. (2011). The discovery of new anesthetics by targeting GABA(A) receptors. Expert Opin Drug Discov, 6(11), 1187-201. PMID: 22646986.

Krasowski, M. D. (2011). Pathology consultation on vitamin D testing. Am J Clin Pathol, 136(4), 507-14. PMID: 21917672.

Ogawa, S., Mitamura, K., Ikegawa, S., Krasowski, M. D., Hagey, L. R., Hofmann, A. F. & Iida, T. (2011). Chemical synthesis of the (25R)- and (25S)-epimers of 3a,7a,12a-trihydroxy-5a-cholestan-27-oic acid as well as their corresponding glycine and taurine conjugates. Chem Phys Lipids, 164(5), 368-77. PMID: 21554864.

Ekins, S., Williams, A. J., Krasowski, M. D. & Freundlich, J. S. (2011). In silico repositioning of approved drugs for rare and neglected diseases. Drug Discov Today, 16(7-8), 298-310. PMID: 21376136.

Krasowski, M. D., Ni, A., Hagey, L. R. & Ekins, S. (2011). Evolution of promiscuous nuclear hormone receptors: LXR, FXR, VDR, PXR, and CAR. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 334(1-2), 39-48. PMID: 20615451.

Krasowski, M. D., Ai, N., Hagey, L. R., Kollitz, E. M., Kullman, S. W., Reschly, E. J. & Ekins, S. (2011). The evolution of farnesoid X, vitamin D, and pregnane X receptors: insights from the green-spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigriviridis) and other non-mammalian species. BMC Biochem, 12, 5. PMID: 21291553.

Krasowski, M. D., Blau, J. L. (2011). Drug interactions with St. John's wort. In A. Dasgupta , C. A. Hammett-Stabler (Eds.) Herbal Supplements: Efficacy, Toxicity, Interactions with Western Drugs, and Effects on Clinical Laboratory Tests. pp. 273-290. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Adams, Y., Krasowski, M. D. (2011). Pharmacogenomics. In J. E. South-Paul , S. C. Matheny , E. L. Lewis (Eds.) Current Diagnosis and Treatment in Family Medicine. (3rd Edition), pp. 531-536. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Lange.

Marques, M. B., Anastasi, J., Ashwood, E., Baron, B., Fitzgerald, R., Fung, M., Krasowski, M., Laposata, M., Nester, T. & Rinder, H. M. (2011). The clinical pathologist as consultant. Am J Clin Pathol, 135(1), 11-2. PMID: 21173119.

Krasowski, M. D. (2011). Therapeutic drug monitoring of anti-epilepsy medications [open access]. In H. Foyaca-Sibat (Eds.) Novel Treatment of Epilepsy / Book 1. pp. 133-158. Rijeka (Croatia): InTech Publisher.

Hagey, L. R., Vidal, N., Hofmann, A. F. & Krasowski, M. D. (2010). Complex evolution of bile salts in birds. The Auk: Ornithological Advances, 127(4), 820-831. PMID: 21113274.

Kortagere, S., Krasowski, M. D., Reschly, E. J., Venkatesh, M., Mani, S. & Ekins, S. (2010). Evaluation of computational docking to identify pregnane X receptor agonists in the ToxCastTM database. Environ Health Perspect, 118(10), 1412-7. PMID: 20558333.

Hagey, L. R., Iida, T., Tamegai, H., Ogawa, S., Une, M., Asahina, K., Mushiake, K., Goto, T., Mano, N., Goto, J., Krasowski, M. D. & Hofmann, A. F. (2010). Major biliary bile acids of the Medaka (Oryzias latipes): 25R- and 25S-epimers of 3a,7a,12a-trihydroxy-5ß-cholestanoic acid. Zoolog Sci, 27(7), 565-73. PMID: 20608845.

Howarth, D. L., Hagey, L. R., Law, S. H., Ai, N., Krasowski, M. D., Ekins, S., Moore, J. T., Kollitz, E. M., Hinton, D. E. & Kullman, S. W. (2010). Two farnesoid X receptor alpha isoforms in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) are differentially activated in vitro. Aquat Toxicol, 98(3), 245-55. PMID: 20430454.

Lynch, M. J., Pizon, A. F., Siam, M. G. & Krasowski, M. D. (2010). Clinical effects and toxicokinetic evaluation following massive topiramate ingestion. J Med Toxicol, 6(2), 135-8. PMID: 20376593.

Krasowski, M. D. (2010). Therapeutic drug monitoring of the newer anti-epilepsy medications. Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 3(6), 1909-35. PMID: 20640233.

Hagey, L. R., Vidal, N., Hofmann, A. F. & Krasowski, M. D. (2010). Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites. BMC Evol Biol, 10, 133. PMID: 20444292.

Smith, B. R., Aguero-Rosenfeld, M., Anastasi, J., Baron, B., Berg, A., Bock, J. L., Campbell, S., Crookston, K. P., Fitzgerald, R., Fung, M., Haspel, R., Howe, J. G., Jhang, J., Kamoun, M., Koethe, S., Krasowski, M. D., Landry, M. L., Marques, M. B., Rinder, H. M., Roberts, W., Schreiber, W. E., Spitalnik, S. L., Tormey, C. A., Wolf, P. & Wu, Y. Y. (2010). Educating medical students in laboratory medicine: a proposed curriculum. Am J Clin Pathol, 133(4), 533-42. PMID: 20231605.

Hofmann, A. F., Hagey, L. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2010). Bile salts of vertebrates: structural variation and possible evolutionary significance. J Lipid Res, 51(2), 226-46. PMID: 19638645.

Krasowski, M. D. (2010). Clinical practice of therapeutic drug monitoring of new anticonvulsants. In A. Dasgupta (Eds.) Recent Advances in Chromatography Techniques for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. pp. 103-116. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.

Hagey, L. R., Møller, P. R., Hofmann, A. F. & Krasowski, M. D. (2010). Diversity of bile salts in fish and amphibians: evolution of a complex biochemical pathway. Physiol Biochem Zool, 83(2), 308-21. PMID: 20113173.

Krasowski, M. D., Siam, M. G. & Ekins, S. (2010). Immunoassays for tricyclic antidepressants: unsuitable for therapeutic drug monitoring?. In A. Dasgupta (Eds.) Recent Advances in Chromatography Techniques for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. pp. 179-190. Boca Raton(FL): CRC Press.

Ekins, S., Kortagere, S., Iyer, M., Reschly, E. J., Lill, M. A., Redinbo, M. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2009). Challenges predicting ligand-receptor interactions of promiscuous proteins: the nuclear receptor PXR. PLoS Comput Biol, 5(12), e1000594. PMID: 20011107.

Biswas, A., Mani, S., Redinbo, M. R., Krasowski, M. D., Li, H. & Ekins, S. (2009). Elucidating the 'Jekyll and Hyde' nature of PXR: the case for discovering antagonists or allosteric antagonists. Pharm Res, 26(8), 1807-15. PMID: 19415465.

Raval, J. S., Krasowski, M. D. & Virji, M. A. (2009). Neuroblastoma. (Vols. 49). (5) Chicago, IL: American Society for Clinical Pathology.

Krasowski, M. D., Siam, M. G., Iyer, M., Pizon, A. F., Giannoutsos, S. & Ekins, S. (2009). Chemoinformatic methods for predicting interference in drug of abuse/toxicology immunoassays. Clin Chem, 55(6), 1203-13. PMID: 19342505.

Krasowski, M. D., Siam, M. G., Iyer, M. & Ekins, S. (2009). Molecular similarity methods for predicting cross-reactivity with therapeutic drug monitoring immunoassays. Ther Drug Monit, 31(3), 337-44. PMID: 19333148.

Ai, N., Krasowski, M. D., Welsh, W. J. & Ekins, S. (2009). Understanding nuclear receptors using computational methods. Drug Discov Today, 14(10-Sep), 486-94. PMID: 19429508.

Krasowski, M. D., Pizon, A. F., Siam, M. G., Giannoutsos, S., Iyer, M. & Ekins, S. (2009). Using molecular similarity to highlight the challenges of routine immunoassay-based drug of abuse/toxicology screening in emergency medicine. BMC Emerg Med, 9, 5. PMID: 19400959.

Kortagere, S., Krasowski, M. D. & Ekins, S. (2009). The importance of discerning shape in molecular pharmacology. Trends Pharmacol Sci, 30(3), 138-47. PMID: 19187977.

Pizon, A. F., Schwartz, A. R., Shum, L. M., Rittenberger, J. C., Lower, D. R., Giannoutsos, S., Virji, M. A. & Krasowski, M. D. (2009). Toxicology laboratory analysis and human exposure to p-chloroaniline. Clin Toxicol (Phila), 47(2), 132-6. PMID: 18608262.

Zhang, B., Xie, W. & Krasowski, M. D. (2008). PXR: a xenobiotic receptor of diverse function implicated in pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenomics, 9(11), 1695-709. PMID: 19018724.

Krasowski, M. D., Reschly, E. J. & Ekins, S. (2008). Intrinsic disorder in nuclear hormone receptors. J Proteome Res, 7(10), 4359-72. PMID: 18651760.

Reschly, E. J., Ai, N., Ekins, S., Welsh, W. J., Hagey, L. R., Hofmann, A. F. & Krasowski, M. D. (2008). Evolution of the bile salt nuclear receptor FXR in vertebrates. J Lipid Res, 49(7), 1577-87. PMID: 18362391.

Khandelwal, A., Krasowski, M. D., Reschly, E. J., Sinz, M. W., Swaan, P. W. & Ekins, S. (2008). Machine learning methods and docking for predicting human pregnane X receptor activation. Chem Res Toxicol, 21(7), 1457-67. PMID: 18547065.

Ekins, S., Iyer, M., Krasowski, M. D. & Kharasch, E. D. (2008). Molecular characterization of CYP2B6 substrates. Curr Drug Metab, 9(5), 363-73. PMID: 18537573.

Reschly, E. J., Ai, N., Welsh, W. J., Ekins, S., Hagey, L. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2008). Ligand specificity and evolution of liver X receptors. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 110(1-2), 83-94. PMID: 18395439.

Ekins, S., Reschly, E. J., Hagey, L. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2008). Evolution of pharmacologic specificity in the pregnane X receptor. BMC Evol Biol, 8, 103. PMID: 18384689.

Reschly, E. J., Bainy, A. C., Mattos, J. J., Hagey, L. R., Bahary, N., Mada, S. R., Ou, J., Venkataramanan, R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2007). Functional evolution of the vitamin D and pregnane X receptors. BMC Evol Biol, 7, 222. PMID: 17997857.

Greiner-Sosanko, E., Giannoutsos, S., Lower, D. R., Virji, M. A. & Krasowski, M. D. (2007). Drug monitoring: simultaneous analysis of lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, 10-hydroxycarbazepine, and zonisamide by HPLC-UV and a rapid GC method using a nitrogen-phosphorus detector for levetiracetam. J Chromatogr Sci, 45(9), 616-22. PMID: 17988451.

Ekins, S., Chang, C., Mani, S., Krasowski, M. D., Reschly, E. J., Iyer, M., Kholodovych, V., Ai, N., Welsh, W. J., Sinz, M., Swaan, P. W., Patel, R. & Bachmann, K. (2007). Human pregnane X receptor antagonists and agonists define molecular requirements for different binding sites. Mol Pharmacol, 72(3), 592-603. PMID: 17576789.

Genzen, J. R., Krasowski, M. D. (2007). Resident training in clinical chemistry. Clin Lab Med, 27(2), 343-58; abstract vii. PMID: 17556088.

Baron, B. W., Zeleznik-Le, N., Baron, M. J., Theisler, C., Huo, D., Krasowski, M. D., Thirman, M. J., Baron, R. M. & Baron, J. M. (2007). Repression of the PDCD2 gene by BCL6 and the implications for the pathogenesis of human B and T cell lymphomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104(18), 7449-54. PMID: 17468402.

Greiner-Sosanko, E., Lower, D. R., Virji, M. A. & Krasowski, M. D. (2007). Simultaneous determination of lamotrigine, zonisamide, and carbamazepine in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. Biomed Chromatogr, 21(3), 225-8. PMID: 17230449.

Adams, Y., Krasowski, M. D. (2007). Pharmacogenomics in primary care. In J. E. South-Paul , E. L. Lewis , S. C. Matheny (Eds.) Current Diagnosis and Treatment in Family Medicine. (2nd edition), pp. 543-548. New York: McGraw Hill Lange.

Iyer, M., Reschly, E. J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2006). Functional evolution of the pregnane X receptor. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol, 2(3), 381-97. PMID: 16863441.

Reschly, E. J., Krasowski, M. D. (2006). Evolution and function of the NR1I nuclear hormone receptor subfamily (VDR, PXR, and CAR) with respect to metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Curr Drug Metab, 7(4), 349-65. PMID: 16724925.

Krasowski, M. D., Yasuda, K., Hagey, L. R. & Schuetz, E. G. (2005). Evolutionary selection across the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily with a focus on the NR1I subfamily (vitamin D, pregnane X, and constitutive androstane receptors). Nucl Recept, 3, 2. PMID: 16197547.

Thompson, E. E., Kuttab-Boulos, H., Krasowski, M. D. & Di Rienzo, A. (2005). Functional constraints on the constitutive androstane receptor inferred from human sequence variation and cross-species comparisons. Hum Genomics, 2(3), 168-78. PMID: 16197734.

Krasowski, M. D., Yasuda, K., Hagey, L. R. & Schuetz, E. G. (2005). Evolution of the pregnane x receptor: adaptation to cross-species differences in biliary bile salts. Mol Endocrinol, 19(7), 1720-39. PMID: 15718292.

Krasowski, M. D. (2005). GPI-15715 Guilford. Curr Opin Investig Drugs, 6(1), 90-8. PMID: 15675608.

Krasowski, M. D. (2003). Contradicting a unitary theory of general anesthetic action: a history of three compounds from 1901 to 2001. Bull Anesth Hist, 21(3), 1, 4-8, 21 passim. PMID: 17494361.

Krasowski, M. D., Hong, X., Hopfinger, A. J. & Harrison, N. L. (2002). 4D-QSAR analysis of a set of propofol analogues: mapping binding sites for an anesthetic phenol on the GABAA receptor. J Med Chem, 45(15), 3210-21. PMID: 12109905.

Krasowski, M. D., Nishikawa, K., Nikolaeva, N., Lin, A. & Harrison, N. L. (2001). Methionine 286 in transmembrane domain 3 of the GABAA receptor ß subunit controls a binding cavity for propofol and other alkylphenol general anesthetics. Neuropharmacology, 41(8), 952-64. PMID: 11747900.

Lingamaneni, R., Krasowski, M. D., Jenkins, A., Truong, T., Giunta, A. L., Blackbeer, J., MacIver, M. B., Harrison, N. L. & Hemmings Jr, H. C. (2001). Anesthetic properties of 4-iodopropofol: implications for mechanisms of anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 94(6), 1050-7. PMID: 11465597.

Krasowski, M. D., Jenkins, A., Flood, P., Kung, A. Y., Hopfinger, A. J. & Harrison, N. L. (2001). General anesthetic potencies of a series of propofol analogs correlate with potency for potentiation of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) current at the GABAA receptor but not with lipid solubility. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 297(1), 338-51. PMID: 11259561.

Krasowski, M. D., Harris, R. A. & Harrison, N. L. (2001). Allosteric modulation of GABAA receptor function by general anesthetics and alcohols. In H. Mohler (Eds.) Pharmacology of GABA and Glycine Neurotransmission. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. pp. 141-172. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

McGehee, D. S., Krasowski, M. D., Fung, D. L., Wilson, B., Gronert, G. A. & Moss, J. (2000). Cholinesterase inhibition by potato glycoalkaloids slows mivacurium metabolism. Anesthesiology, 93(2), 510-9. PMID: 10910502.

Vandenbergh, D. J., Thompson, M. D., Cook, E. H., Bendahhou, E., Nguyen, T., Krasowski, M. D., Zarrabian, D., Comings, D., Sellers, E. M., Tyndale, R. F., George, S. R., O'Dowd, B. F. & Uhl, G. R. (2000). Human dopamine transporter gene: coding region conservation among normal, Tourette's disorder, alcohol dependence and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder populations. Mol Psychiatry, 5(3), 283-92. PMID: 10889531.

Flood, P., Krasowski, M. D. (2000). Intravenous anesthetics differentially modulate ligand-gated ion channels. Anesthesiology, 92(5), 1418-25. PMID: 10781289.

Krasowski, M. D. (2000). Differential modulatory actions of the volatile convulsant flurothyl and its anesthetic isomer at inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels. Neuropharmacology, 39(7), 1168-83. PMID: 10760360.

Krasowski, M. D., Harrison, N. L. (2000). The actions of ether, alcohol and alkane general anaesthetics on GABAA and glycine receptors and the effects of TM2 and TM3 mutations. Br J Pharmacol, 129(4), 731-43. PMID: 10683198.

Harrison, N. L., Krasowski, M. D. & Harris, R. A. (2000). Alcohol and general anesthetic actions on the GABAA receptor. In D. L. Martin , R. W. Olsen (Eds.) GABA in the Nervous System: the View at Fifty Years. pp. 167-189. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Krasowski, M. D., Harrison, N. L. (1999). General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci, 55(10), 1278-1303. PMID: 10487207.

Homanics, G. E., Harrison, N. L., Quinlan, J. J., Krasowski, M. D., Rick, C. E., de Blas, A. L., Mehta, A. K., Kist, F., Mihalek, R. M., Aul, J. J. & Firestone, L. L. (1999). Normal electrophysiological and behavioral responses to ethanol in mice lacking the long splice variant of the ?2 subunit of the ?-aminobutyrate type A receptor. Neuropharmacology, 38(2), 253-65. PMID: 10218866.

Krasowski, M. D. (1998). Sites of action for propofol and isoflurane at GABAA receptors: implications for molecular mechanisms of general anesthesia. J. Q. Roberge (Eds.) (Vols. 8). (5), pp. 10-11. Wilton, CT/Globetech Publishers: Critical Care International.

Krasowski, M. D., Koltchine, V. V., Rick, C. E., Ye, Q., Finn, S. E. & Harrison, N. L. (1998). Propofol and other intravenous anesthetics have sites of action on the ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptor distinct from that for isoflurane. Mol Pharmacol, 53(3), 530-8. PMID: 9495821.

Krasowski, M. D., Finn, S. E., Ye, Q. & Harrison, N. L. (1998). Trichloroethanol modulation of recombinant GABAA, glycine and GABA ?1 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 284(3), 934-42. PMID: 9495852.

Krasowski, M. D., Rick, C. E., Harrison, N. L., Firestone, L. L. & Homanics, G. E. (1998). A deficit of functional GABAA receptors in neurons of ß3 subunit knockout mice. Neurosci Lett, 240(2), 81-4. PMID: 9486477.

Mihic, S. J., Ye, Q., Wick, M. J., Koltchine, V. V., Krasowski, M. D., Finn, S. E., Mascia, M. P., Valenzuela, C. F., Hanson, K. K., Greenblatt, E. P., Harris, R. A. & Harrison, N. L. (1997). Sites of alcohol and volatile anaesthetic action on GABAA and glycine receptors. Nature, 389(6649), 385-9. PMID: 9311780.

Krasowski, M. D., O'Shea, S. M., Rick, C. E., Whiting, P. J., Hadingham, K. L., Czajkowski, C. & Harrison, N. L. (1997). a Subunit isoform influences GABAA receptor modulation by propofol. Neuropharmacology, 36(7), 941-9. PMID: 9257938.

Krasowski, M. D., McGehee, D. S. & Moss, J. (1997). Natural inhibitors of cholinesterases: implications for adverse drug reactions. Can J Anaesth, 44(5 Pt 1), 525-34. PMID: 9161749.

Homanics, G. E., DeLorey, T. M., Firestone, L. L., Quinlan, J. J., Handforth, A., Harrison, N. L., Krasowski, M. D., Rick, C. E., Korpi, E. R., Mäkelä, R., Brilliant, M. H., Hagiwara, N., Ferguson, C., Snyder, K. & Olsen, R. W. (1997). Mice devoid of ?-aminobutyrate type A receptor ß3 subunit have epilepsy, cleft palate, and hypersensitive behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94(8), 4143-8. PMID: 9108119.

Stein, M. A., Krasowski, M. D., Leventhal, B. L., Phillips, W. & Bender, B. G. (1996). Behavioral and cognitive effects of methylxanthines. A meta-analysis of theophylline and caffeine. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 150(3), 284-8. PMID: 8603222.

Cook Jr, E. H., Stein, M. A., Krasowski, M. D., Cox, N. J., Olkon, D. M., Kieffer, J. E. & Leventhal, B. L. (1995). Association of attention-deficit disorder and the dopamine transporter gene. Am J Hum Genet, 56(4), 993-8. PMID: 7717410.

Stein, M. A., Szumowski, E., Sandoval, R., Nadelman, D., O'Brien, T., Krasowski, M. & Phillips, W. (1994). Psychometric properties of the children's atypical development scale. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 22(2), 167-76. PMID: 7520459.

Chen, H., Krasowski, M. & Fitzgerald, G. (1993). Density functional pseudopotential studies of molecular geometrics, vibrations, and binding energies. J Chem Phys, 98, 8710-7.