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Moshe Wald, MD

Associate Professor of Urology

Contact Information

3251 Carver Pavilion (RCP)
Iowa City, IA 52242


BSc, Medical Sciences, Hebrew University and Hadassak School of Medicine
MD, Hebrew University and Hadassah School of Medicine
Fellow, University of Illinois at Chicago, Andrology
Fellow, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Andrology and Male Infertility
Resident, Bnai-Zion Medical Center, Urology

Research Summary

Dr. Walds' research focuses on the mechanisms that lead to vasectomy failure, and on the possible use of growth factors and biodegradable grafts for reconstructive surgery of the male reproductive tract, as part of the treatment of obstructive azoospermia. Recently he has focused on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-�, found to be increased in vasectomy sites. His experimental model also demonstrated the presence of microscopic tubules between the two edges of severed vasa deferentia, thus suggesting a possible mechanism for vasectomy failure. Previous studies have evaluated possible biomedical applications of biodegradable polymer grafts, specifically focusing on their use in guiding and accelerating peripheral nerve growth. Techniques have been developed for micropatterning biodegradable polymer substrates and incorporating nanospheres with growth factors into them, to provide physical and chemical guidance, respectively, for the regrowing elements. Current work is focusing on the role of biodegradable grafts, with or without micropatterning and/or incorporation of selected growth factors, in bridging long obstructive segments of the male reproductive tract, and serving as scaffolds for the regrowing elements. Dr. Wald is also involved in the development of computational models for the prediction of assisted reproductive techniques outcomes, as well as the outcomes of other urological conditions. He has recently developed a computational model for the prediction of in- vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), using surgically retrieved sperm, and is currently working of a model that could predict the outcomes of intrauterine insemination (IUI), another common assisted reproductive technique. These models can be deployed in the JavaScript language for ready availability on the world- wide web and in PalmOS for usage of handheld computers, allowing clinicians to simply enter the input data and receive an immediate outcome prediction. As such, these models could be a useful tool for decision making in various clinical situations.


Arlen, A. M., Alexander, S. E., Wald, M. & Cooper, C. S. (2016). Computer model predicting breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux. Journal of pediatric urology, 12(5), 288.e1-288.e5. PMID: 27072485.

Kogan, P., Wald, M. (2014). Male contraception: history and development. The Urologic clinics of North America, 41(1), 145-61. PMID: 24286773.

Rosevear, H. M., Krishnamachari, Y., Ariza, C. A., Mallapragada, S. K., Salem, A. K., Griffith, T. S., Deyoung, B. & Wald, M. (2012). Effect of combined locally delivered growth factors and systemic sildenafil citrate on microrecanalization in biodegradable conduit for vas deferens reconstruction. Urology, 79, 967.e1-4.

Holoch, P. H., Wald, M. (2011). Current options for preservation of fertility in the male. Fertil Steril, 96, 286-90.

Holoch, P. A., Mallapragada, S. K., Ariza, C. A., Griffith, T. S., Deyoung, B. & Wald, M. (2010). Micro-recanalization in a biodegradable graft for reconstruction of the vas deferens is enhanced by sildenafil citrate. Asian J Androl, 12, 814-8.

Greenhalgh, J. R., Griffith, T. S. & Wald, M. (2009). The use of immunofluorescence in microdissection testicular sperm extraction. Journal of andrology, 30(5), 548-51. PMID: 19234316.

Simons, C. M., De Young, B. R., Griffith, T. S., Ratliff, T. L., Jones, E., Mallapragada, S. K. & Wald, M. (2009). Early microrecanalization of vas deferens following biodegradable graft implantation in bilaterally vasectomized rats. Asian journal of andrology, 11(3), 373-8. PMID: 19349949.

Adams, C. E., Wald, M. (2009). Risks and complications of vasectomy. Urol Clin North Am, 36, 331-6.

Rosevear, H. M., Mishail, A., Sheynkin, Y. & Wald, M. (2009). Unusual scrotal pathology: an overview. Nat Rev Urol, 6, 491-500.

Nepple, K. G., Knudson, M. J., Austin, J. C., Wald, M., Makhlouf, A. A., Niederberger, C. S. & Cooper, C. S. (2008). Adding renal scan data improves the accuracy of a computational model to predict vesicoureteral reflux resolution. The Journal of urology, 180(4 Suppl), 1648-52; discussion 1652. PMID: 18715584.

Stahl, B. C., Ratliff, T. L., De Young, B. R. & Wald, M. (2008). Involvement of growth factors in the process of post-vasectomy micro-recanalization. The Journal of urology, 179(1), 376-80. PMID: 18006005.

Wald, M., Makhlouf, A. A. & Niederberger, C. S. (2007). Therapeutic testis biopsy for sperm retrieval. Current opinion in urology, 17(6), 431-8. PMID: 17921779.

Knudson, M. J., Austin, J. C., Wald, M., Makhlouf, A. A., Niederberger, C. S. & Cooper, C. S. (2007). Computational model for predicting the chance of early resolution in children with vesicoureteral reflux. The Journal of urology, 178(4 Pt 2), 1824-7. PMID: 17707424.

Stahl, B. C., Patil, S. R., Syrop, C. H., Sparks, A. E. & Wald, M. (2007). Supernumerary minute ring chromosome 14 in a man with primary infertility and left varicocele. Fertility and sterility, 87(5), 1213.e1-3. PMID: 17208235.

Wald, M., Meacham, R. B., Ross, L. S. & Niederberger, C. S. (2006). Testosterone replacement therapy for older men. Journal of andrology, 27(2), 126-32. PMID: 16474018.

Wald, M., Ross, L. S., Prins, G. S., Cieslak-Janzen, J., Wolf, G. & Niederberger, C. S. (2006). Analysis of outcomes of cryopreserved surgically retrieved sperm for IVF/ICSI. Journal of andrology, 27(1), 60-5. PMID: 16400079.

Wald, M., Sparks, A., Sandlow, J., Van-Voorhis, B., Syrop, C. H. & Niederberger, C. S. (2005). Computational models for prediction of IVF/ICSI outcomes with surgically retrieved spermatozoa. Reproductive biomedicine online, 11(3), 325-31. PMID: 16176672.