Matthew D. Krasowski, MD, PhD

Walter L. Bierring Professor of Clinical Education
Vice Chair for Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Services
Medical Director, Clinical Chemistry and Point of Service Laboratories
Medical Director, Iowa River Landing Laboratory
Associate Director, Residency Program
Clinical Professor of Pathology

Contact Information

Primary Office: C671 General Hospital
200 Hawkins Drive
Iowa City, IA 52242


BA, East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Chicago
PhD, Neurobiology, University of Chicago
MD, University of Chicago

Clinical Pathology, University of Chicago
Fellow, Clinical Pharmacology & Pharmacogenomics, University of Chicago

Licensure and Certifications

Fellow - College of American Pathologists
Diplomat, Clinical Pathology - American Board of Pathology

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Informatics

Research Summary

Clinical: 1) Toxicology and therapeutic drug monitoring, 2) Novel methods of teaching laboratory medicine to medical students and 3) Application of pharmacogenetics to clinical practice.

Informatics: Methods to predict interferences in clinical chemistry.

Basic Research: 1)Liver metabolism of drugs and endogenous compounds, 2) Bile salt biology, 3) Evolution of nuclear hormone receptors and enzymes and 4) Transcription regulators of liver and intestinal metabolism.


Krasowski, M. D., Ekins, S. (2018). Cheminformatics in a Clinical Setting. In S. Ekins (Eds.) Computational Toxicology: Risk Assessment for Chemicals. pp. 175-210. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Lee, J. P., Tansey, M., Jetton, J. G. & Krasowski, M. D. (2018). Vitamin D toxicity: A 16-year retrospective study at an academic medical center. Laboratory medicine. PMID: 29346630.

Kurt-Mangold, M. E., Grieme, C. V., Krasowski, M. D. & Rosenthal, N. S. (2018). Clinical Utility of Ordered Pathology Blood Smear Reviews - an Overused Resource?. Clinical laboratory, 64(1), 99-104. PMID: 29479875.

Krasowski, M. D., Ford, B. A., Klutts, J. S., Jensen, C. S., Briggs, A. S., Robinson, R. A., Bruch, L. A. & Karandikar, N. J. (2017). Using focused laboratory management and quality improvement projects to enhance resident training and foster scholarship. Academic pathology, 4, 2374289517722152. PMID: 28913416.

Imborek, K. L., Nisly, N. L., Hesseltine, M. J., Grienke, J., Zikmund, T. A., Dreyer, N. R., Blau, J. L., Hightower, M., Humble, R. M. & Krasowski, M. D. (2017). Preferred names, preferred pronouns, and gender identity in the electronic medical record and laboratory information system: Is pathology ready?. Journal of pathology informatics, 8, 42. PMID: 29114436.

Kurogi, K., Yoshihama, M., Horton, A., Schiefer, I. T., Krasowski, M. D., Hagey, L. R., Williams, F. E., Sakakibara, Y., Kenmochi, N., Suiko, M. & Liu, M. C. (2017). Identification and characterization of 5a-cyprinol-sulfating cytosolic sulfotransferases (Sults) in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio). The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology, In press, pii: S0960-0760(17)3921804. PMID: 28807679.

Andresen, N. S., Olson, T. S. & Krasowski, M. D. (2017). Medical student and medical school teaching faculty perceptions of conflict of interest. BMC research notes, 10(1), 272. PMID: 28693566.

Mainali, S., Davis, S. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2017). Frequency and causes of lipemia interference of clinical chemistry laboratory tests. Practical laboratory medicine, 8, 1-9. PMID: 28856220.

Grieme, C. V., Voss, D. R., Davis, S. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2017). Impact of endogenous and exogenous interferences on clinical chemistry parameters measured on blood gas analyzers. Clinical laboratory, 63(3), 561-568. PMID: 28271676.

Dunseth, C. D., Ford, B. A. & Krasowski, M. D. (2017). Traditional versus reverse syphilis algorithms: A comparison at a large academic medical center. Practical laboratory medicine, 8, 52-59. PMID: 28856228.

Dhungana, N., Morris, C. & Krasowski, M. D. (2017). Operational impact of using a vanadate oxidase method for direct bilirubin measurements at an academic medical center clinical laboratory. Practical laboratory medicine, 8, 77-85. PMID: 28856232.

Wood, K. E., Smith, P. & Krasowski, M. D. (2017). Newborn drug testing practices in Iowa birthing hospitals. Journal of neonatal-perinatal medicine, 10(4), 445-450. PMID: 29286931.

Blau, J. L., Wilford, J. D., Dane, S. K., Karandikar, N. J., Fuller, E. S., Jacobsmeier, D. J., Jans, M. A., Horning, E. A., Krasowski, M. D., Ford, B. A., Becker, K. R., Beranek, J. M. & Robinson, R. A. (2017). Implementation of Epic Beaker Anatomic Pathology at an Academic Medical Center. Journal of pathology informatics, 8, 47. PMID: 29387505.

Krasowski, M. D., Grieme, C. V., Cassady, B., Dreyer, N. R., Wanat, K. A., Hightower, M. & Nepple, K. G. (2017). Variation in results release and patient portal access to diagnostic test results at an academic medical center. Journal of pathology informatics, 8, 45. PMID: 29226008.

Krasowski, M. D., Wood, K. E. (2017). Accidental amphetamine ingestion: High levels of use for ADHD raise the risk of intoxication in young children. pp. 1-4. Clinical & Forensic Toxicology News.

Abbi, K. K., Silverman, M., Farooq, U., Tricot, A., Dozeman, L., Nadiminti, K., Krasowski, M. D. & Tricot, G. J. (2016). Potential pitfalls of serum free light chain analysis to assess treatment response for multiple myeloma. British journal of haematology, 174(4), 536-540. PMID: 27172326.

Gupta, S., Imborek, K. L. & Krasowski, M. D. (2016). Challenges in transgender healthcare: The pathology perspective. Lab Med, 47(3), 180-188. PMID: 27287942.

Wood, K. E., Krasowski, M. D. (2016). An infant with a prolonged sympathomimetic toxidrome after lisdexamfetamine dimesylate ingestion. J Med Toxicol. PMID: 27277955.

Rooney, S. L., Ehlers, A. & Krasowski, M. D. (2016). Reply to Dr. Kim and Colleagues Regarding Use of a Rapid Ethylene Glycol Assay. Journal of medical toxicology : official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology. PMID: 27055453.

Rosean, T. R., Holman, C. J., Tompkins, V. S., Jing, X., Krasowski, M. D., Rose-John, S. & Janz, S. (2016). KSHV-encoded vIL-6 collaborates with deregulated c-Myc to drive plasmablastic neoplasms in mice. Blood Cancer J, 6, e398. PMID: 26918362.

Grieme, C. V., Voss, D. R., Olson, K. E., Davis, S. R., Kulhavy, J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2016). Prevalence and clinical utility of "incidental" critical values resulting from critical care laboratory testing. Lab Med, 47(4), 338-349. PMID: 27708170.

Genzen, J. R., Hunsaker, J. J., Nelson, L. S., Faine, B. A. & Krasowski, M. D. (2016). N-acetylcysteine interference of Trinder-based assays. Clin Biochem, 49(1), 100-4. PMID: 26500003.

Krasowski, M. D. (2016). Data mining to improve laboratory utilization and patient care. Critical Values, 24-27.

Krasowski, M. D., Wilford, J. D., Howard, W., Dane, S. K., Davis, S. R., Karandikar, N. J., Blau, J. L. & Ford, B. A. (2016). Implementation of Epic Beaker Clinical Pathology at an academic medical center. J Pathol Inform, 7, 7. PMID: 26955505.

Pasquel, D., Doricakova, A., Li, H., Kortagere, S., Krasowski, M. D., Biswas, A., Walton, W. G., Redinbo, M. M., Dvorak, Z. & Mani, S. (2016). Acetylation of lysine 109 modulates pregnane X receptor DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1859(9), 1155-1169. PMID: 26855179.

Schouweiler, K. E., Krasowski, M. D. (2016). Ovarian cancer and the utility of current ovarian tumor markers. (Vols. CC16-3). ASCP Case Reports.

Fierro-Fine, A. C., Harland, K., House, H. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2016). Ethanol values during college football season: University policy change and emergency department blood ethanol values from 2006 through 2014. Laboratory medicine, 47(4), 300-305. PMID: 27572874.

Steussy, B. W., Capper, M., Krasowski, M. D., Rosenthal, N. S. & Schlueter, A. J. (2016). Algorithms utilizing peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cell counts in lieu of some CD34+ cell counts predict successful peripheral blood stem cell collections with substantial time and cost savings. ISBT Science Series, 11(3), 153-162. DOI: 10.1111/voxs.12289.

Palmer, K. L., Wood, K. E. & Krasowski, M. D. (2016). Evaluating a switch from meconium to umbilical cord tissue for newborn drug testing: A retrospective study at an academic medical center. Clinical biochemistry. PMID: 27890824.

Humble, R. M., Hounkponou, H. G. & Krasowski, M. D. (2016). The "rainbow" of extra blood tubes-useful or wasteful practice?. JAMA internal medicine. PMID: 27820611.

Stauffer, S. L., Wood, S. M. & Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases. J Forensic Leg Med, 33, 61-7. PMID: 26048499.

Ogrin, C., Ford, B. A., Stauffer, S. L., Krasowski, M. D. & Azar, A. E. (2015). Positive test for antithyroglobulin antibodies due to administration of immunoglobulin replacement therapy in a patient with thyroid cancer. Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, 21(8), 966-71. PMID: 26151422.

Krasowski, M. D., Schriever, A., Mathur, G., Blau, J. L., Stauffer, S. L. & Ford, B. A. (2015). Use of a data warehouse at an academic medical center for clinical pathology quality improvement, education, and research. J Pathol Inform, 6(1), 45. PMID: 26284156.

McMillin, G. A., Wood, K. E., Strathmann, F. G. & Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Patterns of drugs and drug metabolites observed in meconium: What do they mean?. Ther Drug Monit, 37(5), 568-80. PMID: 25565668.

Krasowski, M. D., Chudzik, D., Dolezal, A., Steussy, B., Gailey, M. P., Koch, B., Kilborn, S. B., Darbro, B. W., Rysgaard, C. D. & Klesney-Tait, J. A. (2015). Promoting improved utilization of laboratory testing through changes in an electronic medical record: Experience at an academic medical center. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, 15(11). PMID: 25880934.

Kurt-Mangold, M., Van Voorhis, B. J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Persistent human chorionic gonadotropin after methotrexate treatment and an emergency surgical procedure for ectopic pregnancy. Lab Med, 46(3), 254-8. PMID: 26199268.

Klutts, J. S., Guerin, L. A., Bruch, L. A., Firchau, D. J., Knudson, C. M., Rosenthal, N. S., Samuelson, M. I., Jensen, C. S., Delwiche, J. L. & Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Pathology milestones: Assessing clinical competency by committee. Academic pathology, 2(4), 2374289515614003. PMID: 28725752.

Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Pharmacogenomics. In , J. E. South-Paul , S. C. Matheny , E. L. Lewis (Eds.) Current Diagnosis and Treatment in Family Medicine. (4th Edition), pp. 523-528. New York: McGraw Education.

Nelson, L. S., Davis, S. R., Humble, R. M., Kulhavy, J., Aman, D. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Impact of add-on laboratory testing at an academic medical center: a five year retrospective study. BMC Clin Pathol, 15, 11. PMID: 26052250.

Nelson, L. S., Steussy, B., Morris, C. S. & Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Effect of specimen type on free immunoglobulin light chains analysis on the Roche Diagnostics cobas 8000 analyzer. SpringerPlus, 4, 760. PMID: 26682113.

Humble, R. M., Ehlers, A., Pakalniskis, B. L., Morris, C., Drees, D., Kulhavy, J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Therapeutic drug monitoring of pentobarbital: Experience at an academic medical center. Ther Drug Monit, 37(6), 783-791. PMID: 26565790.

Rooney, S. L., Ehlers, A., Morris, C., Drees, D., Davis, S. R., Kulhavy, J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Use of a rapid ethylene glycol assay: a 4-Year retrospective study at an academic medical center. J Med Toxicol, 12(2), 172-179. PMID: 26553280.

Palmer, K. L., Krasowski, M. D. (2015). Hair testing for illicit drugs: do the advantages of this matrix outweigh the disadvantages?. Clinical & Forensic Toxicology News, 1-3.

Krasowski, M. D., Savage, J., Ehlers, A., Maakestad, J., Schmidt, G. A., La'ulu, S. L., Rasmussen, N. N., Strathmann, F. G. & Genzen, J. R. (2015). Ordering of the serum angiotensin-converting enzyme test in patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy: An avoidable but common error. Chest, 148(6), 1447-53. PMID: 26225637.

Ahmed, A., Tschetter, P. A., Krasowski, M. D. & Engelman, A. (2014). Massive ethylene glycol poisoning triggers osmotic demyelination syndrome. J Emerg Med, 46(3), e69-74. PMID: 24199725.

Krasowski, M. D., Davis, S. R., Drees, D., Morris, C., Kulhavy, J., Crone, C., Bebber, T., Clark, I., Nelson, D. L., Teul, S., Voss, D., Aman, D., Fahnle, J. & Blau, J. L. (2014). Autoverification in a core clinical chemistry laboratory at an academic medical center. J Pathol Inform, 5, 13. PMID: 24843824.

Marin, S. J., Metcalf, A., Krasowski, M. D., Linert, B. S., Clark, C. J., Strathmann, F. G. & McMillin, G. A. (2014). Detection of neonatal drug exposure using umbilical cord tissue and liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Ther Drug Monit, 36(1), 119-24. PMID: 24061447.

Krasowski, M. D., Ekins, S. (2014). Using cheminformatics to predict cross reactivity of "designer drugs" to their currently available immunoassays. J Cheminform, 6, 22. PMID: 24851137.

Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In Decision Support in Medicine (online book). Wilmington, DE: Decision Support in Medicine, LLC.

Krasowski, M. D., Drees, D., Morris, C. S., Maakestad, J., Blau, J. L. & Ekins, S. (2014). Cross-reactivity of steroid hormone immunoassays: clinical significance and two-dimensional molecular similarity prediction. BMC Clin Pathol, 14, 33. PMID: 25071417.

Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Secondary hyperparathyroidism. In Decision Support in Medicine (online book). Wilmington, DE: Decision Support in Medicine, LLC.

Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Pseudohyperparathyroidism. In Decision Support in Medicine (online book). Wilmington, DE: Decision Support in Medicine, LLC.

Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Primary hyperparathyroidism. In Decison Support in Medicine. Wilmington, DE: Decison Support in Medicine, LLC.

Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Hypercalcemia of malignancy. In Decision Support in Medicine (online book). Wilmington, DE: Decision Support in Medicine, LLC.

Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Milk-Alkali Syndrome. In Decision Support in Medicine (online book). Wilmington, DE: Decision Support in Medicine, LLC.

Rysgaard, C. D., Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Drug testing in the newborn. Chicago, IL: American Society for Clinical Pathology.

Krasowski, M. D., McMillin, G. A. (2014). Advances in anti-epileptic drug testing. Clin Chim Acta, 436, 224-36. PMID: 24925169.

Wood, K. E., Sinclair, L. L., Rysgaard, C. D., Strathmann, F. G., McMillin, G. A. & Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Retrospective analysis of the diagnostic yield of newborn drug testing. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 14(1), 250. PMID: 25073780.

Mathur, G., Haugen, T. H., Davis, S. L. & Krasowski, M. D. (2014). Streamlined sign-out of capillary protein electrophoresis using middleware and an open-source macro application. J Pathol Inform,(5), 36. PMID: 25337433.

Wood, K. E., Krasowski, M. D., Strathmann, F. G. & McMillin, G. A. (2014). Meconium drug testing in multiple births in the USA. J Anal Toxicol, 38(7), 397-403. PMID: 24927721.

Wood, K. E., Krasowski, M. D. & McMillin, G. A. (2014). Drug tests in multiple births largest study examines incidence of mismatches in meconium test results. Clinical & Forensic Toxicology News, 6-9.

Krasowski, M. D. (2013). Anti-epileptic drugs: therapeutic drug monitoring of the newer generation drugs. Clin Lab News, 39(6), 8-10.

Genzen, J. R., Gosselin, J. T., Wilson, T. C., Racila, E. & Krasowski, M. D. (2013). Analysis of vitamin D status at two academic medical centers and a national reference laboratory: result patterns vary by age, gender, season, and patient location. BMC Endocr Disor, 13(1), 52. PMID: 24188187.

Ehlers, A., Morris, C. & Krasowski, M. D. (2013). A rapid analysis of plasma/serum ethylene and propylene glycol by headspace gas chromatography. Springerplus, 2(1), 203. PMID: 23741644.

Petrie, M., Lynch, K. L., Ekins, S., Chang, J. S., Goetz, R. J., Wu, A. H. & Krasowski, M. D. (2013). Cross-reactivity studies and predictive modeling of "Bath Salts" and other amphetamine-type stimulants with amphetamine screening immunoassays. Clin Toxicol (Phila)., 51(2), 83-91. PMID: 23387345.

Jackson, B. R., Krasowski, M. D. & Sims, P. J. (2013). Laboratory diagnostic oversight committees and the profession of laboratory medicine. Am J Clin Pathol, 139(3), 273-4. PMID: 23429362.

Hagey, L. R., Krasowski, M. D. (2013). Microbial biotransformations of bile acids as detected by electrospray mass spectrometry. Adv Nutr, 4(1), 29-35. PMID: 23319120.

Krasowski, M. D. (2013). The challenge of detecting prescription opioid abuse in pregnancy. E. Link , L. Huffman (Eds.) (Vols. 20). (3), pp. 1-3. Coralville, IA/EPSDT: Care for Kids: Early & Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, & Treatment.

King, A. M., Pugh, J. L., Menke, N. B., Krasowski, M. D., Lynch, M. J. & Pizon, A. F. (2012). Nonfatal tramadol overdose may cause false-positive phencyclidine on Emit-II assay. Am J Emerg Med, 31(2), 444.e5-444.e9. PMID: 22944551.

Fidler, A. E., Holland, P. T., Reschly, E. J., Ekins, S. & Krasowski, M. D. (2012). Activation of a tunicate (Ciona intestinalis) xenobiotic receptor orthologue by both natural toxins and synthetic toxicants. Toxicon, 59(2), 365-72. PMID: 22206814.

Krasowski, M. D., Wilcoxon, R. M. & Miron, J. (2012). A retrospective analysis of glycol and toxic alcohol ingestion: utility of anion and osmolal gaps. BMC Clin Pathol, 12(1), 1. PMID: 22240170.

Kurt-Mangold, M., Drees, D. & Krasowski, M. D. (2012). Extremely high myoglobin plasma concentrations producing hook effect in a critically ill patient. Clin Chim Acta, 414, 179-181. PMID: 22960204.

Rysgaard, C. D., Morris, C. S., Drees, D., Bebber, T., Davis, S. R., Kulhavy, J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2012). Positive hepatitis B surface antigen tests due to recent vaccination: a persistent problem. BMC Clin Pathol, 12(1), 15. PMID: 23006828.

Barakauskas, V. E., Davis, R., Krasowski, M. D. & McMillin, G. A. (2012). Unresolved discrepancies between cannabinoid test results for infant urine. Clin Chem, 58(9), 1364-7. PMID: 22829312.

Krasowski, M. D. (2012). Toxic Alcohols: Practical challenges in laboratory diagnosis of ingestions. Clin Lab News, 38(2), 8-10.

Krasowski, M. D., Penrod, L. E. (2012). Clinical decision support of therapeutic drug monitoring of phenytoin: measured versus adjusted phenytoin plasma concentrations. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, 12, 7. PMID: 22333264.

Kortagere, S., Krasowski, M. D. & Ekins, S. (2012). Ligand and structure-based pregnane x receptor models. Methods Mol Biol, 929, 359-75. PMID: 23007437.

Ekins, S., Kortagere, S., Krasowski, M. D., Williams, A. J., Xu, J. & Zientek, M. (2012). Ligand-based modeling of toxicity. In D. J. Livingstone , A. Davis (Eds.) Drug Design Strategies: Quantitative Approaches. pp. 310-42. Cambridge (UK): RSC Publishing.

Krasowski, M. D. (2012). Pharmacogenomics aspect of warfarin therapy. In L. J. Langman , A. Dasgupta (Eds.) Pharmacogenomics in Clinical Therapeutics. pp. 26-38. Oxford (UK): Wiley-Blackwell Publisher.

Adams, Y., Krasowski, M. D. (2011). Pharmacogenomics. In J. E. South-Paul , S. C. Matheny , E. L. Lewis (Eds.) Current Diagnosis and Treatment in Family Medicine. (3rd Edition), pp. 531-536. New York: McGraw Hill Lange.

Krasowski, M. D. (2011). Therapeutic drug monitoring of anti-epilepsy medications [open access]. In H. Foyaca-Sibat (Eds.) Novel Treatment of Epilepsy / Book 1. pp. 133-158. Rijeka (Croatia): InTech Publisher.

Marques, M. B., Anastasi, J., Ashwood, E., Baron, B., Fitzgerald, R., Fung, M., Krasowski, M., Laposata, M., Nester, T. & Rinder, H. M. (2011). The clinical pathologist as consultant. American journal of clinical pathology, 135(1), 11-2. PMID: 21173119.

Krasowski, M. D. (2011). Pathology consultation on vitamin D testing. Am J Clin Pathol, 136(4), 507-14. PMID: 21917672.

Krasowski, M. D., Blau, J. L. (2011). Drug interactions with St. John's wort. In A. Dasgupta , C. A. Hammett-Stabler (Eds.) Herbal Supplements: Efficacy, Toxicity, Interactions with Western Drugs, and Effects on Clinical Laboratory Tests. pp. 273-290. Hoboken (NJ): Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Ogawa, S., Mitamura, K., Ikegawa, S., Krasowski, M. D., Hagey, L. R., Hofmann, A. F. & Iida, T. (2011). Chemical synthesis of the (25R)- and (25S)-epimers of 3a,7a,12a-trihydroxy-5a-cholestan-27-oic acid as well as their corresponding glycine and taurine conjugates. Chem Phys Lipids, 164(5), 368-77. PMID: 21554864.

Krasowski, M. D., Hopfinger, A. J. (2011). The discovery of new anesthetics by targeting GABA(A) receptors. Expert Opin Drug Discov, 6(11), 1187-201. PMID: 22646986.

Krasowski, M. D., Ai, N., Hagey, L. R., Kollitz, E. M., Kullman, S. W., Reschly, E. J. & Ekins, S. (2011). The evolution of farnesoid X, vitamin D, and pregnane X receptors: insights from the green-spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigriviridis) and other non-mammalian species. BMC Biochem, 12, 5. PMID: 21291553.

Kurogi, K., Krasowski, M. D., Injeti, E., Liu, M. Y., Williams, F. E., Sakakibara, Y., Suiko, M. & Liu, M. C. (2011). A comparative study of the sulfation of bile acids and a bile alcohol by the Zebra danio (Danio rerio) and human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs). J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 127(3-5), 307-14. PMID: 21839837.

Ekins, S., Williams, A. J., Krasowski, M. D. & Freundlich, J. S. (2011). In silico repositioning of approved drugs for rare and neglected diseases. Drug Discov Today, 16(7-8), 298-310. PMID: 21376136.

Krasowski, M. D., Ni, A., Hagey, L. R. & Ekins, S. (2011). Evolution of promiscuous nuclear hormone receptors: LXR, FXR, VDR, PXR, and CAR. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 334(1-2), 39-48. PMID: 20615451.

Hofmann, A. F., Hagey, L. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2010). Bile salts of vertebrates: structural variation and possible evolutionary significance. J Lipid Res, 51(2), 226-46. PMID: 19638645.

Krasowski, M. D. (2010). Clinical practice of therapeutic drug monitoring of new anticonvulsants. In A. Dasgupta (Eds.) Recent Advances in Chromatography Techniques for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. pp. 103-116. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.

Krasowski, M. D., Siam, M. G. & Ekins, S. (2010). Immunoassays for tricyclic antidepressants: unsuitable for therapeutic drug monitoring?. In A. Dasgupta (Eds.) Recent Advances in Chromatography Techniques for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. pp. 179-190. Boca Raton(FL): CRC Press.

Smith, B. R., Aguero-Rosenfeld, M., Anastasi, J., Baron, B., Berg, A., Bock, J. L., Campbell, S., Crookston, K. P., Fitzgerald, R., Fung, M., Haspel, R., Howe, J. G., Jhang, J., Kamoun, M., Koethe, S., Krasowski, M. D., Landry, M. L., Marques, M. B., Rinder, H. M., Roberts, W., Schreiber, W. E., Spitalnik, S. L., Tormey, C. A., Wolf, P. & Wu, Y. Y. (2010). Educating medical students in laboratory medicine: a proposed curriculum. Am J Clin Pathol, 133(4), 533-42. PMID: 20231605.

Hagey, L. R., Møller, P. R., Hofmann, A. F. & Krasowski, M. D. (2010). Diversity of bile salts in fish and amphibians: evolution of a complex biochemical pathway. Physiol Biochem Zool, 83(2), 308-21. PMID: 20113173.

Hagey, L. R., Vidal, N., Hofmann, A. F. & Krasowski, M. D. (2010). Complex evolution of bile salts in birds. Auk, 127(4), 820-831. PMID: 21113274.

Hagey, L. R., Iida, T., Tamegai, H., Ogawa, S., Une, M., Asahina, K., Mushiake, K., Goto, T., Mano, N., Goto, J., Krasowski, M. D. & Hofmann, A. F. (2010). Major biliary bile acids of the Medaka (Oryzias latipes): 25R- and 25S-epimers of 3a,7a,12a-trihydroxy-5ß-cholestanoic acid. Zoolog Sci, 27(7), 565-73. PMID: 20608845.

Hagey, L. R., Vidal, N., Hofmann, A. F. & Krasowski, M. D. (2010). Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites. BMC Evol Biol, 10, 133. PMID: 20444292.

Kortagere, S., Krasowski, M. D., Reschly, E. J., Venkatesh, M., Mani, S. & Ekins, S. (2010). Evaluation of computational docking to identify pregnane X receptor agonists in the ToxCast<sup>TM</sup> database. Environ Health Perspect, 118(10), 1412-7. PMID: 20558333.

Howarth, D. L., Hagey, L. R., Law, S. H., Ai, N., Krasowski, M. D., Ekins, S., Moore, J. T., Kollitz, E. M., Hinton, D. E. & Kullman, S. W. (2010). Two farnesoid X receptor alpha isoforms in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) are differentially activated in vitro. Aquat Toxicol, 98(3), 245-55. PMID: 20430454.

Krasowski, M. D. (2010). Therapeutic drug monitoring of the newer anti-epilepsy medications. Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 3(6), 1909-35. PMID: 20640233.

Lynch, M. J., Pizon, A. F., Siam, M. G. & Krasowski, M. D. (2010). Clinical effects and toxicokinetic evaluation following massive topiramate ingestion. J Med Toxicol, 6(2), 135-8. PMID: 20376593.

Krasowski, M. D., Siam, M. G., Iyer, M. & Ekins, S. (2009). Molecular similarity methods for predicting cross-reactivity with therapeutic drug monitoring immunoassays. Ther Drug Monit, 31(3), 337-44. PMID: 19333148.

Krasowski, M. D., Siam, M. G., Iyer, M., Pizon, A. F., Giannoutsos, S. & Ekins, S. (2009). Chemoinformatic methods for predicting interference in drug of abuse/toxicology immunoassays. Clin Chem, 55(6), 1203-13. PMID: 19342505.

Krasowski, M. D., Pizon, A. F., Siam, M. G., Giannoutsos, S., Iyer, M. & Ekins, S. (2009). Using molecular similarity to highlight the challenges of routine immunoassay-based drug of abuse/toxicology screening in emergency medicine. BMC Emerg Med, 9, 5. PMID: 19400959.

Ai, N., Krasowski, M. D., Welsh, W. J. & Ekins, S. (2009). Understanding nuclear receptors using computational methods. Drug Discov Today, 14(10-Sep), 486-94. PMID: 19429508.

Pizon, A. F., Schwartz, A. R., Shum, L. M., Rittenberger, J. C., Lower, D. R., Giannoutsos, S., Virji, M. A. & Krasowski, M. D. (2009). Toxicology laboratory analysis and human exposure to p-chloroaniline. Clin Toxicol (Phila), 47(2), 132-6. PMID: 18608262.

Ekins, S., Kortagere, S., Iyer, M., Reschly, E. J., Lill, M. A., Redinbo, M. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2009). Challenges predicting ligand-receptor interactions of promiscuous proteins: the nuclear receptor PXR. PLoS Comput Biol, 5(12), e1000594. PMID: 20011107.

Biswas, A., Mani, S., Redinbo, M. R., Krasowski, M. D., Li, H. & Ekins, S. (2009). Elucidating the 'Jekyll and Hyde' nature of PXR: the case for discovering antagonists or allosteric antagonists. Pharm Res, 26(8), 1807-15. PMID: 19415465.

Raval, J. S., Krasowski, M. D. & Virji, M. A. (2009). Neuroblastoma. (Vols. 49). (5) Chicago, IL: American Society for Clinical Pathology.

Kortagere, S., Krasowski, M. D. & Ekins, S. (2009). The importance of discerning shape in molecular pharmacology. Trends Pharmacol Sci, 30(3), 138-47. PMID: 19187977.

Ekins, S., Reschly, E. J., Hagey, L. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2008). Evolution of pharmacologic specificity in the pregnane X receptor. BMC Evol Biol, 8, 103. PMID: 18384689.

Krasowski, M. D., Reschly, E. J. & Ekins, S. (2008). Intrinsic disorder in nuclear hormone receptors. J Proteome Res, 7(10), 4359-72. PMID: 18651760.

Reschly, E. J., Ai, N., Ekins, S., Welsh, W. J., Hagey, L. R., Hofmann, A. F. & Krasowski, M. D. (2008). Evolution of the bile salt nuclear receptor FXR in vertebrates. J Lipid Res, 49(7), 1577-87. PMID: 18362391.

Reschly, E. J., Ai, N., Welsh, W. J., Ekins, S., Hagey, L. R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2008). Ligand specificity and evolution of liver X receptors. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 110(1-2), 83-94. PMID: 18395439.

Zhang, B., Xie, W. & Krasowski, M. D. (2008). PXR: a xenobiotic receptor of diverse function implicated in pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenomics, 9(11), 1695-709. PMID: 19018724.

Khandelwal, A., Krasowski, M. D., Reschly, E. J., Sinz, M. W., Swaan, P. W. & Ekins, S. (2008). Machine learning methods and docking for predicting human pregnane X receptor activation. Chem Res Toxicol, 21(7), 1457-67. PMID: 18547065.

Ekins, S., Iyer, M., Krasowski, M. D. & Kharasch, E. D. (2008). Molecular characterization of CYP2B6 substrates. Curr Drug Metab, 9(5), 363-73. PMID: 18537573.

Adams, Y., Krasowski, M. D. (2007). Pharmacogenomics in primary care. In J. E. South-Paul , E. L. Lewis , S. C. Matheny (Eds.) Current Diagnosis and Treatment in Family Medicine. (2nd edition), pp. 543-548. New York: McGraw Hill Lange.

Baron, B. W., Zeleznik-Le, N., Baron, M. J., Theisler, C., Huo, D., Krasowski, M. D., Thirman, M. J., Baron, R. M. & Baron, J. M. (2007). Repression of the PDCD2 gene by BCL6 and the implications for the pathogenesis of human B and T cell lymphomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104(18), 7449-54. PMID: 17468402.

Greiner-Sosanko, E., Lower, D. R., Virji, M. A. & Krasowski, M. D. (2007). Simultaneous determination of lamotrigine, zonisamide, and carbamazepine in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. Biomed Chromatogr, 21(3), 225-8. PMID: 17230449.

Genzen, J. R., Krasowski, M. D. (2007). Resident training in clinical chemistry. Clin Lab Med, 27(2), 343-58; abstract vii. PMID: 17556088.

Reschly, E. J., Bainy, A. C., Mattos, J. J., Hagey, L. R., Bahary, N., Mada, S. R., Ou, J., Venkataramanan, R. & Krasowski, M. D. (2007). Functional evolution of the vitamin D and pregnane X receptors. BMC Evol Biol, 7, 222. PMID: 17997857.

Ekins, S., Chang, C., Mani, S., Krasowski, M. D., Reschly, E. J., Iyer, M., Kholodovych, V., Ai, N., Welsh, W. J., Sinz, M., Swaan, P. W., Patel, R. & Bachmann, K. (2007). Human pregnane X receptor antagonists and agonists define molecular requirements for different binding sites. Mol Pharmacol, 72(3), 592-603. PMID: 17576789.

Greiner-Sosanko, E., Giannoutsos, S., Lower, D. R., Virji, M. A. & Krasowski, M. D. (2007). Drug monitoring: simultaneous analysis of lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, 10-hydroxycarbazepine, and zonisamide by HPLC-UV and a rapid GC method using a nitrogen-phosphorus detector for levetiracetam. J Chromatogr Sci, 45(9), 616-22. PMID: 17988451.

Iyer, M., Reschly, E. J. & Krasowski, M. D. (2006). Functional evolution of the pregnane X receptor. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol, 2(3), 381-97. PMID: 16863441.

Reschly, E. J., Krasowski, M. D. (2006). Evolution and function of the NR1I nuclear hormone receptor subfamily (VDR, PXR, and CAR) with respect to metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Curr Drug Metab, 7(4), 349-65. PMID: 16724925.

Krasowski, M. D. (2005). GPI-15715 Guilford. Curr Opin Investig Drugs, 6(1), 90-8. PMID: 15675608.

Krasowski, M. D., Yasuda, K., Hagey, L. R. & Schuetz, E. G. (2005). Evolution of the pregnane x receptor: adaptation to cross-species differences in biliary bile salts. Mol Endocrinol, 19(7), 1720-39. PMID: 15718292.

Krasowski, M. D., Yasuda, K., Hagey, L. R. & Schuetz, E. G. (2005). Evolutionary selection across the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily with a focus on the NR1I subfamily (vitamin D, pregnane X, and constitutive androstane receptors). Nucl Recept, 3, 2. PMID: 16197547.

Thompson, E. E., Kuttab-Boulos, H., Krasowski, M. D. & Di Rienzo, A. (2005). Functional constraints on the constitutive androstane receptor inferred from human sequence variation and cross-species comparisons. Hum Genomics, 2(3), 168-78. PMID: 16197734.

Krasowski, M. D. (2003). Contradicting a unitary theory of general anesthetic action: a history of three compounds from 1901 to 2001. Bull Anesth Hist, 21(3), 1, 4-8, 21 passim. PMID: 17494361.

Krasowski, M. D., Hong, X., Hopfinger, A. J. & Harrison, N. L. (2002). 4D-QSAR analysis of a set of propofol analogues: mapping binding sites for an anesthetic phenol on the GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor. J Med Chem, 45(15), 3210-21. PMID: 12109905.

Krasowski, M. D., Harris, R. A. & Harrison, N. L. (2001). Allosteric modulation of GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor function by general anesthetics and alcohols. In H. Mohler (Eds.) Pharmacology of GABA and Glycine Neurotransmission. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. pp. 141-172. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Lingamaneni, R., Krasowski, M. D., Jenkins, A., Truong, T., Giunta, A. L., Blackbeer, J., MacIver, M. B., Harrison, N. L. & Hemmings Jr, H. C. (2001). Anesthetic properties of 4-iodopropofol: implications for mechanisms of anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 94(6), 1050-7. PMID: 11465597.

Krasowski, M. D., Jenkins, A., Flood, P., Kung, A. Y., Hopfinger, A. J. & Harrison, N. L. (2001). General anesthetic potencies of a series of propofol analogs correlate with potency for potentiation of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) current at the GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor but not with lipid solubility. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 297(1), 338-51. PMID: 11259561.

Krasowski, M. D., Nishikawa, K., Nikolaeva, N., Lin, A. & Harrison, N. L. (2001). Methionine 286 in transmembrane domain 3 of the GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor ß subunit controls a binding cavity for propofol and other alkylphenol general anesthetics. Neuropharmacology, 41(8), 952-64. PMID: 11747900.

Vandenbergh, D. J., Thompson, M. D., Cook, E. H., Bendahhou, E., Nguyen, T., Krasowski, M. D., Zarrabian, D., Comings, D., Sellers, E. M., Tyndale, R. F., George, S. R., O'Dowd, B. F. & Uhl, G. R. (2000). Human dopamine transporter gene: coding region conservation among normal, Tourette's disorder, alcohol dependence and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder populations. Mol Psychiatry, 5(3), 283-92. PMID: 10889531.

McGehee, D. S., Krasowski, M. D., Fung, D. L., Wilson, B., Gronert, G. A. & Moss, J. (2000). Cholinesterase inhibition by potato glycoalkaloids slows mivacurium metabolism. Anesthesiology, 93(2), 510-9. PMID: 10910502.

Harrison, N. L., Krasowski, M. D. & Harris, R. A. (2000). Alcohol and general anesthetic actions on the GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor. In D. L. Martin , R. W. Olsen (Eds.) GABA in the Nervous System: the View at Fifty Years. pp. 167-189. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Flood, P., Krasowski, M. D. (2000). Intravenous anesthetics differentially modulate ligand-gated ion channels. Anesthesiology, 92(5), 1418-25. PMID: 10781289.

Krasowski, M. D. (2000). Differential modulatory actions of the volatile convulsant flurothyl and its anesthetic isomer at inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels. Neuropharmacology, 39(7), 1168-83. PMID: 10760360.

Krasowski, M. D., Harrison, N. L. (2000). The actions of ether, alcohol and alkane general anaesthetics on GABA<sub>A</sub> and glycine receptors and the effects of TM2 and TM3 mutations. Br J Pharmacol, 129(4), 731-43. PMID: 10683198.

Krasowski, M. D., Harrison, N. L. (1999). General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci, 55(10), 1278-1303. PMID: 10487207.

Homanics, G. E., Harrison, N. L., Quinlan, J. J., Krasowski, M. D., Rick, C. E., de Blas, A. L., Mehta, A. K., Kist, F., Mihalek, R. M., Aul, J. J. & Firestone, L. L. (1999). Normal electrophysiological and behavioral responses to ethanol in mice lacking the long splice variant of the ?2 subunit of the ?-aminobutyrate type A receptor. Neuropharmacology, 38(2), 253-65. PMID: 10218866.

Krasowski, M. D. (1998). Sites of action for propofol and isoflurane at GABAA receptors: implications for molecular mechanisms of general anesthesia. J. Q. Roberge (Eds.) (Vols. 8). (5), pp. 10-11. Wilton, CT/Globetech Publishers: Critical Care International.

Krasowski, M. D., Koltchine, V. V., Rick, C. E., Ye, Q., Finn, S. E. & Harrison, N. L. (1998). Propofol and other intravenous anesthetics have sites of action on the ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptor distinct from that for isoflurane. Mol Pharmacol, 53(3), 530-8. PMID: 9495821.

Krasowski, M. D., Finn, S. E., Ye, Q. & Harrison, N. L. (1998). Trichloroethanol modulation of recombinant GABA<sub>A</sub>, glycine and GABA ?1 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 284(3), 934-42. PMID: 9495852.

Krasowski, M. D., Rick, C. E., Harrison, N. L., Firestone, L. L. & Homanics, G. E. (1998). A deficit of functional GABA<sub>A</sub> receptors in neurons of ß3 subunit knockout mice. Neurosci Lett, 240(2), 81-4. PMID: 9486477.

Homanics, G. E., DeLorey, T. M., Firestone, L. L., Quinlan, J. J., Handforth, A., Harrison, N. L., Krasowski, M. D., Rick, C. E., Korpi, E. R., Mäkelä, R., Brilliant, M. H., Hagiwara, N., Ferguson, C., Snyder, K. & Olsen, R. W. (1997). Mice devoid of ?-aminobutyrate type A receptor ß3 subunit have epilepsy, cleft palate, and hypersensitive behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94(8), 4143-8. PMID: 9108119.

Krasowski, M. D., McGehee, D. S. & Moss, J. (1997). Natural inhibitors of cholinesterases: implications for adverse drug reactions. Can J Anaesth, 44(5 Pt 1), 525-34. PMID: 9161749.

Krasowski, M. D., O'Shea, S. M., Rick, C. E., Whiting, P. J., Hadingham, K. L., Czajkowski, C. & Harrison, N. L. (1997). a Subunit isoform influences GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor modulation by propofol. Neuropharmacology, 36(7), 941-9. PMID: 9257938.

Mihic, S. J., Ye, Q., Wick, M. J., Koltchine, V. V., Krasowski, M. D., Finn, S. E., Mascia, M. P., Valenzuela, C. F., Hanson, K. K., Greenblatt, E. P., Harris, R. A. & Harrison, N. L. (1997). Sites of alcohol and volatile anaesthetic action on GABA<sub>A</sub> and glycine receptors. Nature, 389(6649), 385-9. PMID: 9311780.

Stein, M. A., Krasowski, M. D., Leventhal, B. L., Phillips, W. & Bender, B. G. (1996). Behavioral and cognitive effects of methylxanthines. A meta-analysis of theophylline and caffeine. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 150(3), 284-8. PMID: 8603222.

Cook Jr, E. H., Stein, M. A., Krasowski, M. D., Cox, N. J., Olkon, D. M., Kieffer, J. E. & Leventhal, B. L. (1995). Association of attention-deficit disorder and the dopamine transporter gene. Am J Hum Genet, 56(4), 993-8. PMID: 7717410.

Stein, M. A., Szumowski, E., Sandoval, R., Nadelman, D., O'Brien, T., Krasowski, M. & Phillips, W. (1994). Psychometric properties of the children's atypical development scale. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 22(2), 167-76. PMID: 7520459.

Chen, H., Krasowski, M. & Fitzgerald, G. (1993). Density functional pseudopotential studies of molecular geometrics, vibrations, and binding energies. J Chem Phys, 98, 8710-7.