Garry R. Buettner, PhD

Portrait
Director, ESR Facility
Professor of Radiation Oncology in the Free Radical & Radiation Biology Program
Professor of Radiation Oncology
Professor of ate Program in Human Toxicology

Contact Information

Primary Office: B180K ML
Iowa City, IA 52242
+1319-335-8015

Lab:
319-335-6749

Education

BA, Chemistry, University of Northern Iowa
MS, Chemistry, The University of Iowa
PhD, Chemistry, The University of Iowa

Fellow, Radiation Research Lab, The University of Iowa
Fellow, NRSA, NIH/NIEHS North Carolina

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Biomedical Science Program, Free Radical and Radiation Biology Graduate Program, Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology

Center, Program and Institute Affiliations

Cardiovascular Research Center, Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, Environmental Health Sciences Research Center, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute for Clinical and Translational Science

Research Summary

Dr. Buettner's research focuses on the basic chemistry and biology of free radicals and related oxidants in human health. His research program touches on many themes that include: The fundamental chemistry and biochemistry of vitamins C and E and other small molecular weight antioxidants. Work from his laboratory has played a major role in establishing the current paradigm of how these antioxidants function. This work has provided a new view of ascorbate as the terminal, small molecule, water-soluble antioxidant. See: The pecking order of free radicals and antioxidants: Lipid peroxidation, -tocopherol, and ascorbate. PMID: 8434935 and The ascorbate free radical as a marker of oxidative stress: An EPR study. PMID: 8384150. Our work on ascorbate has lead to the hypothesis that ascorbate at physiological concentrations can be used as a pro-drug for the delivery of hydrogen peroxide to tumor cells and thereby serve as a component of the therapy of certain cancers. See: Ascorbic acid at pharmacologic concentrations selectively kills cancer cells: ascorbic acid as a pro-drug for hydrogen peroxide delivery to tissues. PMID: 16157892 and Mechanisms of ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer. PMID: 20068072. Nitric Oxide as a membrane antioxidant. We have contributed to the understanding of fundamental chemistry of this small molecule functioning as and antioxidant. We have found that levels of only 10-50 micro molar are needed serve this function. See: Nitric oxide as a cellular antioxidant: A little goes a long way. PMID: 16443165. We have initiated the new research field of Quantitative Redox Biology. This represents a transition from understanding basic biology of cells and tissues at an observational level to a true mechanistic level. Our work in this arena changed the working paradigm of redox biology. Examples are: The pecking order of free radicals and antioxidants: Lipid peroxidation, -tocopherol, and ascorbate. PMID: 8434935; Redox state of the cell as viewed though the glutathione disulfide/glutathione couple. PMID: 11368918; and A new paradigm: Manganese superoxide dismutase influences the production of H2O2 in cells and thereby their biological state. PMID: 17015180. The primary goal of our research program is: to do some good.

Publications

Schoenfeld, J. D., Sibenaller, Z. A., Mapuskar, K. A., Bradley, M. D., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R., Monga, V., Milhem, M., Spitz, D. R. & Allen, B. G. (2018). Redox active metals and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> mediate the increased efficacy of pharmacological ascorbate in combination with gemcitabine or radiation in pre-clinical sarcoma models. Redox biology, 14, 417-422. PMID: 29069637.

Heer, C. D., Davis, A. B., Riffe, D. B., Wagner, B. A., Falls, K. C., Allen, B. G., Buettner, G. R., Beardsley, R. A., Riley, D. P. & Spitz, D. R. (2018). Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic GC4419 Enhances the Oxidation of Pharmacological Ascorbate and Its Anticancer Effects in an H2O2-Dependent Manner. Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 7(1). PMID: 29351198.

Brandt, K. E., Falls, K. C., Schoenfeld, J. D., Rodman, S. N., Gu, Z., Zhan, F., Cullen, J. J., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R., Allen, B. G., Berg, D. J., Spitz, D. R. & Fath, M. A. (2018). Augmentation of intracellular iron using iron sucrose enhances the toxicity of pharmacological ascorbate in colon cancer cells. Redox biology, 14, 82-87. PMID: 28886484.

Erudaitius, D., Huang, A., Kazmi, S., Buettner, G. R. & Rodgers, V. G. (2017). Peroxiporin Expression Is an Important Factor for Cancer Cell Susceptibility to Therapeutic H2O2: Implications for Pharmacological Ascorbate Therapy. PloS one, 12(1), e0170442. PMID: 28107421.

Schoenfeld, J. D., Sibenaller, Z. A., Mapuskar, K. A., Wagner, B. A., Cramer-Morales, K. L., Furqan, M., Sandhu, S., Carlisle, T. L., Smith, M. C., Abu Hejleh, T., Berg, D. J., Zhang, J., Keech, J., Parekh, K. R., Bhatia, S., Monga, V., Bodeker, K. L., Ahmann, L., Vollstedt, S., Brown, H., Shanahan Kauffman, E. P., Schall, M. E., Hohl, R. J., Clamon, G. H., Greenlee, J. D., Howard, M. A., Schultz, M. K., Smith, B. J., Riley, D. P., Domann, F. E., Cullen, J. J., Buettner, G. R., Buatti, J. M., Spitz, D. R. & Allen, B. G. (2017). O<sub>2</sub><sup>·-</sup> and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-Mediated Disruption of Fe Metabolism Causes the Differential Susceptibility of NSCLC and GBM Cancer Cells to Pharmacological Ascorbate. Cancer cell, 31(4), 487-500.e8. PMID: 28366679.

Schoenfeld, J. D., Sibenaller, Z. A., Mapuskar, K. A., Wagner, B. A., Cramer-Morales, K. L., Furqan, M., Sandhu, S., Carlisle, T. L., Smith, M. C., Abu Hejleh, T., Berg, D. J., Zhang, J., Keech, J., Parekh, K. R., Bhatia, S., Monga, V., Bodeker, K. L., Ahmann, L., Vollstedt, S., Brown, H., Kauffman EPS,, Schall, M. E., Hohl, R. J., Clamon, G. H., Greenlee, J. D., Howard, M. A., Schultz, M. K., Smith, B. J., Riley, D. P., Domann, F. E., Cullen, J. J., Buettner, G. R., Buatti, J. M., Spitz, D. R. & Allen, B. G. (2017). O<sub>2</sub><sup>·-</sup> and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-Mediated Disruption of Fe Metabolism Causes the Differential Susceptibility of NSCLC and GBM Cancer Cells to Pharmacological Ascorbate. Cancer cell, 32(2), 268. PMID: 28810149.

Son, J. M., Sarsour, E. H., Kakkerla Balaraju, A., Fussell, J., Kalen, A. L., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R. & Goswami, P. C. (2017). Mitofusin 1 and optic atrophy 1 shift metabolism to mitochondrial respiration during aging. Aging cell, 16(5), 1136-1145. PMID: 28758339.

Xiao, W., Sarsour, E. H., Wagner, B. A., Doskey, C. M., Buettner, G. R., Domann, F. E. & Goswami, P. C. (2016). Succinate dehydrogenase activity regulates PCB3-quinone-induced metabolic oxidative stress and toxicity in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Archives of toxicology, 90(2), 319-32. PMID: 25417049.

Witmer, J. R., Wetherell, B. J., Wagner, B. A., Du, J., Cullen, J. J. & Buettner, G. R. (2016). Directspectrophotometric measurement of supra-physiological levels of ascorbate inplasma. Redox Biol., 8, 298-304. PMID: 26928133.

Anderson, D. G., Florang, V. R., Schamp, J. H., Buettner, G. R. & Doorn, J. A. (2016). Antioxidant-Mediated Modulation of Protein Reactivity for 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, a Toxic Dopamine Metabolite. Chemical research in toxicology, 29(7), 1098-107. PMID: 27268734.

Doskey, C. M., Buranasudja, V., Wagner, B. A., Wilkes, J. G., Du, J., Cullen, J. J. & Buettner, G. R. (2016). Tumor cells have decreased ability to metabolize H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>: Implications for pharmacological ascorbate in cancer therapy. Redox biology, 10, 274-284. PMID: 27833040.

Du, J., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R. & Cullen, J. J. (2015). Role of labile iron in the toxicity of pharmacological ascorbate. Free Radic Biol Med., 84, 289-295. PMID: 25857216.

Doskey, C. M., van't Erve, T. J., Wagner, B. A. & Buettner, G. R. (2015). Moles of a Substance per Cell Is a Highly Informative Dosing Metric in Cell Culture. PLoS One., 10(7), e0132572. PMID: 26172833.

Cieslak, J. A., Strother, R. K., Rawal, M., Du, J., Doskey, C. M., Schroeder, S. R., Button, A., Wagner, B. A., Wagner, G. R. & Cullen, J. J. (2015). Manganoporphyrins and ascorbate enhance gemcitabine cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer. Free Radic Biol Med., 83, 227-237. PMID: 25725418.

Vant Erve, T. J., Wagner, B. A., Martin, S. M., Knudson, C. M., Blendowski, R., Keaton, M., Holt, T., Hess, J. R., Buettner, G. R., Ryckman, K. K., Darbro, B. W., Murray, J. C. & J, T. (2015). The heritability of hemolysis in stored human red blood cells. Transfusion, 55(6), 1178-1185. PMID: 25644965.

Buettner, G. R. (2015). Moving free radical and redox biology ahead in the next decade(s). Free Radic Biol Med., 78, 236-238. PMID: 25450329.

O'Leary, B. R., Fath, M. A., Bellizzi, A. M., Hrabe, J. E., Button, A. M., Allen, B. G., Case, A. J., Altekruse, S., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R., Lynch, C. F., Hernandex, B. Y., Cozen, W., Beardsley, R. A., Keene, J., Henry, M. D., Domann, F. E., Spitz, D. R. & Mezhir, J. J. (2015). Loss of SOD3 (EcSOD) Expression Promotes an Aggressive Phenotype in Human Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res., 21(7), 1741-1751. PMID: 25634994.

Rasmussen, T. P., Wu, Y., Joiner, M. L., Koval, O. M., Wilson, N. R., Luczak, E. D., Wang, Q., Chen, B., Gao, Z., Zhu, Z., Wagner, B. A., Soto, J., McCormick, M. L., Kutschke, W., Weiss, R. M., Yu, L., Boudreau, R. L., Abel, E. D., Zhan, F., Spitz, D. R., Buettner, G. R., Song, L. S., Zingman, L. V. & Anderson, M. E. (2015). Inhibition of MCU forces extramitochondrial adaptations governing physiological and pathological stress responses in heart. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA., 112(29), 9129-34. PMID: 26153425.

Zhao, H., Jiang, J., Wang, Y., Lehmler, H., Buettner, G. R., Quan, X. & Chen, J. (2015). Monohydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (OH-PBDEs) and DihydroxylatedPolybrominated Biphenyls (Di-OH-PBBs): Novel Photoproducts of 2,6-Dibromophenol. Environ Sci Technol.. PMID: 26545041.

Zhao, H., Jiang, J., Wang, Y., Lehmler, H. J., Buettner, G. R., Quan, X. & Chen, J. (2015). Monohydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (OH-PBDEs) and Dihydroxylated Polybrominated Biphenyls (Di-OH-PBBs): Novel Photoproducts of 2,6-Dibromophenol. Environ Sci Technol., 49(24), 14120-8. PMID: 26545041.

Rabovsky, A. B., Buettner, G. R. & Fink, B. (2015). In vivo imaging of free radicals produced bymultivitamin-mineral supplements. BMC Nutr., pii: 32. PMID: 26705481.

Du, J., Cieslak, J. A., Welsh, J. L., Sibenaller, Z. A., Allen, B. G., Wagner, B. A., Kalen, A. L., Doskey, C. M., Strother, R. K., Button, A. M., Mott, S. L., Tsai, S., Smith, B., Mezhir, J., Goswami, P. C., Spitz, D. R., Buettner, G. R. & Cullen, J. J. (2015). Pharmacological Ascorbate Radiosensitizes Pancreatic Cancer. Cancer Res., 75(16), 3314-3326. PMID: 26081808.

Wangpradit, O., Rahaman, A., Mariappan, S. V., Buettner, G. R., Robertson, L. W. & Luthe, G. (2015). Breaking the dogma: PCB-derived semiquinone free radicals do not form covalent adducts with DNA, GSH, and amino acids. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int., 23(3), 2138-47. PMID: 26396011.

van 't Erve, T., Wagner, B. A., Martin, S. M., Knudson, C. M., Blendowski, R., Keaton, M., T, T., Hess, J. R., Buettner, G. R., Ryckman, K. K., Darbro, B. W., Murray, J. C. & Raife, T. J. (2014). Theheritability of metabolite concentrations in stored human red blood cells. Transfusion, 54(8), 2055-2063. PMID: 24601981.

van 't Erve, T. J., Wagner, B. A., Martin, S. M., Knudson, C. M., Blendowski, R., Keaton, M., Holt, T., Hess, J. R., Buettner, G. R., Ryckman, K. K., Darbro, B. W., Murray, J. C. & Raife, T. J. (2014). The heritability of metabolite concentrations in stored human red blood cells. Transfusion, 54. PMID: 24601981.

Eckers, J. C., Kalen, A. L., Sarsour, E. H., Tompkins, V. S., Janz, S., Son, J., Doskey, C. M., Buettner, G. R. & Goswami, P. C. (2014). Forkhead box M1 regulates quiescence-associated radioresistance of human head and neck squamous carcinoma cells. Radiat Res., 182(4), 420-429. PMID: 25229973.

Sibenaller, Z. A., Welsh, J. L., Du, C., Witmer, J. R., Schrock, H. E., Du, J., Buettner, G. R., Goswami, P. C., Cieslak III, J. A. & Cullen, J. J. (2014). Extracellular superoxide dismutase suppresses hypoxia-inducible factor-1a in pancreatic cancer. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 69, 357-366. PMID: 24509158.

Schwarzländer, M., Wagner, S., Ermakova, Y. G., Belousov, V. V., Radi, R., Beckman, J. S., Buettner, G. R., Demaurex, N., Duchen, M. R., Forman, H. J., Fricker, M. D., Gems, D., Halestrap, A. P., Halliwell, B., Jakob, U., Johnston, I. G., Jones, N. S., Logan, D. C., Morgan, B., Muller, F. L., Nicholls, D. G., Remington, S. J., Schumacker, P. T., Winterbourn, C. C., Sweetlove, L. J., Meyer, A. J., Dick, T. P. & Murphy, M. P. (2014). The 'mitoflash' probe cpYFP does not respond to superoxide. Nature, 514(7523), E12-14. PMID: 25341790.

Xiao, W., Sarsour, E. H., Wagner, B. A., Doskey, C. M., Buettner, G. R., Domann, F. E. & Goswami, P. C. (2014). Succinate dehydrogenase activity regulates PCB3-quinone-induced metabolic oxidative stress and toxicity in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Arch Toxicol., Epub ahead of print. PMID: 25417049.

van 't Erve, T., Doskey, C. M., Wagner, B. A., Hess, J. R., Darbro, B. W., Ryckman, K. K., Murray, J. C., Raife, T. J. & Buettner, G. R. (2014). Heritability of glutathione and related metabolites in stored red blood cells. Free Radic Biol Med., 76, 10-113. PMID: 25108189.

Ozden, O., Park, S. H., Wagner, B. A., Yong Song, H., Zhu, Y., Vassilopoulos, A., Jung, B., R, B. G. & Gius, D. (2014). SIRT3 deacetylates and increases pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in cancer cells. Free Radic Biol Med., 76, 163-172. PMID: 25152236.

Olney, K. E., Du, J., van 't Erve, T. J., Witmer, J. R., Sibenaller, Z. A., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R. & Cullen, J. J. (2013). Inhibitors of hydroperoxide metabolism enhance ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity. Free radical research, 47(3), 154-63. PMID: 23205739.

Welsh, J. L., Wagner, B. A., van't Erve, T. J., Zehr, P. S., Berg, D. J., Halfdanarson, T. R., Yee, N. S., Bodeker, K. L., Du, J., Roberts, 2nd, L. J., Drisko, J., Levine, M., Buettner, G. R. & Cullen, J. J. (2013). Pharmacological ascorbate with gemcitabine for the control of metastatic and node-positive pancreatic cancer (PACMAN): results from a phase I clinical trial. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology, 71(3), 765-75. PMID: 23381814.

Welsh, J. L., Wagner, B. A., van't Erve, T. J., Zehr, P. S., Berg, D. J., Halfdanarson, T. R., Yee, N. S., Bodeker, K. L., Du, J., Roberts, L. J., Drisko, J., Levine, M., Buettner, G. R. & Cullen, J. J. (2013). Pharmacological ascorbate with gemcitabine for the control of metastatic and node-positive pancreatic cancer (PACMAN): results from a phase I clinical trial. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology, 71(3), 765-75. PMID: 23381814.

Wagner, B. A., Witmer, J. R., van 't Erve, T. J. & Buettner, G. R. (2013). An Assay for the Rate of Removal of Extracellular Hydrogen Peroxide by Cells. Redox Biol., 1(1), 210-217. PMID: PMID:23936757.

Sanders, P. N., Koval, O. M., Jaffer, O. A., Prasad, A. M., Businga, T. R., Scott, J. A., Hayden, P. J., Luczak, E. D., Dickey, D. D., Allamargot, C., Olivier, A. K., Meyerholz, D. K., Robison, A. J., Winder, D. G., Blackwell, T. S., Dworski, R., Sammut, D., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R., Pope, R. M., Miller, Jr., F. J., Dibbern, M. E., Haitchi, H. M., Mohler, P. J., Howarth, P. H., Zabner, J., Kline, J. N., Grumbach, I. M. & Anderson, M. E. (2013). CaMKII is essential for the proasthmatic effects of oxidation. Sci Transl Med., 5(195), 195ra97. PMID: PMID:23884469.

Rawal, M., Schroeder, S. R., Wagner, B. A., Cushing, C. M., Welsh, J. L., Button, A. M., Du, J., Sibenaller, Z. A., Buettner, G. R. & Cullen, J. J. (2013). Manganoporphyrins Increase Ascorbate-Induced Cytotoxicity by Enhancing H2O2 Generation. Cancer Res., 73(16), 5232-41. PMID: PMID:23764544.

van 't Erve, T. J., Wagner, B. A., Ryckman, K. K., Raife, T. J. & Buettner, G. R. (2013). The concentration of glutathione in human erythrocytes is a heritable trait. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 65, 742-749. PMID: 23938402.

Moser, J. C., Rawal, M., Wagner, B. A., Du, J., Cullen, J. J. & Buettner, G. R. (2013). Pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR) increase labile iron in pancreatic cancer. Redox Biology, 2, 22-27. PMID: 24396727.

Sarsour, E. H., Kumar, M. G., Kalen, A. L., Goswami, M., Buettner, G. R. & Goswami, P. C. (2012). MnSOD activity regulates hydroxytyrosol-induced extension of chronological lifespan. Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands), 34(1), 95-109. PMID: 21384152.

Du, J., Cullen, J. & Buettner, G. R. (2012). Ascorbic acid: Chemistry, biology and the treatment of cancer. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta – Reviews on Cancer, 1826, 443-457. PMID: 22728050.

Du, J., Nelson, E. S., Simons, A. L., Olney, K. E., Moser, J. C., Schrock, H. E., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R., Smith, B. J., Teoh, M. L., Tsao, M. S. & Cullen, J. J. (2012). Regulation of pancreatic cancer growth by superoxide. Molecular carcinogenesis. PMID: 22392697.

Uc, A., Zhu, X., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R. & Berg, D. J. (2012). Heme oxygenase-1 is protective against nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric ulcers. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition, 54(4), 471-6. PMID: 21873894.

Sarsour, E. H., Kalen, A. L., Xiao, Z., Veenstra, T. D., Chaudhuri, L., Venkataraman, S., Reigan, P., Buettner, G. R. & Goswami, P. C. (2012). Manganese superoxide dismutase regulates a metabolic switch during the mammalian cell cycle. Cancer research, 72(15), 3807-16. PMID: 22710435.

Du, J., Cullen, J. J. & Buettner, G. R. (2012). Ascorbic acid: chemistry, biology and the treatment of cancer. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1826(2), 443-57. PMID: 22728050.

Brown, C. O., Salem, K., Wagner, B. A., Bera, S., Singh, N., Tiwari, A., Choudhury, A., Buettner, G. R. & Goel, A. (2012). Interleukin-6 counteracts therapy-induced cellular oxidative stress in multiple myeloma by up-regulating manganese superoxide dismutase. The Biochemical journal, 444(3), 515-27. PMID: 22471522.

Rawal, M., Schroeder, S. R., Du, J., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R. & Cullen, J. J. (2011). Manganoporphyrin MnTMPyP Enhances Ascorbate-Induced Cytotoxicity in Pancreatic Cancer Cells Via Generation of H(2)O(2).

Chen, Q. J., Drisko, J., Monti, D. A., Bazzan, A., Mitchell, E., Newberg, A., Cullen, J. J., Buettner, G. R., Padayatty, S. J., Espey, M. G. & Levine, M. (2011). Pharmacologic ascorbate in cancer treatment.

Witmer, J. R., Wagner, B. A. & Buettner, G. R. (2011). Absolute Quantitation of Active and Total Catalase.

Wagner, B. A., van 't Erve, T. J., Witmer, J. R. & Buettner, G. R. (2011). Dissecting Superoxide Production by HL-60 Cells Using DHE and Spin Trapping.

Wagner, B. A., Venkataraman, S. & Buettner, G. R. (2011). The rate of oxygen utilization by cells. Free radical biology & medicine, 51(3), 700-12. PMID: 21664270.

Buettner, G. R. (2011). Superoxide dismutase in redox biology: the roles of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry, 11(4), 341-6. PMID: 21453242.

Buettner, G. R., Wagner, B. A. & Rodgers, V. G. (2011). Quantitative Redox Biology: An Approach to Understand the Role of Reactive Species in Defining the Cellular Redox Environment. Cell biochemistry and biophysics. PMID: 22161621.

Anderson, D. G., Mariappan, S. V., Buettner, G. R. & Doorn, J. A. (2011). Oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, a toxic dopaminergic metabolite, to a semiquinone radical and an ortho-quinone. The Journal of biological chemistry, 286(30), 26978-86. PMID: 21642436.

Cullen, J. J., Spitz, D. R. & Buettner, G. R. (2011). Comment on "Pharmacologic ascorbate synergizes with gemcitabine in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer," i.e., all we are saying is, give C a chance. Free radical biology & medicine, 50(12), 1726-7. PMID: 21459141.

Rabovsky, A. B., Nielson, S. Y., Fink, B. & Buettner, G. R. (2010). In vivo EPR Imaging of Free Radicals Generated in the Intestinal Tract as a Consequence of Supplemental Mineral Formulations.

Rabovsky, A. B., Komarov, A. M., Ivie, J. S. & Buettner, G. R. (2010). Minimization of free radical damage by metal catalysis of multivitamin/multimineral supplements. Nutrition journal, 9, 61. PMID: 21092298.

Wagner, B. A., van 't Erve, T. J., Witmer, J. R., Bian, W. P. & Buettner, G. R. (2010). Quantitative Redox Biological Modeling and the Maintenance of Redox Status and Cell Signaling Fidelity.

Eslami, A. C., Pasanphan, W., Wagner, B. A. & Buettner, G. R. (2010). Free radicals produced by the oxidation of gallic acid: An electron paramagnetic resonance study. Chemistry Central journal, 4, 15. PMID: 20687941.

Song, Y., Buettner, G. R. (2010). Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations for the reaction of semiquinone radicals to form superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Free radical biology & medicine, 49(6), 919-62. PMID: 20493944.

Wangpradit, O., Moman, E., Nolan, K. B., Buettner, G. R., Robertson, L. W. & Luthe, G. (2010). Observation of an unusual electronically distorted semiquinone radical of PCB metabolites in the active site of prostaglandin H synthase-2. Chemosphere, 81(11), 1501-8. PMID: 20843536.

Witmer, J. R., Wagner, B. A. & Buettner, G. R. (2010). Absolute Quantitation of SOD Activity.

Roberts, J. E., Girotti, A. W., Buettner, G. R. & He, Y. Y. (2010). Introduction to the symposium-in-print: photobiology of the skin and eye in memory of Colin F. Chignell. Photochemistry and photobiology, 86(4), 740-1. PMID: 20653881.

Pasanphan, W., Buettner, G. R. & Chirachanchai, S. (2010). Chitosan gallate as a novel potential polysaccharide antioxidant: an EPR study. Carbohydrate research, 345(1), 132-40. PMID: 19889400.

Du, J., Martin, S. M., Levine, M., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R., Wang, S. H., Taghiyev, A. F., Du, C., Knudson, C. M. & Cullen, J. J. (2010). Mechanisms of ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 16(2), 509-20. PMID: 20068072.

Haak, J. L., Buettner, G. R., Spitz, D. R. & Kregel, K. C. (2009). Aging augments mitochondrial susceptibility to heat stress. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology, 296(3), R812-20. PMID: 19144753.

Wagner, B. A., Witmer, J. R. & Buettner, G. R. (2009). Human Myeloid Leukemia HL-60 Cell Line: A Quantitative Redox Biology Model.

Li, Q., Spencer, N. Y., Oakley, F. D., Buettner, G. R. & Engelhardt, J. F. (2009). Endosomal Nox2 facilitates redox-dependent induction of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha. Antioxidants & redox signaling, 11(6), 1249-63. PMID: 19113817.

Suh, Y. W., Buettner, G. R., Venkataraman, S., Treimer, S. E., Robertson, L. W. & Ludewig, G. (2009). UVA/B-induced formation of free radicals from decabromodiphenyl ether. Environmental science & technology, 43(7), 2581-8. PMID: 19452920.

Song, Y., Wagner, B. A., Witmer, J. R., Lehmler, H. J. & Buettner, G. R. (2009). Nonenzymatic displacement of chlorine and formation of free radicals upon the reaction of glutathione with PCB quinones. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(24), 9725-30. PMID: 19497881.

Witmer, J. R., Wagner, B. A. & Buettner, G. R. (2008). Absolute quantitation of catalase in mammalian cells: Changes seen with cell density. pp. 45:S123-S123. Free Radic Biol Med.

Buettner, G. R. (2008). Hydrogen peroxide and new approaches in the treatment of disease.

Buettner, G. R. (2008). Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in health and disease: Superoxide dismutase and ascorbate in cancer and cancer treatment.

Buettner, G. R. (2008). Understanding the biological consequences of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production through the application of quantitative redox biology.

Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R. (2008). An assay to determine the rate of hydrogen peroxide removal by cells. pp. 45:S25-S25. Free Radic Biol Med..

Song, Y., Buettner, G. R., Parkin, S., Wagner, B. A., Robertson, L. W. & Lehmler, H. J. (2008). Chlorination increases the persistence of semiquinone free radicals derived from polychlorinated biphenyl hydroquinones and quinones. The Journal of organic chemistry, 73(21), 8296-304. PMID: 18839991.

Kaewpila, S., Venkataraman, S., Buettner, G. R. & Oberley, L. W. (2008). Manganese superoxide dismutase modulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha induction via superoxide. Cancer research, 68(8), 2781-8. PMID: 18413745.

Venkatesha, V. A., Venkataraman, S., Sarsour, E. H., Kalen, A. L., Buettner, G. R., Robertson, L. W., Lehmler, H. J. & Goswami, P. C. (2008). Catalase ameliorates polychlorinated biphenyl-induced cytotoxicity in nonmalignant human breast epithelial cells. Free radical biology & medicine, 45(8), 1094-102. PMID: 18691649.

Song, Y., Wagner, B. A., Lehmler, H. J. & Buettner, G. R. (2008). Semiquinone radicals from oxygenated polychlorinated biphenyls: electron paramagnetic resonance studies. Chemical research in toxicology, 21(7), 1359-67. PMID: 18549251.

Bloomer, S. A., Brown, K. E., Buettner, G. R. & Kregel, K. C. (2008). Dysregulation of hepatic iron with aging: implications for heat stress-induced oxidative liver injury. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology, 294(4), R1165-74. PMID: 18272664.

Raghuveer, T. S., Buettner, G. R. (2008). Iron supplements and oxidative stress in very low birth weight infants. The Journal of pediatrics, 152(6), 890-1; author reply 891. PMID: 18492540.

Vislisel, J. M., Schafer, F. Q. & Buettner, G. R. (2007). A simple and sensitive assay for ascorbate using tempol and a plate reader.

Ng, C. F., Buettner, G. R. & Rodgers, V. (2007). Three-dimensional kinetic modeling of transient metabolism of H2O2 In mitochondria.

Bloomer, S. A., Brown, K. E., Buettner, G. R. & Kregel, K. C. (2007). Dysregulation of hepatic iron with aging: Implications for stress-induced oxidative liver injury.

Fischer, A. J., Martin, S. M., Schafer, F. Q., Rodgers, V. & Buettner, G. R. (2007). In cellular lipid peroxidation nitric oxide disappears by half-order kinetics indicating a diffusion-limited reaction.

Chen, Q., Espey, M. G., Sun, A. Y., Lee, J. H., Krishna, M. C., Shacter, E., Choyke, P. L., Pooput, C., Kirk, K. L., Buettner, G. R. & Levine, M. (2007). Ascorbate in pharmacologic concentrations selectively generates ascorbate radical and hydrogen peroxide in extracellular fluid in vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(21), 8749-54. PMID: 17502596.

Ng, C. F., Schafer, F. Q., Buettner, G. R. & Rodgers, V. G. (2007). The rate of cellular hydrogen peroxide removal shows dependency on GSH: mathematical insight into in vivo H2O2 and GPx concentrations. Free radical research, 41(11), 1201-11. PMID: 17886026.

Uc, A., Reszka, K. J., Buettner, G. R. & Stokes, J. B. (2007). Tin protoporphyrin induces intestinal chloride secretion by inducing light oxidation processes. American journal of physiology. Cell physiology, 292(5), C1906-14. PMID: 17215323.

Vislisel, J. M., Schafer, F. Q. & Buettner, G. R. (2007). A simple and sensitive assay for ascorbate using a plate reader. Analytical biochemistry, 365(1), 31-9. PMID: 17433246.

Wagner, B. A., Teesch, L. M., Buettner, G. R., Britigan, B. E., Burns, C. P. & Reszka, K. J. (2007). Inactivation of anthracyclines by serum heme proteins. Chemical research in toxicology, 20(6), 920-6. PMID: 17497896.

Ng, C. F., Schafer, F. Q., Buettner, G. R. & Rodgers, V. (2006). Effective GPx Activity: a new view on comparing removal of H2O2 in cells.

Suh, Y., Buettner, G. R., Robertson, L. W. & Ludewig, G. (2006). Formation of free radicals by uv-irradiation of deca-bromodiphenyl ether (deca-BDE).

Fischer, A. J., Martin, S. M., Schafer, F. Q., Rodgers, V. & Buettner, G. R. (2006). Nitric oxide is consumed by half-order kinetics during cellular lipid peroxidation.

Buettner, G. R., Ng, C. F., Wang, M., Rodgers, V. & Schafer, F. Q. (2006). MnSOD, Beyond an Antioxidant: A Redox Enzyme via Hydrogen Peroxide.

Hummel, S. G., Fischer, A. J., Martin, S. M., Schafer, F. Q. & Buettner, G. R. (2006). Nitric oxide as a cellular antioxidant: a little goes a long way. Free radical biology & medicine, 40(3), 501-6. PMID: 16443165.

Haak, J. L., Zhang, H. J., Buettner, G. R., Spitz, D. R. & Kregel, K. C. (2006). Holey electron transport chain: aging increases mitochondrial superoxide production in rat liver. pp. 20 (5): A1457-A1458 Part 2. FASEB J..

Buettner, G. R. (2006). Commentary on "Faster plasma vitamin E disappearance in smokers is normalized by vitamin C supplementation". Free radical biology & medicine, 40(4), 555-6. PMID: 16458185.

Buettner, G. R., Ng, C. F., Wang, M., Rodgers, V. G. & Schafer, F. Q. (2006). A new paradigm: manganese superoxide dismutase influences the production of H2O2 in cells and thereby their biological state. Free radical biology & medicine, 41(8), 1338-50. PMID: 17015180.

Kramarenko, G. G., Hummel, S. G., Martin, S. M. & Buettner, G. R. (2006). Ascorbate reacts with singlet oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Photochemistry and photobiology, 82(6), 1634-7. PMID: 16898858.

Reszka, K. J., McCormick, M. L., Buettner, G. R., Hart, C. M. & Britigan, B. E. (2006). Nitric oxide decreases the stability of DMPO spin adducts. Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry / official journal of the Nitric Oxide Society, 15(2), 133-41. PMID: 16647868.

Luo, J., Li, L., Zhang, Y., Spitz, D. R., Buettner, G. R., Oberley, L. W. & Domann, F. E. (2006). Inactivation of primary antioxidant enzymes in mouse keratinocytes by photodynamically generated singlet oxygen. Antioxidants & redox signaling, 8(8-Jul), 1307-14. PMID: 16910778.

Kramarenko, G. G., Wilke, W. W., Dayal, D., Buettner, G. R. & Schafer, F. Q. (2006). Ascorbate enhances the toxicity of the photodynamic action of Verteporfin in HL-60 cells. Free radical biology & medicine, 40(9), 1615-27. PMID: 16632121.

Venkataraman, S., Jiang, X., Weydert, C., Zhang, Y., Zhang, H. J., Goswami, P. C., Ritchie, J. M., Oberley, L. W. & Buettner, G. R. (2005). Manganese superoxide dismutase overexpression inhibits the growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Oncogene, 24(1), 77-89. PMID: 15543233.

Ahmad, I. M., Aykin-Burns, N., Sim, J. E., Walsh, S. A., Higashikubo, R., Buettner, G. R., Venkataraman, S., Mackey, M. A., Flanagan, S. W., Oberley, L. W. & Spitz, D. R. (2005). Mitochondrial O2*- and H2O2 mediate glucose deprivation-induced stress in human cancer cells. The Journal of biological chemistry, 280(6), 4254-63. PMID: 15561720.

Chen, Q., Espey, M. G., Krishna, M. C., Mitchell, J. B., Corpe, C. P., Buettner, G. R., Shacter, E. & Levine, M. (2005). Pharmacologic ascorbic acid concentrations selectively kill cancer cells: action as a pro-drug to deliver hydrogen peroxide to tissues. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(38), 13604-9. PMID: 16157892.

Wagner, B. A., Evig, C. B., Reszka, K. J., Buettner, G. R. & Burns, C. P. (2005). Doxorubicin increases intracellular hydrogen peroxide in PC3 prostate cancer cells. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 440(2), 181-90. PMID: 16054588.

Wang, M., Kirk, J. S., Venkataraman, S., Domann, F. E., Zhang, H. J., Schafer, F. Q., Flanagan, S. W., Weydert, C. J., Spitz, D. R., Buettner, G. R. & Oberley, L. W. (2005). Manganese superoxide dismutase suppresses hypoxic induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor. Oncogene, 24(55), 8154-66. PMID: 16170370.

Clark, C. B., Zhang, Y., Martin, S. M., Davies, L. R., Xu, L., Kregel, K. C., Miller, F. J., Buettner, G. R. & Kerber, R. E. (2004). The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine decreases defibrillation-induced free radical generation. Resuscitation, 60(3), 351-7. PMID: 15061157.

Evig, C. B., Kelley, E. E., Weydert, C. J., Chu, Y., Buettner, G. R. & Burns, C. P. (2004). Endogenous production and exogenous exposure to nitric oxide augment doxorubicin cytotoxicity for breast cancer cells but not cardiac myoblasts. Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry / official journal of the Nitric Oxide Society, 10(3), 119-29. PMID: 15158691.

Venkataraman, S., Schafer, F. Q. & Buettner, G. R. (2004). Detection of lipid radicals using EPR. Antioxidants & redox signaling, 6(3), 631-8. PMID: 15130290.

Carter, A. B., Tephly, L. A., Venkataraman, S., Oberley, L. W., Zhang, Y., Buettner, G. R., Spitz, D. R. & Hunninghake, G. W. (2004). High levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity dampen H2O2 signaling in human alveolar macrophages. American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology, 31(1), 43-53. PMID: 14962975.

Venkataraman, S., Wagner, B. A., Jiang, X., Wang, H. P., Schafer, F. Q., Ritchie, J. M., Patrick, B. C., Oberley, L. W. & Buettner, G. R. (2004). Overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase promotes the survival of prostate cancer cells exposed to hyperthermia. Free radical research, 38(10), 1119-32. PMID: 15512801.

Zhang, Y., Davies, L. R., Martin, S. M., Bawaney, I. M., Buettner, G. R. & Kerber, R. E. (2003). Magnesium reduces free radical concentration and preserves left ventricular function after direct current shocks. Resuscitation, 56(2), 199-206. PMID: 12589995.

Lam, E., Kelley, E., Martin, S. & Buettner, G. (2003). Tobacco xenobiotics release nitric oxide. Tobacco induced diseases, 1(3), 207-11. PMID: 19570261.

Baker, M. T., Gregerson, M. S., Martin, S. M. & Buettner, G. R. (2003). Free radical and drug oxidation products in an intensive care unit sedative: propofol with sulfite. Critical care medicine, 31(3), 787-92. PMID: 12626985.

Wang, H. P., Schafer, F. Q., Goswami, P. C., Oberley, L. W. & Buettner, G. R. (2003). Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase induces a delay in G1 of the cell cycle. Free radical research, 37(6), 621-30. PMID: 12868489.

Clark, C. B., Zhang, Y., Martin, S. M., Ray Davies, L., Xu, L., Kregel, K. C., Miller, F. J., Buettner, G. R. & Kerber, R. E. (2003). The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine decreases defibrillation-induced free radical generation. Resuscitation, 57(1), 101-8. PMID: 12668306.

Zhang, Y., Davies, L. R., Martin, S. M., Coddington, W. J., Miller, F. J., Buettner, G. R. & Kerber, R. E. (2003). The nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) increases free radical generation and degrades left ventricular function after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. Resuscitation, 59(3), 345-52. PMID: 14659604.

Zhao, L., Wang, H. P., Zhang, H. J., Weydert, C. J., Domann, F. E., Oberley, L. W. & Buettner, G. R. (2003). L-PhGPx expression can be suppressed by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 417(2), 212-8. PMID: 12941303.

Narushima, S., Spitz, D. R., Oberley, L. W., Toyokuni, S., Miyata, T., Gunnett, C. A., Buettner, G. R., Zhang, J., Ismail, H., Lynch, R. G. & Berg, D. J. (2003). Evidence for oxidative stress in NSAID-induced colitis in IL10-/- mice. Free radical biology & medicine, 34(9), 1153-66. PMID: 12706496.

Venkataraman, S., Martin, S. M. & Buettner, G. R. (2002). Electron paramagnetic resonance for quantitation of nitric oxide in aqueous solutions. Methods in enzymology, 359, 18-Mar. PMID: 12481555.

Burns, C. P., Kelley, E. E., Wagner, B. A. & Buettner, G. R. (2002). Role of nitric oxide and membrane phospholipid polyunsaturation in oxidative cell death. Sub-cellular biochemistry, 36, 97-121. PMID: 12037992.

Schafer, F. Q., Wang, H. P., Kelley, E. E., Cueno, K. L., Martin, S. M. & Buettner, G. R. (2002). Comparing beta-carotene, vitamin E and nitric oxide as membrane antioxidants. Biological chemistry, 383(4-Mar), 671-81. PMID: 12033456.

Hall, D. M., Buettner, G. R. (2002). In vivo detection of transition metals and nitrosyl-heme complexes using ex vivo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 196, 211-9. PMID: 12152201.

Samavati, L., Monick, M. M., Sanlioglu, S., Buettner, G. R., Oberley, L. W. & Hunninghake, G. W. (2002). Mitochondrial K(ATP) channel openers activate the ERK kinase by an oxidant-dependent mechanism. American journal of physiology. Cell physiology, 283(1), C273-81. PMID: 12055096.

Raghuveer, T. S., McGuire, E. M., Martin, S. M., Wagner, B. A., Rebouché, C. J., Buettner, G. R. & Widness, J. A. (2002). Lactoferrin in the preterm infants' diet attenuates iron-induced oxidation products. Pediatric research, 52(6), 964-72. PMID: 12438677.

Yang, J. Q., Buettner, G. R., Domann, F. E., Li, Q., Engelhardt, J. F., Weydert, C. D. & Oberley, L. W. (2002). v-Ha-ras mitogenic signaling through superoxide and derived reactive oxygen species. Molecular carcinogenesis, 33(4), 206-18. PMID: 11933074.

Zhang, H. J., Zhao, W., Venkataraman, S., Robbins, M. E., Buettner, G. R., Kregel, K. C. & Oberley, L. W. (2002). Activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 by overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells involves reactive oxygen species. The Journal of biological chemistry, 277(23), 20919-26. PMID: 11929863.

Friel, J. K., Martin, S. M., Langdon, M., Herzberg, G. R. & Buettner, G. R. (2002). Milk from mothers of both premature and full-term infants provides better antioxidant protection than does infant formula. Pediatric research, 51(5), 612-8. PMID: 11978886.

Lange, B. A., Buettner, G. R. (2001). Electron paramagnetic resonance detection of free radicals in UV-irradiated human and mouse skin. Current problems in dermatology, 29, 18-25. PMID: 11225198.

Schafer, F. Q., Buettner, G. R. (2001). Redox state of the cell as viewed though the glutathione disulfide/glutathione couple. Free Radic Biol Med, 30:1191-1212. PMID: PMID: 11368918.

Hall, D. M., Buettner, G. R., Oberley, L. W., Xu, L., Matthes, R. D. & Gisolfi, C. V. (2001). Mechanisms of circulatory and intestinal barrier dysfunction during whole body hyperthermia. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 280(2), H509-21. PMID: 11158946.

Wang, H. P., Qian, S. Y., Schafer, F. Q., Domann, F. E., Oberley, L. W. & Buettner, G. R. (2001). Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase protects against singlet oxygen-induced cell damage of photodynamic therapy. Free radical biology & medicine, 30(8), 825-35. PMID: 11295525.

Zhang, Y., Bissing, J. W., Xu, L., Ryan, A. J., Martin, S. M., Miller, F. J., Kregel, K. C., Buettner, G. R. & Kerber, R. E. (2001). Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors decrease coronary sinus-free radical concentration and ameliorate myocardial stunning in an ischemia-reperfusion model. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 38(2), 546-54. PMID: 11499751.

Yang, J. Q., Zhao, W., Duan, H., Robbins, M. E., Buettner, G. R., Oberley, L. W. & Domann, F. E. (2001). v-Ha-RaS oncogene upregulates the 92-kDa type IV collagenase (MMP-9) gene by increasing cellular superoxide production and activating NF-kappaB. Free radical biology & medicine, 31(4), 520-9. PMID: 11498285.

Yang, J. Q., Li, S., Huang, Y., Zhang, H. J., Domann, F. E., Buettner, G. R. & Oberley, L. W. (2001). V-Ha-Ras overexpression induces superoxide production and alters levels of primary antioxidant enzymes. Antioxidants & redox signaling, 3(4), 697-709. PMID: 11554455.

Schafer, F. Q., Buettner, G. R. (2001). Redox environment of the cell as viewed through the redox state of the glutathione disulfide/glutathione couple. Free radical biology & medicine, 30(11), 1191-212. PMID: 11368918.

Schafer, F. Q., Qian, S. Y. & Buettner, G. R. (2000). Iron and free radical oxidations in cell membranes. Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France), 46(3), 657-62. PMID: 10872752.

Liu, R., Buettner, G. R. & Oberley, L. W. (2000). Oxygen free radicals mediate the induction of manganese superoxide dismutase gene expression by TNF-alpha. Free radical biology & medicine, 28(8), 1197-205. PMID: 10889449.

Schafer, F. Q., Buettner, G. R. (2000). Acidic pH amplifies iron-mediated lipid peroxidation in cells. Free radical biology & medicine, 28(8), 1175-81. PMID: 10889446.

Ridnour, L. A., Sim, J. E., Hayward, M. A., Wink, D. A., Martin, S. M., Buettner, G. R. & Spitz, D. R. (2000). A spectrophotometric method for the direct detection and quantitation of nitric oxide, nitrite, and nitrate in cell culture media. Analytical biochemistry, 281(2), 223-9. PMID: 10870839.

Hall, D. M., Oberley, T. D., Moseley, P. M., Buettner, G. R., Oberley, L. W., Weindruch, R. & Kregel, K. C. (2000). Caloric restriction improves thermotolerance and reduces hyperthermia-induced cellular damage in old rats. FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 14(1), 78-86. PMID: 10627282.

McCormick, M. L., Denning, G. M., Reszka, K. J., Bilski, P., Buettner, G. R., Rasmussen, G. T., Railsback, M. A. & Britigan, B. E. (2000). Biological effects of menadione photochemistry: effects of menadione on biological systems may not involve classical oxidant production. The Biochemical journal, 350 Pt 3, 797-804. PMID: 10970795.

Buettner, G. R., Schafer, F. Q. (2000). Free radicals, oxidants, and antioxidants. Teratology, 62(4), 234. PMID: 10992266.

Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R., Oberley, L. W., Darby, C. J. & Burns, C. P. (2000). Myeloperoxidase is involved in H2O2-induced apoptosis of HL-60 human leukemia cells. The Journal of biological chemistry, 275(29), 22461-9. PMID: 10801811.

Venkataraman, S., Martin, S. M., Schafer, F. Q. & Buettner, G. R. (2000). Detailed methods for the quantification of nitric oxide in aqueous solutions using either an oxygen monitor or EPR. Free radical biology & medicine, 29(6), 580-5. PMID: 11025201.

Qian, S. Y., Wang, H. P., Schafer, F. Q. & Buettner, G. R. (2000). EPR detection of lipid-derived free radicals from PUFA, LDL, and cell oxidations. Free radical biology & medicine, 29(6), 568-79. PMID: 11025200.

McCormick, M. L., Rasmussen, G. T., Reszka, K. J., Buettner, G. R. & Britigan, B. E. (1999). L-tyrosine enhances eosinophil peroxidase-mediated damage to A549 human lung epithelial cells.

McCormick, M. L., Reszka, K. J., Hazen, S. L., Buettner, G. R. & Brigitan, B. E. (1999). EPR evidence for peroxidase-dependent formation of a nitrite-derived oxidant.

Kelley, E. E., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R. & Burns, C. P. (1999). Nitric oxide inhibits Photofrin-induced lipid peroxidation in HL-60 cells.

McCormick, M. L., Rasmussen, G. T., Reszka, K. J., Buettner, G. R. & Britigan, B. E. (1999). Nitrite exhibits contrasting effects on H2O2/peroxidase-mediated and hypohalous acid-mediated cytotoxicity.

Kelley, E. E., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R. & Burns, C. P. (1999). Nitric oxide inhibits Photofrin-induced lipid peroxidation in murine leukemia.

Wang, H., Qian, S. Y., Schafer, F., Oberley, L. W. & Buettner, G. R. (1999). Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PhGPx) uniquely protects cell membranes from photo-oxidation.

Jiang, X., Buettner, G. R. & Oberley, L. W. (1999). Overexpression of MnSOD protects PC3 cells from cytotoxicity induced by hyperthermia.

Wang, H., Buettner, G. R. & Oberley, L. W. (1999). Overexpression of human PhGPx in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7): effects on Photofrin photosensitization.

Qian, S. Y., Wang, H., Schafer, F. & Buettner, G. R. (1999). EPR detection of lipid-derived radicals during peroxidation of PUFA, LDL and cells.

Buettner, G. R., Hall, D. M., Flanagan, S. W. & Oberley, L. W. (1999). Detecting free radical formation during hyperthermia using EPR.

Schafer, F., Wagner, B. A., Wang, H., Oberley, L. W. & Buettner, G. R. (1999). Does peroxide toxicity correlate with antioxidant enzyme activity or oxidizability of cells?.

Kelley, E. E., Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R. & Burns, C. P. (1999). Nitric oxide inhibits iron-induced lipid peroxidation in HL-60 cells. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 370(1), 97-104. PMID: 10496982.

Yang, J. Q., Li, S., Domann, F. E., Buettner, G. R. & Oberley, L. W. (1999). Superoxide generation in v-Ha-ras-transduced human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Molecular carcinogenesis, 26(3), 180-8. PMID: 10559793.

Schafer, F. Q., Buettner, G. R. (1999). Singlet oxygen toxicity is cell line-dependent: a study of lipid peroxidation in nine leukemia cell lines. Photochemistry and photobiology, 70(6), 858-67. PMID: 10628299.

Pagan-Carlo, L. A., Garcia, L. A., Hutchison, J. L., Buettner, G. R. & Kerber, R. E. (1999). Captopril lowers coronary venous free radical concentration after direct current cardiac shocks. Chest, 116(2), 484-7. PMID: 10453880.

Hempel, S. L., Buettner, G. R., O'Malley, Y. Q., Wessels, D. A. & Flaherty, D. M. (1999). Dihydrofluorescein diacetate is superior for detecting intracellular oxidants: comparison with 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, 5(and 6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, and dihydrorhodamine 123. Free radical biology & medicine, 27(2-Jan), 146-59. PMID: 10443931.

Hall, D. M., Buettner, G. R., Oberley, L. W., Oberley, T. D., Xu, L., Drake, V. J., Swartz, S. & Kregel, K. (1999). Aging lowers stress-induced nuclear antioxidant enzyme translocation and increases metal activation.

Venkataraman, S., Martin, S. M., Schafer, F. & Buettner, G. R. (1999). A new method for quantification of nitric oxide in solution using a standard oxygen monitor.

Qian, S. Y., Buettner, G. R. (1999). Iron and dioxygen chemistry is an important route to initiation of biological free radical oxidations: an electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping study. Free radical biology & medicine, 26(12-Nov), 1447-56. PMID: 10401608.

Schafer, F., Buettner, G. R. (1999). Photodynamic therapy with Photofrin is cell line-dependent: a study of lipid peroxidation in leukemia cell lines.

Yang, J. Q., Li, S., Domann, F. E., Buettner, G. R. & Oberley, L. W. (1999). Superoxide generation in v-Ha-RAS transduced human keratinocytes.

Qian, S. Y., Buettner, G. R. (1999). The EPR detection of lipid-derived radicals during membrane lipid peroxidation of cells.

Schafer, F., Aminzay, A., Cueno, K. L. & Buettner, G. R. (1999). Photofrin photosensitization is cell line dependent: a study of nine leukemia cell lines.

Yang, J. Q., Domann, F. E., Oberley, L. W. & Buettner, G. R. (1999). RAS regulates expression of 92-kDa Type IV collagenase gene by altering oxidant levels.

Yang, J. Q., Li, S., Huang, Y., Zhang, H., Domann, F. E., Buettner, G. R. & Oberley, L. W. (1999). RAS oncogene mediates mitogenic signaling in part through superoxide production.

Kelley, E. E., Huynh, H. K., Sim, J. E., Buettner, G. R. & Spitz, D. R. (1998). Cellular oxygen resistance confers cross-resistance to Photofrin? photosensitization.

Qian, Y., Buettner, G. R. (1998). EPR Detection of peroxyl, alkoxyl, and carbon-centered radicals formed during PDT-mediated cell membrane lipid peroxidation.

Wang, H., Schafer, F., Kelley, E. E., Wagner, B. A. & Buettner, G. R. (1998). The effect of ?-carotene on lipid peroxidation induced by Photofrin? photosensitization.

McCormick, M. L., Buettner, G. R. & Britigan, B. E. (1998). Endogenous superoxide dismutase levels regulate iron-dependent hydroxyl radical formation in Escherichia coli exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Journal of bacteriology, 180(3), 622-5. PMID: 9457866.

Schafer, F., Buettner, G. R. (1998). Photofrin photosensitization in HL60 and K562 cells is (PUFA) and pH dependent.

Spencer, K. T., Lindower, P. D., Buettner, G. R. & Kerber, R. E. (1998). Transition metal chelators reduce directly measured myocardial free radical production during reperfusion. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology, 32(3), 343-8. PMID: 9733345.

Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R., Oberley, L. W. & Burns, C. P. (1998). Sensitivity of K562 and HL-60 cells to edelfosine, an ether lipid drug, correlates with production of reactive oxygen species. Cancer research, 58(13), 2809-16. PMID: 9661895.

McCormick, M. L., Gaut, J. P., Lin, T. S., Britigan, B. E., Buettner, G. R. & Heinecke, J. W. (1998). Electron paramagnetic resonance detection of free tyrosyl radical generated by myeloperoxidase, lactoperoxidase, and horseradish peroxidase. The Journal of biological chemistry, 273(48), 32030-7. PMID: 9822676.

Flanagan, S. W., Moseley, P. L. & Buettner, G. R. (1998). Increased flux of free radicals in cells subjected to hyperthermia: detection by electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping. FEBS letters, 431(2), 285-6. PMID: 9708920.

Garcia, L. A., Dejong, S. C., Martin, S. M., Smith, R. S., Buettner, G. R. & Kerber, R. E. (1998). Magnesium reduces free radicals in an in vivo coronary occlusion-reperfusion model. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 32(2), 536-9. PMID: 9708488.

Jurkiewicz-Lange, B. A., Buettner, G. R. (1997). Iron chelators protect against UV radiation induced free radical formation in skin: An EPR study.

Garcia, L. A., Smith, R. S., DeJong, S. C., Martin, S. M., Buettner, G. R. & Kerber, R. E. (1997). Magnesium reduces free radicals in and in vivo occlusion-reperfusion model. pp. 45(7):322A. J Invest Med.

Qian, Y., Buettner, G. R. (1997). Iron-ascorbate enhances the phototoxicity of in vitro PDT in cells (L1210, K562, & HL60): A mechanistic EPR study.

Kelley, E. E., Sims, J. E., Buettner, G. R. & Spitz, D. R. (1997). Oxygen-Resistant Chinese Hamster Fibroblast Cells are Cross-Resistant to Photosensitization with Photofrin.

McCormick, M. L., Denning, G. M., Reszka, K. J., Bilski, P., Buettner, G. R., Rasmussen, G. T., Railsback, M. A. & Britigan, B. E. (1997). Some photochemistry of menadione and its biological consequences.

McCormick, M. L., Gout, J., Buettner, G. R., Britigan, B. E. & Heinecke, J. W. (1997). Peroxidase/H2O2 forms tyrosyl radical as detected by EPR.

Schafer, F., Buettner, G. R. (1997). Influence of vitamin E on Photofrin photosensitization of HL60, K652 and L1210 cells.

Jiang, X., Yan, T., Buettner, G. R. & Oberley, L. W. (1997). Transfection of canine MDCK cells with human MnSOD Induces overexpression of MnSOD: is dog really man’s best friend?.

McCormick, M. L., Buettner, G. R., Hart, C. M., Lewis, T. S. & Britigan, B. E. (1997). The NO donor DEANO markedly decreases the stability of the DMPO/•OH spin adduct.

Wang, H., Schafer, F., Kelley, E. E., Wagner, B. A. & Buettner, G. R. (1997). Problems in the delivery of ?-carotene to cultured cells: THF enhances Photofrin toxicity.

Hall, D. M., Buettner, G. R. & Gisolfi, C. V. (1997). In vivo detection of nitric oxide and NOx species using ex vivo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Microchemical J, 56: 165-170.

Hempel, S. L., Buettner, G. R., O’Malley, Y. Q., Wessels, D. A. & Flaherty, D. M. (1997). A new fluorescent probe for detecting intracelluar oxidants. Magnesium reduces free radicals in and in vivo occlusion-reperfusion model. pp. 45(7):300A. J Invest Med.

Buettner, G. R. (1997). Trends in Food Science & Technology. Portland Press, 8(2), 64-65.

Kelley, E. E., Buettner, G. R. & Burns, C. P. (1997). Production of lipid-derived free radicals in L1210 murine leukemia cells is an early oxidative event in the photodynamic action of Photofrin. Photochemistry and photobiology, 65(3), 576-80. PMID: 9077143.

Wallen, E. S., Buettner, G. R. & Moseley, P. L. (1997). Oxidants differentially regulate the heat shock response. International journal of hyperthermia : the official journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group, 13(5), 517-24. PMID: 9354936.

Schafer, F., Kelley, E. E. & Buettner, G. R. (1997). Influence of vitamin E on Photofrin photosensitization in L1210 murine leukemia cells.

Kelley, E. E., Domann, F. E., Buettner, G. R., Oberley, L. W. & Burns, C. P. (1997). Increased efficacy of in vitro Photofrin photosensitization of human oral squamous cell carcinoma by iron and ascorbate. Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology, 40(3), 273-7. PMID: 9372616.

Qian, Y., Buettner, G. R. (1997). EPR Detection of peroxyl, alkoxyl, and carbon-centered radical formation during membrane lipid peroxidation in cells.

Ridnour, L. A., Sim, J. E., Wink, D. A., Martin, S. M., Buettner, G. R. & Spitz, D. R. (1997). A Rapid Spectrophotometric Method for Quantification of •NO, NO2-, andNO3- in Cell Culture Media.

Kelley, E. E., Burns, C. P. & Buettner, G. R. (1997). In vivo photodynamic therapy with Photofrin produces nitric oxide in L1210 solid tumors.

McCormick, M. L., Buettner, G. R. & Britigan, B. E. (1997). Endogenous SOD levels regulate iron-dependent •OH formation in Escherichia coli exposed to H2O2.

Wong, H., Schafer, F., Kelley, E. E. & Buettner, G. R. (1997). Beta-carotene rescues cells from photodynamic therapy with Photofrin.

Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R. & Burns, C. p. (1996). Effect of vitamin E on free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation in live L1210 cells.

Buettner, G. R. (1996). What is EPR? Simple Theory.

Jurkiewicz, B. A., Buettner, G. R. (1996). UV Radiation-induced free radical formation in skin.

Buettner, G. R. (1996). EPR detection of photogenerated free radicals from cells and tissues.

Hall, D. M., Buettner, G. R. (1996). In vivo spin trapping of nitric oxide by heme: electron paramagnetic resonance detection ex vivo. Methods in enzymology, 268, 188-92. PMID: 8782584.

Kelley, E. E., Burns, C. P. & Buettner, G. R. (1996). In vivo photodynamic therapy with Photofrin produces nitric oxide from L1210 solid tumors.

Kelley, E. E., Buettner, G. R. & Burns, C. P. (1996). Production of lipid-derived free radicals in L1210 murine leukemia cells is an early oxidative event in the photodynamic action of Photofrin.

Qian, Y., Buettner, G. R. (1996). Iron in free radical oxidations: EPR spin trapping studies on the initiation of chemical and biochemical oxidations.

Kelley, E. E., Burns, C. P., Oberley, L. W., Domann, F. E. & Buettner, G. R. (1996). Increased efficacy of in vitro photodynamic therapy of oral cancer cells by the prooxidants, iron and ascorbate.

Buettner, G. R. (1996). Metals and free radicals: The chemistry of vitamin c.

Britigan, B. E., Ratcliffe, H. R., Buettner, G. R. & Rosen, G. M. (1996). Binding of myeloperoxidase to bacteria: effect on hydroxyl radical formation and susceptibility to oxidant-mediated killing. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1290(3), 231-40. PMID: 8765125.

Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R. & Burns, C. P. (1996). Vitamin E slows the rate of free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation in cells. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 334(2), 261-7. PMID: 8900400.

Caterine, M. R., Spencer, K. T., Pagan-Carlo, L. A., Smith, R. S., Buettner, G. R. & Kerber, R. E. (1996). Direct current shocks to the heart generate free radicals: an electron paramagnetic resonance study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 28(6), 1598-609. PMID: 8917277.

Jurkiewicz, B. A., Buettner, G. R. (1996). EPR detection of free radicals in UV-irradiated skin: mouse versus human. Photochemistry and photobiology, 64(6), 918-22. PMID: 8972632.

Lindower, P. D., Spencer, K. T., Caterine, M. R., Sharma, M. K., Buettner, G. R. & Kerber, R. E. (1996). Prolonged coronary artery occlusion-reperfusion sequences reduce myocardial free radical production: an electron paramagnetic resonance study. American heart journal, 132(6), 1147-55. PMID: 8969565.

Hempel, S. L., Buettner, G. R., Wessels, D. A., Galvan, G. M. & O'Malley, Y. Q. (1996). Extracellular iron (II) can protect cells from hydrogen peroxide. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 330(2), 401-8. PMID: 8660671.

Qian, Y., Buettner, G. R. (1996). Iron-oxygen complexes may be more important than the Fenton reaction in initiating biological free radical oxidations: an EPR spin trapping study.

Buettner, G. R., Jurkiewicz, B. A. (1996). Catalytic metals, ascorbate and free radicals: combinations to avoid. Radiation research, 145(5), 532-41. PMID: 8619018.

Qian, Y., Buettner, G. R. (1996). Iron in free radical oxidations: EPR spin trapping studies on the initiation of chemical and biochemical oxidations.

Jurkiewicz, B. A., Buettner, G. R. (1995). Mouse and man: UV radiation-induced free radical formation in human skin.

Buettner, G. R., Kelley, E. E. (1995). Membrane lipid free radicals produced from L1210 murine leukemia cells by Photofrin photosensitization.

Jurkiewicz, B. A., Bissett, D. L. & Buettner, G. R. (1995). The effect of topically applied tocopherol on ultraviolet light-mediated free radical damage in skin.

Kelley, E. E., Buettner, G. R. & Burns, C. P. (1995). Production of lipid-derived free radicals in the initial peroxidative events of photofrin photosensitization of leukemic cells.

Domann, F. E., Kelley, E. E., Buettner, G. R., Burns, C. P. & Oberley, L. W. (1995). Increased efficacy of photofrin photosensitization of oral squamous cell carcinoma by the pro-oxidants iron and ascorbate.

McCormick, M. L., Buettner, G. R. & Britigan, B. E. (1995). The spin trap 4-POBN stimulates peroxidase-medicated oxidation of deferroximine: Implications for pharmacological use of spin trapping agents.

Britigan, B. E., Ratcliffe, H. R., Buettner, G. R. & Rosen, G. M. (1995). Binding of myeloperoxidase to bacteria: Effect on hydroxyl radical formation and susceptibility to oxidant-mediated killing.

Jurkiewicz, B. A., Bissett, D. L. & Buettner, G. R. (1995). Effect of topically applied tocopherol on ultraviolet radiation-mediated free radical damage in skin. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 104(4), 484-8. PMID: 7706763.

Kelley, E. E., Buettner, G. R. & Burns, C. P. (1995). Relative alpha-tocopherol deficiency in cultured cells: free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, lipid oxidizability, and cellular polyunsaturated fatty acid content. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 319(1), 102-9. PMID: 7771773.

Hall, D. M., Buettner, G. R., Oberley, L. W. & Gisolfi, C. V. (1995). Hyperthermia enhances nitric oxide release and reactive oxygen species in splanchnic tissues.

McCormick, M. L., Buettner, G. R. & Britigan, B. E. (1995). The spin trap alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone stimulates peroxidase-mediated oxidation of deferoxamine. Implications for pharmacological use of spin-trapping agents. The Journal of biological chemistry, 270(49), 29265-9. PMID: 7493957.

Schedl, H. P., Christensen, K. K., Clark, E. D. & Buettner, G. R. (1995). Surface charge, fluidity, and calcium uptake by rat intestinal brush-border vesicles. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1234(1), 81-9. PMID: 7880862.

Buettner, G. R. (1995). Ascorbate, catalytic metals and free radicals.

Shick, J. M., Buettner, G. R. & Dunlap, W. C. (1994). Preliminary study using electron paramagnetic resonance to assess protection from UV-induced oxidative stress by mycosporin-like amino acids in ovaries of sea urchins.

Spector, A. A., North, J. A., Cornelius, A. S. & Buettner, G. R. (1994). Possible applications of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cancer therapy. World review of nutrition and dietetics, 76, 81-5. PMID: 7856242.

Jurkiewicz, B. A., Buettner, G. R. (1994). The effect of topically applied alpha-tocopherol on ultraviolet-light mediated free radical formation in skin.

Jurkiewicz, B. A., Buettner, G. R. (1994). The role of iron in UV light-induced free radical formation in intact skin. pp. 59:61S. Photochem Photobiol.

Buettner, G. R. (1994). Light-induced free radical formation in cells and intact skin as detected by EPR. pp. 59:16S. Photochem Photobiol.

Alexander-North, L. S., North, J. A., Kiminyo, K. P., Buettner, G. R. & Spector, A. A. (1994). Polyunsaturated fatty acids increase lipid radical formation induced by oxidant stress in endothelial cells. Journal of lipid research, 35(10), 1773-85. PMID: 7852854.

Buettner, G. R., Wagner, B. A. & Burns, C. P. (1994). Free radical -mediated lipid peroxidation in cells: oxidizability is a function of cell lipid bis-allylic hydrogen content.

Hall, D. M., Buettner, G. R., Matthes, R. D. & Gisolfi, C. V. (1994). Hyperthermia stimulates nitric oxide formation: electron paramagnetic resonance detection of .NO-heme in blood. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 77(2), 548-53. PMID: 8002499.

North, J. A., Spector, A. A. & Buettner, G. R. (1994). Cell fatty acid composition affects free radical formation during lipid peroxidation. The American journal of physiology, 267(1 Pt 1), C177-88. PMID: 8048478.

Sharma, M. K., Buettner, G. R., Spencer, K. T. & Kerber, R. E. (1994). Ascorbyl free radical as a real-time marker of free radical generation in briefly ischemic and reperfused hearts. An electron paramagnetic resonance study. Circulation research, 74(4), 650-8. PMID: 8137501.

Jurkiewicz, B. A., Buettner, G. R. (1994). Ultraviolet light-induced free radical formation in skin: an electron paramagnetic resonance study. Photochemistry and photobiology, 59(1), 4-Jan. PMID: 8127935.

Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R. & Burns, C. P. (1994). Free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation in cells: oxidizability is a function of cell lipid bis-allylic hydrogen content. Biochemistry, 33(15), 4449-53. PMID: 8161499.

Buettner, G. R. (1993). The pecking order of free radicals and antioxidants: Lipid peroxidation, ? tocopherol, and ascorbate. Arch Biochem Biophys, 300:535 543. PMID: PMID: 8434935.

Buettner, G. R., Kelley, E. E. & Burns, C. P. (1993). Membrane lipid free radicals produced from L1210 murine leukemia cells by photofrin photosensitization: An EPR spin trapping study.

Buettner, G. R. (1993). Photosensitized production of free radicals: Electron paramagnetic resonance detection - direct and spin trapping approaches. pp. 57:106S. Photochem Photobiol.

Buettner, G. R., Kelley, E. E. & Burns, C. p. (1993). Membrane lipid free radicals produced from intact L1210 murine leukemia cells by hematoporphrin derivative and light: An EPR spin trapping study. pp. 57:88S. Photochem Photobiol.

Buettner, G. R., Sharma, M. K. (1993). The syringe nitroxide free radical--Part II. Free radical research communications, 19 Suppl 1, S227-30. PMID: 8282228.

Buettner, G. R. (1993). The spin trapping of superoxide and hydroxyl free radicals with DMPO (5,5-dimethylpyrroline-N-oxide): more about iron. Free radical research communications, 19 Suppl 1, S79-87. PMID: 8282235.

Jurkiewicz, B. A., Buettner, G. R. (1993). UV light-induced free radical formation in skin: An EPR study.

Jurkiewicz, B. A., Buettner, G. R. (1993). UV light-induced free radical formation in intact skin.

Buettner, G. R., Hall, D. M., Mathes, R. D. & Gisolfi, C. V. (1993). Hyperthermia stimulates nitric oxide formation: Electron paramagnetic resonance detection of NO-Hemoglobin in blood.

Buettner, G. R. (1993). The pecking order of free radicals and antioxidants: lipid peroxidation, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbate. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 300(2), 535-43. PMID: 8434935.

Buettner, G. R., Jurkiewicz, B. A. (1993). Ascorbate free radical as a marker of oxidative stress: an EPR study. Free radical biology & medicine, 14(1), 49-55. PMID: 8384150.

Sharma, M. K., Buettner, G. R. (1993). Interaction of vitamin C and vitamin E during free radical stress in plasma: an ESR study. Free radical biology & medicine, 14(6), 649-53. PMID: 8392021.

Buettner, G. R., Kelley, E. E. & Burns, C. P. (1993). Membrane lipid free radicals produced from L1210 murine leukemia cells by photofrin photosensitization: an electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping study. Cancer research, 53(16), 3670-3. PMID: 8393378.

Buettner, G. R., Wagner, B. A. & Burns, C. P. (1993). Free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation in cells: spin trapping as a tool.

Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R. & Burns, C. P. (1993). Increased generation of lipid-derived and ascorbate free radicals by L1210 cells exposed to the ether lipid edelfosine. Cancer research, 53(4), 711-3. PMID: 8428351.

Buettner, G. R., Moseley, P. L. (1993). EPR spin trapping of free radicals produced by bleomycin and ascorbate. Free radical research communications, 19 Suppl 1, S89-93. PMID: 7506694.

Buettner, G. R. (1993). Ascorbate radical as a marker of oxidative stress: In vitro and ex vivo applications.

Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R. & Burns, C. P. (1993). Free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation in cells: Oxidizability is a function of cell lipid bis-allylic hydrogen content.

Jurkiewicz, B. A., Buettner, G. R. (1993). EPR detection of free iron in skin by formation of a paramagnetic Fe(III) desferal complex. pp. 57:38S. Photochem Photobiol.

Sharma, M. K., Buettner, G. R. & Kerber, R. E. (1992). Ascorbyl free radical as a real-time marker of oxidative myocardial stress: An electron paramagnetic resonance study. pp. 19:1A. J Am Coll Cardiol.

Buettner, G. R., Kiminyo, K. P. (1992). Optimal EPR detection of weak nitroxide spin adduct and ascorbyl free radical signals. Journal of biochemical and biophysical methods, 24(2-Jan), 147-51. PMID: 1313843.

Buettner, G. R., Moseley, P. L. (1992). Ascorbate both activates and inactivates bleomycin by free radical generation. Biochemistry, 31(40), 9784-8. PMID: 1382593.

North, J. A., Spector, A. A. & Buettner, G. R. (1992). Detection of lipid radicals by electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping using intact cells enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acid. The Journal of biological chemistry, 267(9), 5743-6. PMID: 1313417.

Wagner, B. A., Buettner, G. R. & Burns, C. P. (1992). Membrane peroxidative damage enhancement by the ether lipid class of antineoplastic agents. Cancer research, 52(21), 6045-51. PMID: 1394229.

Chignell, C. F., Buettner, G. R. & Li, A. (1991). STDBII - a computerized spin trapping database.

Buettner, G. R., Moseley, P. L. (1991). The spin trapping of radicals produced by FeBLM and ascorbate.

Buettner, G. R., Sharma, M. K. (1991). The syringe nitroxide free radical - Part II.

Buettner, G. R., Kiminyo, K. P. (1991). Optimal ESR detection of weak spin adduct signals and weak ascorbyl free radical signals.

Buettner, G. R. (1991). The basic chemistry of spin trapping: Pitfalls and subtleties.

Sharma, M. K., Kerber, R. E. & Buettner, G. R. (1991). Interaction of ascorbate and a tocopherol in plasma during oxidative stress: A study by electron paramagnetic resonance.

Hall, R. D., Buettner, G. R. & Chignell, C. F. (1991). The biphotonic photoionization of chlorpromazine during conventional flash photolysis: spin trapping results with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide. Photochemistry and photobiology, 54(2), 167-73. PMID: 1664109.

Buettner, G. R., Moseley, P. L. (1991). Ascorbate both activates and inactivates bleomycin by free radical generation.

Britigan, B. E., Roeder, T. L. & Buettner, G. R. (1991). Spin traps inhibit formation of hydrogen peroxide via the dismutation of superoxide: implications for spin trapping the hydroxyl free radical. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1075(3), 213-22. PMID: 1659450.

Buettner, G. R., Scott, B. D., Kerber, R. E. & Mügge, A. (1991). Free radicals from plastic syringes. Free radical biology & medicine, 11(1), 69-70. PMID: 1657735.

Buettner, G. R., Mason, R. P. (1990). Spin-trapping methods for detecting superoxide and hydroxyl free radicals in vitro and in vivo. Methods Enzymol., 186:127-133. PMID: PMID: 172700.

Buettner, G. R., Mason, R. P. (1990). Spin-trapping methods for detecting superoxide and hydroxyl free radicals in vitro and in vivo. Methods in enzymology, 186, 127-33. PMID: 2172700.

Buettner, G. R., Chamulitrat, W. (1990). The catalytic activity of iron in synovial fluid as monitored by the ascorbate free radical. Free radical biology & medicine, 8(1), 55-6. PMID: 2157634.

Miller, D. M., Buettner, G. R. & Aust, S. D. (1990). Transition metals as catalysts of "autoxidation" reactions. Free radical biology & medicine, 8(1), 95-108. PMID: 2182396.

Buettner, G. R., Britigan, B. E. (1990). The spin trapping of superoxide with M4PO (3,3,5,5-tetramethylpyrroline-N-oxide). Free radical biology & medicine, 8(1), 57-60. PMID: 2157635.

Buettner, G. R. (1990). Use of ascorbate as test for catalytic metals in simple buffers. Methods in enzymology, 186, 125-7. PMID: 2233289.

Miller, D. M., Buettner, G. R. & Aust, S. D. (1990). Transition metals as catalysts of `autoxidation´ reactions. Free Radic Biol Med, 8: 95 108. PMID: PMID: 2182396.

Britigan, B. E., Roeder, T. L. & Buettner, G. R. (1990). Spin traps inhibit dismutation of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide: Implications for spin trapping hydroxyl radical.

Britigan, B. E., Coffman, T. J. & Buettner, G. R. (1990). Spin trapping evidence for the lack of significant hydroxyl radical production during the respiration burst of human phagocytes using a spin adduct resistant to superoxide-mediated destruction. The Journal of biological chemistry, 265(5), 2650-6. PMID: 2154454.

Buettner, G. R. (1990). On the reaction of superoxide with DMPO/.OOH. Free radical research communications, 10(2-Jan), 5-Nov. PMID: 2165980.

Britigan, B. E., Pou, S., Rosen, G. M., Lilleg, D. M. & Buettner, G. R. (1990). Hydroxyl radical is not a product of the reaction of xanthine oxidase and xanthine. The confounding problem of adventitious iron bound to xanthine oxidase. The Journal of biological chemistry, 265(29), 17533-8. PMID: 2170383.

Bors, W., Buettner, G. R., Michel, C. & Saran, M. (1990). Calcium in lipid peroxidation: does calcium interact with superoxide?. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 278(1), 269-72. PMID: 2157359.

Buettner, G. R. (1990). Ascorbate oxidation: UV absorbance of ascorbate and ESR spectroscopy of the ascorbyl radical as assays for iron. Free radical research communications, 10(2-Jan), 9-May. PMID: 2165985.

Buettner, G. R. (1990). EPR spin trapping of lipid radicals produced by photosensitization with hematoporphyrin derivative.

Buettner, G. R., Britigan, B. E. (1990). EPR determination of redox active iron in xanthine oxidase and DNA.

Hall, R. D., Buettner, G. R. & Chignell, C. F. (1989). The biophotonic photoionization of chlorpromazine during conventional flash phytolysis: spin trapping results with 5,5 dimethylpyrroline N oxide.

Buettner, G. R., Britigan, B. E. (1989). The spin trapping of superoxide with M4PO (3,3,5,5 tetramethylpyrroline N oxide).

Buettner, G. R., Hall, R. D., Chignell, C. F. & Motten, A. G. (1989). The stepwise biphotonic photoionization of chlorpromazine as seen by laser flash photolysis. Photochemistry and photobiology, 49(3), 249-56. PMID: 2734362.

Buettner, G. R. (1989). Ascorbate oxidation as an assay for iron from µl syringes.

Li, A., de Hass, A. H., Buettner, G. R., Watson, M. S., Carlton, L. D. & Chignell, C. F. (1989). STDBII, a spin trapping database implemented on the PC/AT.

Buettner, G. R. (1989). On the reaction of superoxide with DMPO/.OOH.

Buettner, G. R. (1988). In the absence of catalytic metals ascorbate does not autoxidize at pH 7: ascorbate as a test for catalytic metals. Journal of biochemical and biophysical methods, 16(1), 27-40. PMID: 3135299.

Buettner, G. R. (1987). Spin trapping: ESR parameters of spin adducts. Free radical biology & medicine, 3(4), 259-303. PMID: 2826304.

Buettner, G. R. (1987). Activation of oxygen by metal complexes and its relevance to autoxidative processes in living systems. pp. 18: 29-36. Bioelectrochem Bioenergetics.

Buettner, G. R. (1987). Spin trapping: ESR parameters of spin adducts. Free Radic Biol Med, 3: 259-303. PMID: PMID: 2826304.

Buettner, G. R., Saran, M. & Bors, W. (1987). The kinetics of the reaction of ferritin with superoxide. Free radical research communications, 2(6-Apr), 369-72. PMID: 2849591.

Buettner, G. R., Hall, R. D. (1987). Superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and singlet oxygen in hematoporphyrin derivative-cysteine, -NADH and -light systems. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 923(3), 501-7. PMID: 3030441.

Buettner, G. R., Motten, A. G., Hall, R. D. & Chignell, C. F. (1987). ESR detection of endogenous ascorbate free radical in mouse skin: enhancement of radical production during UV irradiation following application of chlorpromazine. Photochemistry and photobiology, 46(2), 161-4. PMID: 2819904.

Buettner, G. R. (1987). The reaction of superoxide, formate radical, and hydrated electron with transferrin and its model compound, Fe(III)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis[2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid] as studied by pulse radiolysis. The Journal of biological chemistry, 262(25), 11995-8. PMID: 3040725.

Hall, R. D., Buettner, G. R., Motten, A. G. & Chignell, C. F. (1987). Near-infrared detection of singlet molecular oxygen produced by photosensitization with promazine and chlorpromazine. Photochemistry and photobiology, 46(2), 295-300. PMID: 3628514.

Buettner, G. R., Motten, A. G., Hall, R. D. & Chignell, C. F. (1986). Free radical production by chlorpromazine sulfoxide, an ESR spin-trapping and flash photolysis study. Photochemistry and photobiology, 44(1), 10-May. PMID: 3018808.

Buettner, G. R. (1986). Ascorbate autoxidation in the presence of iron and copper chelates. Free radical research communications, 1(6), 349-53. PMID: 2851502.

2. Chignell, C. F., Motten, A. G. & Buettner, G. R. (1985). Photoinduced free radicals from chlorpromazine and related phenothiazines. Relationship to phenothiazine induced photosensitization. Environ Health Perspect, 64: 103 110. PMID: PMID: 2869942.

Chignell, C. F., Motten, A. G. & Buettner, G. R. (1985). Photoinduced free radicals from chlorpromazine and related phenothiazines: relationship to phenothiazine-induced photosensitization. Environmental health perspectives, 64, 103-10. PMID: 2869942.

Buettner, G. R., Need, M. J. (1985). Hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl free radical production by hematoporphyrin derivative, ascorbate and light. Cancer letters, 25(3), 297-304. PMID: 2982479.

Motten, A. G., Buettner, G. R. & Chignell, C. F. (1985). Spectroscopic studies of cutaneous photosensitizing agents--VIII. A spin-trapping study of light induced free radicals from chlorpromazine and promazine. Photochemistry and photobiology, 42(1), 15-Sep. PMID: 4059358.

Buettner, G. R., Doherty, T. P. & Bannister, T. D. (1984). Hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical formation by methylene blue in the presence of ascorbic acid. Radiation and environmental biophysics, 23(4), 235-43. PMID: 6093184.

Buettner, G. R. (1984). Thiyl free radical production with hematoporphyrin derivative, cysteine and light: a spin-trapping study. FEBS letters, 177(2), 295-9. PMID: 6094251.

Buettner, G. R. (1984). Free radical production of Photofrin II in the presence of ascorbate. pp. 39s:56s. Photochem Photobiol.

Motten, A. M., Buettner, G. R., Sik, R. H. & Chignell, C. F. (1984). Chlorpromazine and promazine: A spin-trapping study of cutaneous photosensitizers. pp. 39s:56s. Photochem Photobiol.

Buettner, G. R., Doherty, T. P. (1983). The photosensitized production of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical by methylene blue in the presence of ascorbic acid. pp. 37S:s106. Photochem Photobiol.

Oberley, L. W., Oberley, T. D. & Buettner, G. R. (1981). Cell division in normal and transformed cells: the possible role of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Medical hypotheses, 7(1), 21-42. PMID: 6259499.

Oberley, L. W., Oberley, T. D. & Buettner, G. R. (1980). Cell differentiation, aging and cancer: the possible roles of superoxide and superoxide dismutases. Medical hypotheses, 6(3), 249-68. PMID: 6253771.

Buettner, G. R., Oberley, L. W. (1980). The apparent production of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by hematoporphyrin and light as seen by spin-trapping. FEBS letters, 121(1), 161-4. PMID: 6257541.

Buettner, G. R., Oberley, L. W. (1979). Superoxide formation by protoporphyrin as seen by spin trapping. FEBS letters, 98(1), 18-20. PMID: 218839.

Oberley, L. W., Buettner, G. R. (1979). The role of superoxide dismutase in cancer: A review. Cancer Research, 39: 1141-1149. PMID: PMID: 217531.

Oberley, L. W., Buettner, G. R. (1979). Role of superoxide dismutase in cancer: a review. Cancer research, 39(4), 1141-9. PMID: 217531.

Buettner, G. R., Oberley, L. W. (1979). The production of hydroxyl radical by tallysomycin and copper(II). FEBS letters, 101(2), 333-5. PMID: 87348.

Burns, C. P., Luttenegger, D. G., Dudley, D. T., Buettner, G. R. & Spector, A. A. (1979). Effect of modification of plasma membrane fatty acid composition on fluidity and methotrexate transport in L1210 murine leukemia cells. Cancer research, 39(5), 1726-32. PMID: 218733.

Buettner, G. R., Oberley, L. W. (1978). Considerations in the spin trapping of superoxide and hydroxyl radical in aqueous systems using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-1-oxide. Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 83(1), 69-74. PMID: 212052.

Buettner, G. R., Oberley, L. W. & Leuthauser, S. W. (1978). The effect of iron on the distribution of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals as seen by spin trapping and on the superoxide dismutase assay. Photochemistry and photobiology, 28(5-Apr), 693-5. PMID: 216030.

Buettner, G. R., Coffman, R. E. (1977). EPR determination of the Co(II)-free radical magnetic geometry of the "doublet" species arising in a coenzyme B-12-enzyme reaction. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 480(2), 495-505. PMID: 189818.