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Robert I. Block, PhD

Portrait
Associate Professor of Anesthesia

Contact Information

Primary Office
5140 West Lawn
200 Newton Road
Iowa City, IA 52242
319-356-2633

Education

BA, Natural Sciences, Shimmer College
MS, Computer Science (Applied Mathematics), Harvard University
MS, Human Experimental/Cognitive Psychology, Rutgers University
PhD, Human Experimental/Cognitive Psychology, Rutgers University

Publications

Block, R. I., Bair, H. L. & Carillo, J. F. (2020). Is exhaustion more sensitive than disengagement to burnout in academic anesthesia? A study using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Psychol Rep, 123(4), 1282-1296. PMID: 31219406.

Block, R. I., Bair, H. L. & Carillo, J. F. (2020). Response to Burnout as a State: random-intercept cross-lagged relationship between exhaustion and disengagement in a 10-day study [letter]. (Vols. 13). pp. 395-396. Auckland: Psychol Res Behav Manag. PMID: 32440238.

Block, R. I., Magnotta, V. A., Bayman, E. O., Choi, J. Y., Thomas, J. J. & Kimble, K. K. (2018). In reply. (Vols. 128). (6), pp. 1261. Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology. PMID: 29762360.

Block, R. I., Magnotta, V. A., Bayman, E. O., Choi, J. Y., Thomas, J. J. & Kimble, K. K. (2017). Are anesthesia and surgery during infancy associated with decreased white matter integrity and volume during childhood?. Anesthesiology, 127(5), 788-99. PMID: 28837436.

Conrad, A. L., Goodwin, J. W., Choi, J., Block, R. I. & Nopoulos, P. (2017). The relationship of exposure to anesthesia on outcomes in children with isolated oral clefts. J Child Neurol, 32(3), 308-315. PMID: 28193114.

Aker, J., Block, R. I. & Biddle, C. (2015). Anesthesia and the developing brain. AANA J, 83(2), 139-47. PMID: 26016173.

Block, R. I., Thomas, J. J., Bayman, E. O., Choi, J. Y., Kimble, K. K. & Todd, M. M. (2013). In reply. (Vols. 119). (1), pp. 234-6. Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology. PMID: 23856665.

Jager, G., Block, R. I., Luijten, M. & Ramsey, N. F. (2013). Tentative evidence for striatal hyperactivity in adolescent cannabis-using boys: a cross-sectional multicenter fMRI study. J Psychoactive Drugs, 45(2), 156-167. PMID: 23909003.

Vaidya, J. G., Knutson, B., O'Leary, D. S., Block, R. I. & Magnotta, V. (2013). Neural sensitivity to absolute and relative anticipated reward in adolescents. PLoS One, 8(3), e58708. PMID: 23544046.

Block, R. I., Thomas, J. J., Bayman, E. O., Choi, J. Y., Kimble, K. K. & Todd, M. M. (2012). Are anesthesia and surgery during infancy associated with altered academic performance during childhood?. Anesthesiology, 117(3), 494-503. PMID: 22801049.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I. (2012). Clinical, methodological and theoretical issues in the assessment of cognition after anaesthesia and surgery: a review. Eur J Anaesthesiol, 29(9), 409-422. PMID: 22828386.

Vaidya, J. G., Block, R. I., O'Leary, D. S., Ponto, L. B., Ghoneim, M. M. & Bechara, A. (2012). Effects of chronic marijuana use on brain activity during monetary decision-making. Neuropsychopharmacology, 37(3), 618-629. PMID: 21956445.

Anderson, B. M., Rizzo, M., Block, R. I., Pearlson, G. D. & O'Leary, D. S. (2010). Sex, drugs, and cognition: effects of marijuana. J Psychoactive Drugs, 42(4), 413-424. PMID: 21305906.

Jager, G., Block, R. I., Luijten, M. & Ramsey, N. F. (2010). Cannabis use and memory brain function in adolescent boys: a cross-sectional multicenter functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 49(6), 561-72, 572.e1-3. PMID: 20494266.

Anderson, B. M., Rizzo, M., Block, R. I., Pearlson, G. D. & O'Leary, D. S. (2010). Sex differences in the effects of marijuana on simulated driving performance. J Psychoactive Drugs, 42(1), 19-30. PMID: 20464803.

Hall, J. A., Sarrazin, M. S., Huber, D. L., Vaughn, T., Block, R. I., Reedy, A. R. & Jang, M. (2009). Iowa case management for rural drug abuse. Res Soc Work Pract, 19(4), 407-422. PMID: 22065018.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I., Haffarnan, M. & Mathews, M. J. (2009). Awareness during anesthesia: risk factors, causes and sequelae: a review of reported cases in the literature. Anesth Analg, 108(2), 527-535. PMID: 19151283.

Sun, L. S., Li, G., Dimaggio, C., Byrne, M., Rauh, V., Brooks-Gunn, J., Kakavouli, A. & Wood, A. (2008). Anesthesia and neurodevelopment in children: time for an answer?. Anesthesiology, 109(5), 757-761. PMID: 18946281.

Jager, G., Luitjen, M., Block, R. I. & Ramsey, N. F. (2008). Effects of cannabis use on cognitive brain function in adolescents: short-term memory, long-term consequences?. (Vols. 18). (Supplement 4), pp. S533. Amsterdam: Eur Neuropsychopharmacol.

Jager, G., Luitjen, M., Block, R. I., Zuccarelli, J. M., Becker, M. M. & Ramsey, N. F. (2007). Effects of cannabis use on associative memory in adolescents: an fMRI study.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I. (2007). Immediate peri-operative memory. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 51(8), 1054-1061. PMID: 17697300.

O'Leary, D. S., Block, R. I., Koeppel, J. A., Schultz, S. K., Magnotta, V. A., Ponto, L. B., Watkins, G. L. & Hichwa, R. D. (2007). Effects of smoking marijuana on focal attention and brain blood flow. Hum Psychopharmacol, 22(3), 135-48. PMID: 17397099.

Block, R. I., O'Leary, D. S., Hichwa, R. D., Augustinack, J. C., Boles Ponto, L. L., Ghoneim, M. M., Arndt, S. V., Ehrhardt, J. C., Yuh, W. T., Hurtig, R. R., Watkins, G. L., Hall, J. A., Nathan, P. E., Maktabi, M. A., Smith, L. A. & Andreasen, N. C. (2007). Effects of chronic marijuana use on regional cerebral blood flow during recall. (Vols. 25). pp. 2077. Washington, DC: Abstr Soc Neurosci.

Haffarnan, M. K., Mathews, M. J., Block, R. I. & Ghoneim, M. M. (2007). Awareness during general anesthesia: a review of case reports. AANA J, 75(5), 383-384.

Block, R. I., O'Leary, D. S., Jager, G., Zuccarelli, J. M., Becker, M. M., Luijten, M. & Ramsey, N. F. (2007). Cannabis effects on brain function and structure of adolescents and young adults. (Vols. 17). (Supplement 4), pp. S202-S203. Washington, DC: Eur Neuropsychopharmacol.

Jager, G., Block, R. I., Luitjen, M., Zuccarelli, J. M., Becker, M. M. & Ramsey, N. F. (2007). Effects of neurocognitive brain function investigated with fMRI. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, 17(Supplement 4), S203.

Liutjen, M., Jager, G., Block, R. I., Zuccarelli, J. M., Becker, M. M. & Ramsey, N. F. (2007). Effects of cannabis use on associative memory in adolescents, and the role of personality measures: an fMRI study. (Vols. 17). (Supplement 4), pp. S552-S553. Amsterdam: Eur Neuropsychopharmacol.

O'Leary, D. S., Block, R. I., Koeppel, J. A. & Ponto, L. B. (2007). A PET study of the effects of THC dose on rCBF and cognition in occasional and chronic marijuana users. In Cannabinoid Signaling in the Nervous System.

Block, R. I. (2006). Methods for studying acute and chronic effects of marijuana on human associative processes and memory. Methods Mol Med, 123, 217-234. PMID: 16506411.

O'Leary, D., Block, R. I. & Koeppel, J. (2006). Effects of Chronic Marijuana use on Human Brain Surface Anatomy. (Vols. 31). pp. Supplement 1. CD-ROM in Neuroimage.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I. (2006). Memory Function in the Immediate Perioperative Period. pp. 105. CD-ROM in Anesthesiology.

O'Leary, D. S., Block, R. I., Ponto, L. B., Watkins, L. G. & Hichwa, R. D. (2006). Blood Flow and Cognition in Chronic Marijuana Users.

Block, R. I. (2005). Awareness during anesthesia videos.

Ponto, L. L., O'Leary, D. S., Koeppel, J., Block, R. I., Watkins, G. L., Richmond, J. C., Ward, C. A., Clermont, D. A., Schmitt, B. A. & Hichwa, R. D. (2004). Effect of acute marijuana on cardiovascular function and central nervous system pharmacokinetics of [(15)O]water: effect in occasional and chronic users. J Clin Pharmacol, 44(7), 751-766. PMID: 15199080.

Block, R. I., Bates, M. E. & Hall, J. A. (2003). Relation of premorbid cognitive abilities to substance users' problems at treatment intake and improvements with substance abuse treatment and case management. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse, 29(3), 515-538. PMID: 14510038.

O'Leary, D. S., Block, R. I., Turner, B. M., Koeppel, J., Magnotta, V. A., Ponto, L. B., Watkins, G. L., Hichwa, R. D. & Andreasen, N. C. (2003). Marijuana alters the human cerebellar clock. Neuroreport, 14(8), 1145-1151. PMID: 12821798.

O'Leary, D., Block, R. I., Hichwa, R. & Andreasen, N. (2003). Effects of marijuana on timing functions. (Vols. 19). pp. Part 2 of 2 Parts, CD-Rom. NeuroImage.

Cretzmeyer, M., Sarrazin, M. V., Huber, D. L., Block, R. I. & Hall, J. A. (2003). Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: research findings and clinical directions. J Subst Abuse Treat, 24(3), 267-277. PMID: 12810148.

Block, R. I., Erwin, W. J. & Ghoneim, M. M. (2002). Chronic drug use and cognitive impairments. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 73(3), 491-504. PMID: 12151022.

O'Leary, D. S., Block, R. I., Koeppel, J. A., Flaum, M., Schultz, S. K., Andreasen, N. C., Ponto, L. B., Watkins, G. L., Hurtig, R. R. & Hichwa, R. D. (2002). Effects of smoking marijuana on brain perfusion and cognition. Neuropsychopharmacology, 26(6), 802-816. PMID: 12007751.

Block, R. I., O'Leary, D. S., Hichwa, R. D., Augustinack, J. C., Boles Ponto, L. L., Ghoneim, M. M., Arndt, S., Hurtig, R. R., Watkins, G. L., Hall, J. A., Nathan, P. E. & Andreasen, N. C. (2002). Effects of frequent marijuana use on memory-related regional cerebral blood flow. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 72(1-2), 237-250. PMID: 11900794.

Block, R. I. (2002). Cognitive and subjective effects of psychotropic drugs (other than psychedelics). In T. A. Ban , D. Healy , E. Shorter (Eds.) From Psychopharmacology and Neuropsychopharmacology in the 1980s and the Story of CINP as Told in Autobiography. Budapest: Animula.

Block, R. I., Ghoneim, M. M. (2001). Awareness During Anesthesia. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I. (2001). Effect of chronic drug use on cognition. (Vols. 95). pp. A323. Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology.

Block, R. I., Erwin, W. J. & Ghoneim, M. M. (2001). Effects of chronic use of stimulants, alcohol and other drugs on human cognition. (Vols. 27). (2), pp. 1777. Washington, DC: Abstr Soc Neurosci.

O'Leary, D. S., Block, R. I., Flaum, M., Schultz, S. K., Boles Ponto, L. L., Watkins, G. L. & Hichwa, R. D. (2001). Marijuana effects on attention and rCBF. (Vols. 27). (2), pp. 1803. Washington, DC: Abstr Soc Neurosci.

Boles Ponto, L. L., O'Leary, D. S., Koeppel, J. A., Block, R. I., Watkins, G. L., Richmond, J. C., Ward, C. A., Clermont, D. A., Schmitt, B. A. & Hichwa, R. D. (2001). Comparison of the acute cardiovascular effects of marijuana in occasional and chronic users. (Vols. 4). (4), pp. W5230. AAPSPharmSci.

O'Leary, D. S., Block, R. I., Flaum, M., Schultz, S. K., Boles Ponto, L. L., Watkins, G. L., Hurtig, R. R., Andreasen, N. C. & Hichwa, R. D. (2000). Acute marijuana effects on rCBF and cognition: a PET study. Neuroreport, 11(17), 3835-3841. PMID: 11117500.

Block, R. I., O'Leary, D. S., Hichwa, R. D., Augustinack, J. C., Ponto, L. L., Ghoneim, M. M., Arndt, S., Ehrhardt, J. C., Hurtig, R. R., Watkins, G. L., Hall, J. A., Nathan, P. E. & Andreasen, N. C. (2000). Cerebellar hypoactivity in frequent marijuana users. Neuroreport, 11(4), 749-753. PMID: 10757513.

Block, R. I., O'Leary, D. S., Ehrhardt, J. C., Augustinack, J. C., Ghoneim, M. M., Arndt, S. & Hall, J. A. (2000). Effects of frequent marijuana use on brain tissue volume and composition. Neuroreport, 11(3), 491-496. PMID: 10718301.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I., Dhanaraj, V. J., Todd, M. M., Choi, W. W. & Brown, C. K. (2000). Auditory evoked responses and learning and awareness during general anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 44(2), 133-143. PMID: 10695905.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I., Sarasin, D. S., Davis, C. S. & Marchman, J. N. (2000). Tape-recorded hypnosis instructions as adjuvant in the care of patients scheduled for third molar surgery. Anesth Analg, 90(1), 64-68. PMID: 10624980.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I., Dhanaraj, V. J., Todd, M. M. & Choi, W. W. (2000). Auditory evoked responses and their relationships to learning and memory during anesthesia. (Vols. 25). (2), pp. 343. Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia IV: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia.

Block, R. I., O'Leary, D. S., Augustinack, J. C., Boles Ponto, L. L., Ghoneim, M. M., Hurtig, R. R., Hall, J. A. & Nathan, P. E. (2000). Effects of frequent marijuana use on attention-related regional cerebral blood flow. (Vols. 26). (2), pp. 2080. Washington, DC: Abstr Soc Neurosci.

O'Leary, D. S., Block, R. I., Flaum, M., Schultz, S. K., Boles Ponto, L. L., Watkins, G. L. & Hichwa, R. D. (2000). Acute marijuana effects on rCBF and cognition. (Vols. 26). (1), pp. 281. Washington, DC: Abstr Soc Neurosci.

Hall, J. A., Vaughan, M. S., Vaughn, T., Block, R. I. & Schut, A. (1999). Iowa Case Management for rural drug abuse. Preliminary results. Care Manag J, 1(4), 232-243. PMID: 10879210.

Ghoneim, M. M., El-Zahaby, H. M. & Block, R. I. (1999). Classical conditioning during nitrous oxide treatment: influence of varying the interstimulus interval. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 62(3), 449-455. PMID: 10080236.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I., Sarasin, D. S. & Davis, C. S. (1999). Self-hypnosis as an adjuvant in the care of patients schedule for molar teeth extraction. (Vols. 91). pp. A62. Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I. & Dhanaraj, V. J. (1998). Interaction of a subanaesthetic concentration of isoflurane with midazolam: effects on responsiveness, learning and memory. Br J Anaesth, 80(5), 581-587. PMID: 9691858.

Block, R. I., Erwin, W. J., Farinpour, R. & Braverman, K. (1998). Sedative, stimulant, and other subjective effects of marijuana: relationships to smoking techniques. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 59(2), 405-412. PMID: 9476988.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I., Dhanaraj, V. J., Todd, M. M. & Choi, W. W. (1998). The auditory evoked responses and implicit memory during general anesthesia. Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology.

O'Leary, D. S., Block, R. I., Flaum, M., Boles Ponto, L. L., Watkins, G. L. & Hichwa, R. D. (1998). Acute marijuana effects on rCBF and cognition: a PET study. Washington, DC: Abstr Soc Neurosci.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I. (1997). Learning and memory during general anesthesia: an update. Anesthesiology, 87(2), 387-410. PMID: 9286904.

Jensen, N. F., Block, R. I. (1997). Vasopressin levels in major head and neck surgery. Ear Nose Throat J, 76(2), 87, 90, 91-4. PMID: 9046696.

Block, R. I. (1997). Cognitive effects of marijuana and other drugs. (Vols. 57). (4), pp. 610. Pharmacol Biochem Behav.

Sarasin, D. S., Ghoneim, M. M. & Block, R. I. (1996). Effects of sedation with midazolam or propofol on cognition and psychomotor functions. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 54(10), 1187-1193. PMID: 8859237.

El-Zahaby, H. M., Ghoneim, M. M. & Block, R. I. (1996). The interaction between nitrous oxide and isoflurane on suppression of learning: a study using classical conditioning in rabbits. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 40(7), 798-803. PMID: 8874565.

Block, R. I. (1996). Does heavy marijuana use impair human cognition and brain function?. (Vols. 275). (7), pp. 560-561. JAMA. PMID: 8606480.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I. (1996). Recent advances in the study of memory and awareness during general anaesthesia. In B. Bonke , J. G. Bovill , N. Moerman (Eds.) Memory and Awareness in Anaesthesia III. pp. 3-9. Assen: Van Gorcum.

Block, R. I. (1996). Does heavy marijuana use impair human cognition and brain function?. (Vols. 7). (6), pp. 3. Epikrisis.

Block, R. I. (1996). Does heavy marijuana use impair human cognition and brain function?. (Vols. 275). pp. 560-561. JAMA.

Ghoneim, M. M., Dhanaraj, V. J., Block, R. I. & Todd, M. M. (1996). The auditory evoked responses and awareness during anesthesia. (Vols. 85). (A177) Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology.

Chortkoff, B. S., Gonsowski, C. T., Bennett, H. L., Levinson, B., Crankshaw, D. P., Dutton, R. C., Ionescu, P., Block, R. I. & Eger, 2nd, E. I. (1995). Subanesthetic concentrations of desflurane and propofol suppress recall of emotionally charged information. Anesth Analg, 81(4), 728-736. PMID: 7574002.

Jensen, N. F., Todd, M. M., Block, R. I., Hegtvedt, R. L. & McCulloch, T. M. (1995). The efficacy of routine central venous monitoring in major head and neck surgery: a retrospective review. J Clin Anesth, 7(2), 119-125. PMID: 7598919.

Chortkoff, B. S., Gonsowski, C. T., Bennett, H. L., Levinson, B., Crankshaw, D. P., Dutton, R. C., Ionescu, P., Block, R. I. & Eger II, E. I. (1995). Learning of relevant information is suppressed by sub-MAC anesthesia. Rotterdam: Third International Symposium on Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia, Scientific Programme, Book of Abstracts.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I. (1995). Recent advances in the study of memory and awareness during general anesthesia. pp. 17. Rotterdam: Third International Symposium on Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia, Scientific Programme, Book of Abstracts.

Ghoneim, M. M., Chen, P., el-Zahaby, H. M. & Block, R. I. (1994). Ketamine: acquisition and retention of classically conditioned responses during treatment with large doses. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 49(4), 1061-1066. PMID: 7886076.

Block, R. I., Ghoneim, M. M. (1994). Insensitivity of implicit memory to anesthesia methods. (Vols. 81). (2), pp. 516-517. Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology. PMID: 8053605.

Mewaldt, S. O., Ghoneim, M. M. & Block, R. I. (1994). Cognitive effects of anaesthesia. In H. B. Gibson (Eds.) Pain and Anaesthesia. pp. 146-176. London, England: Chapman & Hall.

Mewaldt, S. P., Block, R. I. & Ghoneim, M. M. (1994). Awareness and memory for events during anaesthesia. In H. B. Gibson (Eds.) Psychology, Pain and Anaesthesia. pp. 177-203. London, England: Chapman & Hall.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I., Ping, S. T., el-Zahaby, H. M. & Hinrichs, J. V. (1993). The interactions of midazolam and flumazenil on human memory and cognition. Anesthesiology, 79(6), 1183-1192. PMID: 8267193.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I. (1993). Depth of anesthesia. Learning during anesthesia. Int Anesthesiol Clin, 31(4), 53-65. PMID: 8270327.

Block, R. I., Ghoneim, M. M. (1993). Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 110(1-2), 219-228. PMID: 7870889.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I. (1993). Memory for events during anesthesia does occur: An anesthesiologists's viewpoint. In P. Sebel , B. Bonke , E. Winograd (Eds.) Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia. pp. 452-458. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: PTR Prentice Hall.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I., Sum Ping, S. T., el-Zahaby, H. M. & Hinrichs, J. V. (1993). The interaction of midazolam and flumazenil on human memory. Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology.

Block, R. I., Farinpour, R. & Braverman, K. (1992). Acute effects of marijuana on cognition: relationships to chronic effects and smoking techniques. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 43(3), 907-917. PMID: 1448485.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I. & Fowles, D. C. (1992). No evidence of classical conditioning of electrodermal responses during anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 76(5), 682-688. PMID: 1575334.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I. (1992). Learning and consciousness during general anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 76(2), 279-305. PMID: 1632877.

Block, R. I. (1992). Influence of breath holding duration on the subjective effects of marijuana smoking. (Vols. 5). (2), pp. 48. Health Info-Com Network Newsletter.

Block, R. I., Farinpour, R. & Braverman, K. (1992). Drug use histories of volunteers for drug research. (Vols. 5). (3), pp. 44. Health Info-Com Network Newsletter.

Block, R. I. (1992). Psychological contributions to the study of anesthesia. (Vols. 37). (4), pp. 24. Cedar Rapids, IA: The Iowa Psychologist.

Block, R. I., Ghoneim, M. M., Sum Ping, S. T. & Ali, M. A. (1992). Human learning during general anesthesia and surgery. (Vols. 2). pp. 13-14. Anesthesia Digest.

Block, R. I., Ghoneim, M. M., Sum Ping, S. T. & Ali, M. A. (1991). Efficacy of therapeutic suggestions for improved postoperative recovery presented during general anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 75(5), 746-755. PMID: 1952199.

Block, R. I., Farinpour, R. & Schlechte, J. A. (1991). Effects of chronic marijuana use on testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin and cortisol in men and women. Drug Alcohol Depend, 28(2), 121-128. PMID: 1935564.

Block, R. I., Ghoneim, M. M., Sum Ping, S. T. & Ali, M. A. (1991). Human learning during general anaesthesia and surgery. Br J Anaesth, 66(2), 170-178. PMID: 1817616.

Block, R. I. (1991). Erroneous processing of arrays in SAS version 6, release 6.06.01. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72, 1210.

Block, R. I. (1991). A Major Error in Array Processing by SAS Version 6 HAUSUG Flash. (Vols. 6). (1), pp. 6.

Deptula, D., Singh, R., Goldsmith, S., Block, R. I., Bagne, C. A. & Pomara, N. (1990). Equivalence of five forms of the Selective Reminding Test in young and elderly subjects. Psychol Rep, 67(3 Pt 2), 1287-1295. PMID: 2084755.

Block, R. I., Ghoneim, M. M., Kumar, V. & Pathak, D. (1990). Psychedelic effects of a subanesthetic concentration of nitrous oxide. Anesth Prog, 37(6), 271-276. PMID: 2097905.

Ghoneim, M. M., Ali, M. A. & Block, R. I. (1990). Appraisal of the quality of assessment of memory in anesthesia and psychopharmacology literature. Anesthesiology, 73(5), 815-820. PMID: 2146908.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I. (1990). The word "awareness": its ambiguous and confusing use in anesthesia literature on memory. (Vols. 73). (1), pp. 193. Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology. PMID: 2360735.

Block, R. I., Farnham, S., Braverman, K., Noyes, Jr, R. & Ghoneim, M. M. (1990). Long-term marijuana use and subsequent effects on learning and cognitive functions related to school achievement: preliminary study. NIDA Res Monogr, 101, 96-111. PMID: 2092219.

Block, R. I., Ghoneim, M. M., Pathak, D., Kumar, V. & Hinrichs, J. V. (1990). Studying effects of a subanesthetic concentration of nitrous oxide to select assessments sensitive to learning during general anesthesia. In B. Bonke , W. Fitch , K. Millar (Eds.) Memory and Awareness in Anaesthesia. pp. 83-89. Amsterdam: Swets and Zeitlinger B.V..

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I., Sum Ping, S. T., Ali, M. A. & Hoffman, J. G. (1990). Learning without recall during general anaesthesia. In B. Bonke , W. Fitch , K. Millar (Eds.) Memory and Awareness in Anaesthesia. pp. 161-169. Amsterdam: Swets and Zeitlinger B.V..

Ghoneim, M. M., Ali, M. A. & Block, R. I. (1990). Appraisal of the quality of assessment of memory in anesthesia and psychopharmacology literature. (Vols. 73). (A210) Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I. (1990). The word "awareness": it's ambiguous and confusing use in anesthesia literature on memory. (Vols. 73). pp. 193. Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology.

Ghoneim, M. M., Dembo, J. B. & Block, R. I. (1989). Time course of antagonism of sedative and amnesic effects of diazepam by flumazenil. Anesthesiology, 70(6), 899-904. PMID: 2499223.

Block, R. I., Farnham, S., Braverman, K., Hinrichs, J. V. & Ghoneim, M. M. (1989). Norms for free associations and five types of constrained associations. Psychol Rep, 64(3 Pt 2), 1065-1066. PMID: 2762455.

Pomara, N., Deptula, D., Medel, M., Block, R. I. & Greenblatt, D. J. (1989). Effects of diazepam on recall memory: relationship to aging, dose, and duration of treatment. Psychopharmacol Bull, 25(1), 144-148. PMID: 2772114.

Pomara, N., Deptula, D., Block, R. I., Singh, R. & Greenblatt, D. J. (1989). Effects of Diazepam on Performance: Relationship to Does, Duration of Treatment and Anxiety. (Vols. 25). (7), pp. 191A - 192A. Biological Psychiatry.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I., Sum Ping, S., Ali, M. & Hoffman, J. (1989). Awareness and Learning during General Anesthesia. Schaumburg, IL: Anesthesiology.

Block, R. I., Ghoneim, M. M., Pathak, D., Kumar, V. & Hinrichs, J. V. (1988). Effects of a subanesthetic concentration of nitrous oxide on overt and covert assessments of memory and associative processes. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 96(3), 324-331. PMID: 3146767.

Block, R. I., Ghoneim, M. M., Hinrichs, J. V., Kumar, V. & Pathak, D. (1988). Effects of a subanesthetic concentration of nitrous oxide on memory and subjective experience: influence of assessment procedures and types of stimuli. Hum Psychopharmacol, 3(4), 257-265. DOI: 10.1002/hup.470030405.

Block, R. I., Ghoneim, M. M., Fowles, D. C., Kumar, V. & Pathak, D. (1987). Effects of a subanesthetic concentration of nitrous oxide on establishment, elicitation, and semantic and phonemic generalization of classically conditioned skin conductance responses. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 28(1), 7-14. PMID: 3659107.

Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I., Hinrichs, J. V., Kumar, V. & Pathak, D. (1987). Impairments of Human Memory and Mood Changes Induced by a Subanesthetic Concentration of Nitrous Oxide: Modulation by Testing Procedures and Variations in Auditory Stimuli. Federation Proceedings.

Block, R. I., Wittenborn, J. R. (1986). Marijuana effects on the speed of memory retrieval in the letter-matching task. Int J Addict, 21(2), 281-285. PMID: 3486840.

Brinkman, S. D., Largen, J. W., Cushman, L., Braun, P. R. & Block, R. I. (1986). Clinical validators: Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia. In L. W. Poon (Eds.) Handbook for Clinical Memory Assessment of Older Adults. pp. 307-313. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Block, R. I., DeVoe, M., Stanley, B., Stanley, M. & Pomara, N. (1985). Memory performance in individuals with primary degenerative dementia: its similarity to diazepam-induced impairments. Exp Aging Res, 11(3-4), 151-155. PMID: 4076305.

Block, R. I., DeVoe, M., Russell, M. & Pomara, N. (1985). Clinical ratings: relationship to objective psychometric assessment in individuals with dementia. Psychol Rep, 57(1), 183-189. PMID: 4048333.

Pomara, N., Block, R. I., Domino, E. F. & Gershon, S. (1985). Decay in Plasma Lithium and Normalization in Red Blood Cell Choline Following Cessation of Lithium Treatment in Two Elderly individuals with Alzheimer-type Dementia. Psychiatry Digest.

Pomara, N., Stanley, B., Block, R. I., Berchou, R. C., Stanley, M., Greenblatt, D. J., Newton, R. E. & Gershon, S. (1985). Increased sensitivity of the elderly to the central depressant effects of diazepam. J Clin Psychiatry, 46(5), 185-187. PMID: 3988718.

Block, R. I., Wittenborn, J. R. (1985). Marijuana effects on associative processes. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 85(4), 426-430. PMID: 3927338.

Pomara, N., Block, R. I., Domino, E. F. & Gershon, S. (1985). Decay in Plasma Lithium and Normalization in Red Blood Cell Choline Following Cessation of Lithium Treatment in Two Elderly Individuals with Alzheimer-type Dementia. (Vols. 4). pp. 26-27. Geriatrics Digest.

Block, R. I., Wittenborn, J. R. (1984). Marijuana effects on semantic memory: verification of common and uncommon category members. Psychol Rep, 55(2), 503-512. PMID: 6096909.

Pomara, N., Oxenkrug, G. F., McIntyre, I. M., Block, R. I., Stanley, M. & Gershon, S. (1984). Does severity of dementia modulate response to dexamethasone in individuals with primary degenerative dementia?. Biol Psychiatry, 19(10), 1481-1487. PMID: 6518204.

Pomara, N., Block, R. I., Domino, E. F. & Gershon, S. (1984). Decay in plasma lithium and normalization in red blood cell choline following cessation of lithium treatment in two elderly individuals with Alzheimer-type dementia. Biol Psychiatry, 19(6), 919-922. PMID: 6430359.

Block, R. I., Wittenborn, J. R. (1984). Marijuana effects on visual imagery in a paired-associate task. Percept Mot Skills, 58(3), 759-766. PMID: 6473024.

Block, R. I., Berchou, R. (1984). Alprazolam and lorazepam effects on memory acquisition and retrieval processes. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 20(2), 233-241. PMID: 6144110.

Pomara, N., Stanley, B., Block, R. I., Guido, J., Russ, D., Berchou, R., Stanley, M., Greenblatt, D. J., Newton, R. E. & Gershon, S. (1984). Adverse effects of single therapeutic doses of diazepam on performance in normal geriatric subjects: relationship to plasma concentrations. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 84(3), 342-346. PMID: 6440180.

Pomara, N., Stanley, B., Block, R. I., Guido, J., Stanley, M., Greenblatt, D. J., Newton, R. E. & Gershon, S. (1984). Diazepam impairs performance in normal elderly subjects. Psychopharmacol Bull, 20(1), 137-139. PMID: 6718638.

Pomara, N., Block, R. I. & Gershon, S. (1984). Memory dysfunction: The benign forgetfulnessof age and the true dementias. Consultant, 24(11), 136-139; 142-144; 154; 156157.

Pom, N., Block, R. I., Moore, N., Rhiew, H. B., Berchou, R., Stanley, M. & Gershon, S. (1984). Combined piracetam and cholinergic precursor treatment for primary degenerative dementia. IRCS Medical Science, 12, 388-389.

Block, R. I., Brinkman, S. D., Pomara, N., Barnett, N., Domino, E. F. & Gershon, S. (1984). Lithium-Induced Increases in Red Blood Cell Choline and Memory Performance in Alzheimer-type Dementia. (Vols. 19). pp. 157-164. New York, NY: Biol Psychiatry.

Berchou, R., Block, R. I. (1983). Use of computerized psychomotor testing in determining CNS effects of drugs. Percept Mot Skills, 57(3 Pt 1), 691-700. PMID: 6664751.

Pomara, N., Banay-Schwartz, M., Block, R. I., Stanley, M. & Gershon, S. (1983). Elevation of RBC glycine and choline levels in geriatric patients treated with lithium. Am J Psychiatry, 140(7), 911-913. PMID: 6407342.

Pomara, N., Stanley, B., Block, R. I., Guido, J., Russ, D. & Stanley, M. (1983). Caution in the use of drugs in the elderly. (Vols. 308). (26), pp. 1600-1601. N Engl J Med. PMID: 6855840.

Pomara, N., Block, R. I., Demetriou, S., Fucek, F., Stanley, M. & Gershon, S. (1983). Attenuation of pilocarpine-induced hypothermia in response to chronic administration of choline. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 80(2), 129-30. PMID: 6410440.

Pomara, N., Block, R. I., Abraham, J., Domino, E. F. & Gershon, S. (1983). Combined cholinergic precursor treatment and dihydroergotoxine mesylate in Alzheimer's disease. IRCS Medical Science, 11, 1048-1049.

Block, R. I. (1965). What democracy means to me. (Vols. 54). (38), pp. 4. Irvington Herald.