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Thomas J. Waldschmidt, PhD

Clement T. and Sylvia H. Hanson Chair in Immunology
Vice Chair for Research
Director, Department of Pathology Graduate Program
Professor of Pathology

Contact Information

Primary Office
106B Medical Research Center
25 S. Grand Avenue
Iowa City, IA 52242


BS, Biology, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI
PhD, Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX
Fellow, Cancer Immunology Training Program, UT Southwestern
Fellow, Robert A. Welch Foundation, UT Southwestern
Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Department of Pathology Graduate Program, Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Translational Biomedicine, Medical Scientist Training Program

Center, Program and Institute Affiliations

Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center

Research Summary

Role of B lymphocyte subsets in humoral immunity, germinal center biology, effect of chronic alcohol exposure on B cell function.


Xiu, Y., Dong, Q., Fu, L., Bossler, A., Tang, X., Boyce, B., Borcherding, N., Leidinger, M., Sardina, J. L., Xue, H. H., Li, Q., Feldman, A., Aifantis, I., Boccalatte, F., Wang, L., Jin, M., Khoury, J., Wang, W., Hu, S., Yuan, Y., Wang, E., Yuan, J., Janz, S., Colgan, J., Habelhah, H., Waldschmidt, T., Müschen, M., Bagg, A., Darbro, B. & Zhao, C. (2019). Coactivation of NF-?B and Notch signaling is sufficient to induce B cell transformation and enables B-myeloid conversion. Blood. PMID: 31697816.

Sjaastad, F. V., Condotta, S. A., Kotov, J. A., Pape, K. A., Dail, C., Danahy, D. B., Kucaba, T. A., Tygrett, L. T., Murphy, K. A., Cabrera-Perez, J., Waldschmidt, T. J., Badovinac, V. P. & Griffith, T. S. (2018). Polymicrobial Sepsis Chronic Immunoparalysis Is Defined by Diminished Ag-Specific T Cell-Dependent B Cell Responses. Frontiers in immunology, 9, 2532. PMID: 30429857.

Zacharias, Z. R., Ross, K. A., Hornick, E. E., Goodman, J. T., Narasimhan, B., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Legge, K. L. (2018). Polyanhydride Nanovaccine Induces Robust Pulmonary B and T Cell Immunity and Confers Protection Against Homologous and Heterologous Influenza A Virus Infections. Frontiers in immunology, 9, 1953. PMID: 30233573.

Zacharias, Z., Ross, K., Hornick, E., Goodman, J., Narasimhan, B., Waldschmidt, T. & Legge, K. (In Press). Nanovaccine mediated immune protection against influenza virus. Ventura Beach, CA: Gordon Conference.

Marks, E., Ortiz, C., Pantazi, E., Bailey, C. S., Lord, G. M., Waldschmidt, T. J., Noelle, R. J. & Elgueta, R. (2016). Retinoic Acid Signaling in B Cells Is Required for the Generation of an Effective T-Independent Immune Response. Frontiers in immunology, 7, 643. PMID: 28066447.

Vela Ramirez, J. E., Tygrett, L. T., Hao, J., Habte, H. H., Cho, M. W., Greenspan, N. S., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Narasimhan, B. (2016). Polyanhydride Nanovaccines Induce Germinal Center B Cell Formation and Sustained Serum Antibody Responses. Journal of biomedical nanotechnology, 12(6), 1303-11. PMID: 27319223.

Schaut, R. G., Lamb, I. M., Toepp, A. J., Scott, B., Mendes-Aguiar, C. O., Coutinho, J. F., Jeronimo, S. M., Wilson, M. E., Harty, J. T., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Petersen, C. A. (2016). Regulatory IgDhi B Cells Suppress T Cell Function via IL-10 and PD-L1 during Progressive Visceral Leishmaniasis. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 196(10), 4100-9. PMID: 27076677.

Hammer, A. M., Morris, N. L., Cannon, A. R., Shults, J. A., Curtis, B., Casey, C. A., Sueblinvong, V., Persidsky, Y., Nixon, K., Brown, L. A., Waldschmidt, T., Mandrekar, P., Kovacs, E. J. & Choudhry, M. A. (2015). Summary of the 2014 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting. Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.). PMID: 26520175.

Rosean, T. R., Tompkins, V. S., Olivier, A. K., Sompallae, R., Norian, L. A., Morse, H. C., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Janz, S. (2015). The tumor microenvironment is the main source of IL-6 for plasma cell tumor development in mice. Leukemia, 29(1), 233-7. PMID: 25257990.

Boyden, A. W., Frickman, A. M., Legge, K. L. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (2014). Primary and long-term B-cell responses in the upper airway and lung after influenza A virus infection. Immunologic research, 59(1-3), 73-80. PMID: 24838149.

Coleman, C. B., McGraw, J. E., Feldman, E. R., Roth, A. N., Keyes, L. R., Grau, K. R., Cochran, S. L., Waldschmidt, T. J., Liang, C., Forrest, J. C. & Tibbetts, S. A. (2014). A gammaherpesvirus bcl-2 ortholog blocks B cell receptor-mediated apoptosis and promotes the survival of developing B cells in vivo. PLoS pathogens, 10(2), e1003916. PMID: 24516386.

Morris, N. L., Ippolito, J. A., Curtis, B. J., Chen, M. M., Friedman, S. L., Hines, I. N., Haddad, G. E., Chang, S. L., Brown, L. A., Waldschmidt, T. J., Mandrekar, P., Kovacs, E. J. & Choudhry, M. A. (2014). Alcohol and inflammatory responses: Summary of the 2013 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting. Alcohol, [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 25468277.

Parlet, C. P., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Schlueter, A. J. (2014). Chronic Ethanol Feeding Induces Subset Loss and Hyporesponsiveness in Skin T Cells. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 38(5), 1356-64. PMID: 24512045.

Legge, K. L., Waldschmidt, T. J. (2014). Chapter 10: Alcohol and the adaptive immune response in the airway: dendritic cell and lymphocyte impairments. In Respiratory Medicine Series. (Vols. 14). pp. 1-252. ALCOHOL USE DISORDERS AND THE LUNG: A CLINICAL AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACH. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-8833-0.

Duncan, K., Rosean, T. R., Tompkins, V. S., Olivier, A., Sompallae, R., Zhan, F., Tricot, G., Acevedo, M. R., Ponto, L. L., Walsh, S. A., Tygrett, L. T., Berger, A. J., Waldschmidt, T., Morse, H. C., Sunderland, J. J. & Janz, S. (2013). (18)F-FDG-PET/CT imaging in an IL-6- and MYC-driven mouse model of human multiple myeloma affords objective evaluation of plasma cell tumor progression and therapeutic response to the proteasome inhibitor ixazomib. Blood Cancer Journal, 3, e165. PMID: 24292417.

Zahs, A., Curtis, B. J., Waldschmidt, T. J., Brown, L. A., Gauthier, T. W., Choudhry, M. A., Kovacs, E. J. & Bird, M. D. (2012). Alcohol and epigenetic changes: Summary of the 2011 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting. Alcohol, 46(8), 783-7. PMID: 22738858.

Zahs, A., Cook, R. T., Waldschmidt, T. J., Choudhry, M. A., Kovacs, E. J. & Bird, M. D. (2012). Alcohol and inflammation and infection: clinical and experimental systems--summary of the 2010 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group Meeting. Alcohol, 46(2), 147-53. PMID: 21917410.

Gibson-Corley, K. N., Boggiatto, P. M., Bockenstedt, M. M., Petersen, C. A., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Jones, D. E. (2012). Promotion of a functional B cell germinal center response after Leishmania species co-infection is associated with lesion resolution. The American journal of pathology, 180(5), 2009-17. PMID: 22429963.

Boyden, A. W., Legge, K. L. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (2012). Pulmonary infection with influenza A virus induces site-specific germinal center and T follicular helper cell responses. PloS one, 7(7), e40733. PMID: 22792401.

Butler, N. S., Moebius, J., Pewe, L. L., Traore, B., Doumbo, O. K., Tygrett, L. T., Waldschmidt, T. J., Crompton, P. D. & Harty, J. T. (2012). Therapeutic blockade of PD-L1 and LAG-3 rapidly clears established blood-stage Plasmodium infection. Nature immunology, 13(2), 188-95. PMID: 22157630.

Case, A. J., McGill, J. L., Tygrett, L. T., Shirasawa, T., Spitz, D. R., Waldschmidt, T. J., Legge, K. L. & Domann, F. E. (2011). Elevated mitochondrial superoxide disrupts normal T cell development, impairing adaptive immune responses to an influenza challenge. Free radical biology & medicine, 50(3), 448-58. PMID: 21130157.

Fan, J., Edsen-Moore, M. R., Turner, L. E., Cook, R. T., Legge, K. L., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Schlueter, A. J. (2011). Mechanisms by which chronic ethanol feeding limits the ability of dendritic cells to stimulate T-cell proliferation. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 35(1), 47-59. PMID: 21039629.

Alexander, C. M., Tygrett, L. T., Boyden, A. W., Wolniak, K. L., Legge, K. L. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (2011). T regulatory cells participate in the control of germinal centre reactions. Immunology, 133(4), 452-68. PMID: 21635248.

Takizawa, M., Kim, J. S., Tessarollo, L., McNeil, N., Waldschmidt, T. J., Casellas, R., Ried, T. & Janz, S. (2010). Genetic reporter system for oncogenic Igh-Myc translocations in mice. Oncogene, 29(28), 4113-20. PMID: 20453890.

Case, A. J., McGill, J. L., Tygrett, L. T., Spitz, D. R., Waldschmidt, T. J., Legge, K. L. & Domann, F. E. (2010). Novel immunological roles for superoxide in T-cell selection and influenza susceptibility. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 50, 448.

Langlois, R. A., Meyerholz, D. K., Coleman, R. A., Cook, R. T., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Legge, K. L. (2010). Oseltamivir treatment prevents the increased influenza virus disease severity and lethality occurring in chronic ethanol consuming mice. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 34(8), 1425-31. PMID: 20497135.

Lu, P., Hankel, I. L., Knisz, J., Marquardt, A., Chiang, M. Y., Grosse, J., Constien, R., Meyer, T., Schroeder, A., Zeitlmann, L., Al-Alem, U., Friedman, A. D., Elliott, E. I., Meyerholz, D. K., Waldschmidt, T. J., Rothman, P. B. & Colgan, J. D. (2010). The Justy mutation identifies Gon4-like as a gene that is essential for B lymphopoiesis. The Journal of experimental medicine, 207(7), 1359-67. PMID: 20530203.

Gurung, P., Young, B. M., Coleman, R. A., Wiechert, S., Turner, L. E., Ray, N. B., Waldschmidt, T. J., Legge, K. L. & Cook, R. T. (2009). Chronic ethanol induces inhibition of antigen-specific CD8+ but not CD4+ immunodominant T cell responses following Listeria monocytogenes inoculation. Journal of leukocyte biology, 85(1), 34-43. PMID: 18820175.

McGill, J., Meyerholz, D. K., Edsen-Moore, M., Young, B., Coleman, R. A., Schlueter, A. J., Waldschmidt, T. J., Cook, R. T. & Legge, K. L. (2009). Fetal exposure to ethanol has long-term effects on the severity of influenza virus infections. Journal of immunology, 182(12), 7803-8. PMID: 19494304.

de Vries, V. C., Wasiuk, A., Bennett, K. A., Benson, M. J., Elgueta, R., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Noelle, R. J. (2009). Mast cell degranulation breaks peripheral tolerance. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons, 9(10), 2270-80. PMID: 19681828.

Chitu, V., Ferguson, P. J., de Bruijn, R., Schlueter, A. J., Ochoa, L. A., Waldschmidt, T. J., Yeung, Y. G. & Stanley, E. R. (2009). Primed innate immunity leads to autoinflammatory disease in PSTPIP2-deficient cmo mice. Blood, 114(12), 2497-505. PMID: 19608749.

Waldschmidt, T. J., Cook, R. T. & Kovacs, E. J. (2008). Alcohol and inflammation and immune responses: summary of the 2006 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting. Alcohol, 42(2), 137-42. PMID: 18358993.

Stern, M. M., Tygrett, L. T., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Bickenbach, J. R. (2008). Cells isolated from the epidermis by Hoechst dye exclusion, small size, and negative selection for hematopoietic markers can generate B lymphocyte precursors. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 128(6), 1386-96. PMID: 18094731.

Jing, X., Zhao, D. M., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Xue, H. H. (2008). GABPbeta2 is dispensible for normal lymphocyte development but moderately affects B cell responses. The Journal of biological chemistry, 283(36), 24326-33. PMID: 18628204.

Sprague, D. L., Elzey, B. D., Crist, S. A., Waldschmidt, T. J., Jensen, R. J. & Ratliff, T. L. (2008). Platelet-mediated modulation of adaptive immunity: unique delivery of CD154 signal by platelet-derived membrane vesicles. Blood, 111(10), 5028-36. PMID: 18198347.

Verma, S., Waldschmidt, T. J. (2007). Characterization of splenic CD21hi T2 B cells. Immunologic research, 39(3-Jan), 240-8. PMID: 17917068.

Cook, R. T., Schlueter, A. J., Coleman, R. A., Tygrett, L., Ballas, Z. K., Jerrells, T. R., Nashelsky, M. B., Ray, N. B., Haugen, T. H. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (2007). Thymocytes, pre-B cells, and organ changes in a mouse model of chronic ethanol ingestion--absence of subset-specific glucocorticoid-induced immune cell loss. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 31(10), 1746-58. PMID: 17681030.

Ferguson, P. J., Bing, X., Vasef, M. A., Ochoa, L. A., Mahgoub, A., Waldschmidt, T. J., Tygrett, L. T., Schlueter, A. J. & El-Shanti, H. (2006). A missense mutation in pstpip2 is associated with the murine autoinflammatory disorder chronic multifocal osteomyelitis. Bone, 38(1), 41-7. PMID: 16122996.

Waldschmidt, T. J., Cook, R. T. & Kovacs, E. J. (2006). Alcohol and inflammation and immune responses: summary of the 2005 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting. Alcohol, 38(2), 121-5. PMID: 16839859.

Wolniak, K. L., Noelle, R. J. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (2006). Characterization of (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP)-specific germinal center B cells and antigen-binding B220- cells after primary NP challenge in mice. Journal of immunology, 177(4), 2072-9. PMID: 16887965.

Fornek, J. L., Tygrett, L. T., Waldschmidt, T. J., Poli, V., Rickert, R. C. & Kansas, G. S. (2006). Critical role for Stat3 in T-dependent terminal differentiation of IgG B cells. Blood, 107(3), 1085-91. PMID: 16223771.

Elzey, B. D., Grant, J. F., Sinn, H. W., Nieswandt, B., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Ratliff, T. L. (2005). Cooperation between platelet-derived CD154 and CD4+ T cells for enhanced germinal center formation. Journal of leukocyte biology, 78(1), 80-4. PMID: 15899982.

Cozine, C. L., Wolniak, K. L. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (2005). The primary germinal center response in mice. Current opinion in immunology, 17(3), 298-302. PMID: 15886120.

Zhu, X., Coleman, R. A., Alber, C., Ballas, Z. K., Waldschmidt, T. J., Ray, N. B., Krieg, A. M. & Cook, R. T. (2004). Chronic ethanol ingestion by mice increases expression of CD80 and CD86 by activated macrophages. Alcohol, 32(2), 91-100. PMID: 15163560.

Stunz, L. L., Busch, L. K., Munroe, M. E., Sigmund, C. D., Tygrett, L. T., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Bishop, G. A. (2004). Expression of the cytoplasmic tail of LMP1 in mice induces hyperactivation of B lymphocytes and disordered lymphoid architecture. Immunity, 21(2), 255-66. PMID: 15308105.

Cook, R. T., Zhu, X., Coleman, R. A., Ballas, Z. K., Waldschmidt, T. J., Ray, N. B., LaBrecque, D. R. & Cook, B. L. (2004). T-cell activation after chronic ethanol ingestion in mice. Alcohol, 33(3), 175-81. PMID: 15596085.

Wolniak, K. L., Shinall, S. M. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (2004). The germinal center response. Critical reviews in immunology, 24(1), 39-65. PMID: 14995913.

Dandekar, A. A., Jacobsen, G., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Perlman, S. (2003). Antibody-mediated protection against cytotoxic T-cell escape in coronavirus-induced demyelination. Journal of virology, 77(22), 11867-74. PMID: 14581523.

Kang, H. S., Blink, S. E., Chin, R. K., Lee, Y., Kim, O., Weinstock, J., Waldschmidt, T. J., Conrad, D., Chen, B., Solway, J., Sperling, A. I. & Fu, Y. X. (2003). Lymphotoxin is required for maintaining physiological levels of serum IgE that minimizes Th1-mediated airway inflammation. The Journal of experimental medicine, 198(11), 1643-52. PMID: 14638845.

Waldschmidt, T. J., Panoskaltsis-Mortari, A., McElmurry, R. T., Tygrett, L. T., Taylor, P. A. & Blazar, B. R. (2002). Abnormal T cell-dependent B-cell responses in SCID mice receiving allogeneic bone marrow in utero. Severe combined immune deficiency. Blood, 100(13), 4557-64. PMID: 12393436.

Song, K., Coleman, R. A., Zhu, X., Alber, C., Ballas, Z. K., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Cook, R. T. (2002). Chronic ethanol consumption by mice results in activated splenic T cells. Journal of leukocyte biology, 72(6), 1109-16. PMID: 12488491.

Fleming, S. D., Shea-Donohue, T., Guthridge, J. M., Kulik, L., Waldschmidt, T. J., Gipson, M. G., Tsokos, G. C. & Holers, V. M. (2002). Mice deficient in complement receptors 1 and 2 lack a tissue injury-inducing subset of the natural antibody repertoire. Journal of immunology, 169(4), 2126-33. PMID: 12165541.

Schlueter, A. J., Bhatia, S. K., Li, X., Tygrett, L. T., Yamashita, Y., de Vries, P. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (2001). Delineation among eight major hematopoietic subsets in murine bone marrow using a two-color flow cytometric technique. Cytometry, 43(4), 297-307. PMID: 11260597.

Waldschmidt, T. J., Noelle, R. J. (2001). Immunology - Long live the mature B cell--a baffling mystery resolved. Science, 293(5537), 2012-3. PMID: 11557866.

Beltz, L. A., Neira, D. R., Axtell, C. A., Iverson, S., Deaton, W., Waldschmidt, T. J., Bumpus, J. A. & Johnston, C. G. (2001). Immunotoxicity of explosives-contaminated soil before and after bioremediation. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, 40(3), 311-7. PMID: 11443360.

Erickson, L. D., Foy, T. M. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (2001). Murine B1 B cells require IL-5 for optimal T cell-dependent activation. Journal of immunology, 166(3), 1531-9. PMID: 11160193.

Song, K., Coleman, R. A., Alber, C., Ballas, Z. K., Waldschmidt, T. J., Mortari, F., LaBrecque, D. R. & Cook, R. T. (2001). TH1 cytokine response of CD57+ T-cell subsets in healthy controls and patients with alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol, 24(3), 155-67. PMID: 11557301.

Shinall, S. M., Gonzalez-Fernandez, M., Noelle, R. J. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (2000). Identification of murine germinal center B cell subsets defined by the expression of surface isotypes and differentiation antigens. Journal of immunology, 164(11), 5729-38. PMID: 10820250.

Shinall, S. M., Gonzales-Fernandez, M., Noelle, R. J. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (2000). Identification of Murine Germinal Center Subsets Defined by the Expression of Surface Isotype and differentiation Antigens. Journal of Immunology, 164, 5729.

Tomai, M. A., Imbertson, L. M., Stanczak, T. L., Tygrett, L. T. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (2000). The immune response modifiers imiquimod and R-848 are potent activators of B lymphocytes. Cellular immunology, 203(1), 55-65. PMID: 10915562.

Kline, J. N., Krieg, A. M., Waldschmidt, T. J., Ballas, Z. K., Jain, V. & Businga, T. R. (1999). CpG oligodeoxynucleotides do not require TH1 cytokines to prevent eosinophilic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 104(6), 1258-64. PMID: 10589010.

Davis, H. L., Weeratna, R., Waldschmidt, T. J., Tygrett, L., Schorr, J., Krieg, A. M. & Weeranta, R. (1998). CpG DNA is a potent enhancer of specific immunity in mice immunized with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen. Journal of immunology, 160(2), 870-6. PMID: 9551923.

Blazar, B. R., Taylor, P. A., McElmurry, R., Tian, L., Panoskaltsis-Mortari, A., Lam, S., Lees, C., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Vallera, D. A. (1998). Engraftment of severe combined immune deficient mice receiving allogeneic bone marrow via In utero or postnatal transfer. Blood, 92(10), 3949-59. PMID: 9808589.

Kline, J. N., Waldschmidt, T. J., Businga, T. R., Lemish, J. E., Weinstock, J. V., Thorne, P. S. & Krieg, A. M. (1998). Modulation of airway inflammation by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides in a murine model of asthma. Journal of immunology, 160(6), 2555-9. PMID: 9510150.

Clements, J. L., Ross-Barta, S. E., Tygrett, L. T., Waldschmidt, T. J. & Koretzky, G. A. (1998). SLP-76 expression is restricted to hemopoietic cells of monocyte, granulocyte, and T lymphocyte lineage and is regulated during T cell maturation and activation. Journal of immunology, 161(8), 3880-9. PMID: 9780153.

Schlueter, A. J., Malek, T. R., Hostetler, C. N., Smith, P. A., deVries, P. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (1997). Distribution of Ly-6C on lymphocyte subsets: I Influence of allotype on T lymphocyte expression. Journal of immunology, 158(9), 4211-22. PMID: 9126982.

Rijhsinghani, A., Bhatia, S. K., Kantamneni, L., Schlueter, A. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (1997). Estrogen inhibits fetal thymocyte development in vitro. American journal of reproductive immunology, 37(5), 384-90. PMID: 9196797.

Rokhlin, O. W., Bishop, G. A., Hostager, B. S., Waldschmidt, T. J., Sidorenko, S. P., Pavloff, N., Kiefer, M. C., Umansky, S. R., Glover, R. A. & Cohen, M. B. (1997). Fas-mediated apoptosis in human prostatic carcinoma cell lines. Cancer research, 57(9), 1758-68. PMID: 9135020.

Takahashi, K., Kozono, Y., Waldschmidt, T. J., Berthiaume, D., Quigg, R. J., Baron, A. & Holers, V. M. (1997). Mouse complement receptors type 1 (CR1;CD35) and type 2 (CR2;CD21): expression on normal B cell subpopulations and decreased levels during the development of autoimmunity in MRL/lpr mice. Journal of immunology, 159(3), 1557-69. PMID: 9233655.

Erickson, L. D., Tygrett, L. T., Bhatia, S. K., Grabstein, K. H. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (1996). Differential expression of CD22 (Lyb8) on murine B cells. International immunology, 8(7), 1121-9. PMID: 8757957.

Rijhsinghani, A. G., Bhatia, S. K., Tygrett, L. T. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (1996). Effect of pregnancy on thymic T cell development. American journal of reproductive immunology, 35(6), 523-8. PMID: 8792935.

Rijhsinghani, A. G., Thompson, K., Bhatia, S. K. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (1996). Estrogen blocks early T cell development in the thymus. American journal of reproductive immunology, 36(5), 269-77. PMID: 8955504.

Cook, R. T., Waldschmidt, T. J., Cook, B. L., Labrecque, D. R. & McLatchie, K. (1996). Loss of the CD5+ and CD45RAhi B cell subsets in alcoholics. Clinical and experimental immunology, 103(2), 304-10. PMID: 8565316.

Zhao, Q., Song, X., Waldschmidt, T. J., Fisher, E. & Krieg, A. M. (1996). Oligonucleotide uptake in human hematopoietic cells is increased in leukemia and is related to cellular activation. Blood, 88(5), 1788-95. PMID: 8781436.

Reap, E. A., Piecyk, M. L., Oliver, A., Sobel, E. S., Waldschmidt, T. J., Cohen, P. L. & Eisenberg, R. A. (1996). Phenotypic abnormalities of splenic and bone marrow B cells in lpr and gld mice. Clinical immunology and immunopathology, 78(1), 21-9. PMID: 8599880.

Foy, T. M., Page, D. M., Waldschmidt, T. J., Schoneveld, A., Laman, J. D., Masters, S. R., Tygrett, L., Ledbetter, J. A., Aruffo, A., Claassen, E., Xu, J. C., Flavell, R. A., Oehen, S., Hedrick, S. M. & Noelle, R. J. (1995). An essential role for gp39, the ligand for CD40, in thymic selection. The Journal of experimental medicine, 182(5), 1377-88. PMID: 7595208.

Krieg, A. M., Yi, A. K., Matson, S., Waldschmidt, T. J., Bishop, G. A., Teasdale, R., Koretzky, G. A. & Klinman, D. M. (1995). CpG motifs in bacterial DNA trigger direct B-cell activation. Nature, 374(6522), 546-9. PMID: 7700380.

Cook, R. T., Ballas, Z. K., Waldschmidt, T. J., Vandersteen, D., LaBrecque, D. R. & Cook, B. L. (1995). Modulation of T-cell adhesion markers, and the CD45R and CD57 antigens in human alcoholics. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 19(3), 555-63. PMID: 7573774.

Best, C. G., Kemp, J. D. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (1995). Murine B-Cell Subsets Defined by CD23. Methods: A Companion to Methods in Enzymology, 8, 3.

Bhatia, S. K., Tygrett, L. T., Grabstein, K. H. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (1995). The effect of in vivo IL-7 deprivation on T cell maturation. The Journal of experimental medicine, 181(4), 1399-409. PMID: 7699326.

Neil, G. A., Summers, R. W., Cheyne, B. A., Carpenter, C., Huang, W. L. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (1994). Analysis of T-lymphocyte subpopulations in inflammatory bowel diseases by three-color flow cytometry. Digestive diseases and sciences, 39(9), 1900-8. PMID: 8082496.

Iciek, L. A., Waldschmidt, T. J., Griffiths, M. M. & Brooks, K. H. (1994). B-1 cells in systemic autoimmune responses: IgM+, Fc epsilon Rdull B cells are lost during chronic graft-versus-host disease but not in murine AIDS or collagen-induced arthritis. Immunological investigations, 23(5-Apr), 293-311. PMID: 7525472.

Bishop, G. A., Ramirez, L. M. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (1994). Differential responses to Ig and class II-mediated signals in splenic B cell subsets from normal and autoimmune mice. International immunology, 6(7), 1049-59. PMID: 7947456.

Cook, R. T., Waldschmidt, T. J., Ballas, Z. K., Cook, B. L., Booth, B. M., Stewart, B. C. & Garvey, M. J. (1994). Fine T-cell subsets in alcoholics as determined by the expression of L-selectin, leukocyte common antigen, and beta-integrin. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 18(1), 71-80. PMID: 7515214.

Xu, J., Foy, T. M., Laman, J. D., Elliott, E. A., Dunn, J. J., Waldschmidt, T. J., Elsemore, J., Noelle, R. J. & Flavell, R. A. (1994). Mice deficient for the CD40 ligand. Immunity, 1(5), 423-31. PMID: 7882172.

Zhao, Q., Waldschmidt, T. J., Fisher, E., Herrera, C. J. & Krieg, A. M. (1994). Stage-specific oligonucleotide uptake in murine bone marrow B-cell precursors. Blood, 84(11), 3660-6. PMID: 7949121.

Zhou, L. J., Smith, H. M., Waldschmidt, T. J., Schwarting, R., Daley, J. & Tedder, T. F. (1994). Tissue-specific expression of the human CD19 gene in transgenic mice inhibits antigen-independent B-lymphocyte development. Molecular and cellular biology, 14(6), 3884-94. PMID: 7515149.

Field, E. H., Noelle, R. J., Rouse, T., Goeken, J. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (1993). Evidence for excessive Th2 CD4+ subset activity in vivo. Journal of immunology, 151(1), 48-59. PMID: 8100845.

Grabstein, K. H., Waldschmidt, T. J., Finkelman, F. D., Hess, B. W., Alpert, A. R., Boiani, N. E., Namen, A. E. & Morrissey, P. J. (1993). Inhibition of murine B and T lymphopoiesis in vivo by an anti-interleukin 7 monoclonal antibody. The Journal of experimental medicine, 178(1), 257-64. PMID: 8315381.

Cook, R. T., Ballas, Z. K., Waldschmidt, T. J., Cook, B. L., LaBrecque, D. R. & Byers, C. (1993). Phenotypic Alterations of Lymphocyte Fine Subsets in the Alcoholic: Implications for Function. Pergamon Press, 91.

Foy, T. M., Waldschmidt, T. J. (1993). Switching capacity of Fc epsilon RII-positive and -negative murine B cells. European journal of immunology, 23(12), 3208-16. PMID: 7903073.

Roy, M., Waldschmidt, T. J., Aruffo, A., Ledbetter, J. A. & Noelle, R. J. (1993). The regulation of the expression of gp39, the CD40 ligand, on normal and cloned CD4+ T cells. Journal of immunology, 151(5), 2497-510. PMID: 8103067.

Waldschmidt, T. J., Snapp, K., Foy, T., Tygrett, L. & Carpenter, C. (1992). B-cell subsets defined by the Fc epsilon R. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 651, 84-98. PMID: 1376093.

Neil, G. A., Summers, R. W., Cheyne, B. A., Capenter, C., Huang, W. L., Kansas, G. S. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (1992). CD5+ B cells are decreased in peripheral blood of patients with Crohn's disease. Digestive diseases and sciences, 37(9), 1390-5. PMID: 1380423.

Lynch, R. G., Sandor, M., Nunez, R., Mathur, A., Hagen, M., Waldschmidt, T. J., Van Ness, B., Nelms, K., Noben, N. & Ibraghimov, A. (1992). Lymphocyte Fc receptors: the immunobiology and pathology of CD23. Immunobiology, 185(4-Feb), 235-67. PMID: 1452204.

Foy, T. M., Lynch, R. G. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (1992). Ontogeny and distribution of the murine B cell Fc gamma RII. Journal of immunology, 149(5), 1516-23. PMID: 1387140.

Waldschmidt, T. J., Tygrett, L. T. (1992). The low affinity IgE Fc receptor (CD23) participates in B cell activation. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 323, 149-56. PMID: 1485561.

Muirhead, M., Schwartz, R. C. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (1992). Use of a modified Transwell culture to quantitate the contribution of non-IL-7 substances to growth of an IL-7-dependent pre-B cell clone. Lymphokine and cytokine research, 11(3), 167-73. PMID: 1382627.

Allison, A., Alt, F., Arnold, L., Astrin, S., Bishop, G. A., Casali, P., Clarke, S., Cooper, M., Coutinho, A., Davidson, W. F., Gu, H., Hardy, R., Haughton, G., Herzenberg, L. A., Howard, M., Ikuta, K., Kantor, A. B., Kearney, J. F., Kincade, P. W., Klinman, N. R., Kipps, T. J., Kishimoto, T., Kehrl, J. H., Kohler, G., Koshland, M., Kroese, F. G., Litman, G., Lydyard, P., Marcos, M., McGrath, M., Milstein, C., Minoprio, P., Nolan, G. P., Nossal, G. J., O'Garra, A., Parnes, J. R., Plater-Zyberk, C., Rajewsky, K., Raveche, E. S., Reth, M., Shirai, T., Solvason, N., Stall, A., Takatsu, K., Talal, N., Tucker, P., Vakil, M., Waldschmidt, T. J., Weill, J. C. & Witz, I. P. (1991). A new nomenclature for B cells. Immunology Today, 12, 383.

Waldschmidt, T. J., Kroese, F. G., Tygrett, L. T., Conrad, D. H. & Lynch, R. G. (1991). The expression of B cell surface receptors III - The murine low-affinity IgE Fc receptor is not expressed on Ly 1 or 'Ly 1-like' B cells. International immunology, 3(4), 305-15. PMID: 1831650.

Steinmuller, D., Snider, M. E., Noble, R. L. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (1990). Dissociation of tissue destruction induced by cytolytic T cells in vivo and cytotoxicity as measured in vitro. Transplantation, 50(4), 663-8. PMID: 2219289.

Sandor, M., Waldschmidt, T. J., Williams, K. R. & Lynch, R. G. (1990). IgA-induced avidity maturation of IgA Fc receptors on murine T lymphocytes. Journal of immunology, 144(12), 4562-70. PMID: 2351824.

Lynch, R. G., Sandor, M., Waldschmidt, T. J., Mathur, A., Schaiff, W. T., Berg, D. J., Snapp, K., Mueller, A., Robinson, M. G. & Noben, N. (1990). Lymphocyte Fc receptors: expression, regulation and function. Molecular immunology, 27(12), 1167-79. PMID: 2274060.

Lynch, R. G., Sandor, M. & Waldschmidt, T. J. (1990). Receptors for IgA and IgE on T and B lymphocytes: development, regulation and function. Research in immunology, 141(3), 241-8. PMID: 2145618.

Muirhead, M., Davis, R., Schwartz, R. C., Waldschmidt, T. J., Ackermann, L., Palumbo, G. & Smith, R. G. (1990). Several types of adherent cells elaborate a dialyzable lymphopoietic cofactor (Abelson Growth Promoter). International journal of cell cloning, 8(6), 392-408. PMID: 2273295.

Waldschmidt, T. J., Conrad, D. H. & Lynch, R. G. (1989). Expression of B cell surface receptors II - IL-4 can accelerate the developmental expression of the murine B cell IgE Fc receptor. Journal of immunology, 143(9), 2820-7. PMID: 2530279.

Lynch, R. G., Mathur, A., Waldschmidt, T. J., Sandor, M., Mueller, A. & Johanns, P. (1988). Immunoglobulin (Fc) receptors on murine T- and B-lymphocytes: investigations using tumor models. Molecular immunology, 25(11), 1151-7. PMID: 3065631.

Waldschmidt, T. J., Conrad, D. H. & Lynch, R. G. (1988). The expression of B cell surface receptors I - The ontogeny and distribution of the murine B cell IgE Fc receptor. Journal of immunology, 140(7), 2148-54. PMID: 2965179.

Conrad, D. H., Waldschmidt, T. J., Lee, W. T., Rao, M., Keegan, A. D., Noelle, R. J., Lynch, R. G. & Kehry, M. R. (1987). Effect of B cell stimulatory factor-1 (interleukin 4) on Fc epsilon and Fc gamma receptor expression on murine B lymphocytes and B cell lines. Journal of immunology, 139(7), 2290-6. PMID: 2958544.

Waldschmidt, T. J., Williams, K. R. & Lynch, R. G. (1987). Isotype-specific recognition and regulation by T cells studied with tumor models. International reviews of immunology, 2(2), 203-20. PMID: 2976804.

Lynch, R. G., Mathur, A., Williams, K. R., Robinson, M. G., Waldschmidt, T. J., Mueller, A., Schreiber, K., Hogquist, K. & Kamat, D. (1986). Induction of Isotype-Specific Immunoregulatory T cells by Monoclonal Immunoglobulins. Immunologyig (USSR) In Russian, 6, 8-12.

Waldschmidt, T. J., Vitetta, E. S. (1985). Fc Receptors on B-Cells Mediate Down-Regulation of Antibody Secretion. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur Immunology, 136, 417.

Waldschmidt, T. J., Layton, J. E., McFadden, S. F., Uhr, J. W. & Vitetta, E. S. (1985). sIgD- and sIgD+ B cells responding to thymus-independent antigens have a different lymphokine requirement. Journal of immunology, 135(2), 865-7. PMID: 3159795.

Waldschmidt, T. J., Vitetta, E. S. (1985). The use of haptenated-immunoglobulin molecules to induce tolerance in B cells from neonatal mice. Journal of immunology, 134(3), 1436-41. PMID: 2578508.

Waldschmidt, T. J., Borel, Y. & Vitetta, E. S. (1983). The use of haptenated immunoglobulins to induce B cell tolerance in vitro. The roles of hapten density and the Fc portion of the immunoglobulin carrier. Journal of immunology, 131(5), 2204-9. PMID: 6226736.

Estess, P., McCumber, L., Siegelman, M., Waldschmidt, T. J., Pacifico, A. & Capra, J. D. (1980). Structural and Serologic Studies on the Induced Serum Antibodies and the Products of B and T Cell Hybridomas. Progress in Immunology IV.