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Articles on Music, Hearing Loss, and Hearing Devices (References)

last modified on: Sun, 08/13/2023 - 14:58

Selected articles, chapters, and books used in the preparation of this website: 



1.1 billion people at risk of hearing loss. (2015, August 12). Retrieved July 31, 2020, from https://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2015/ear-care/en/

Babeu, L. A., Kricos, P. B., & Lesner, S. A. (2004). Application of the stages-of-change model in audiology. J Acad Rehabil Audiol, 37, 41-56.

Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press.

Behar, A., MacDonald, E., Lee, J., Cui, J., Kunov, H., & Wong, W. (2004). Noise exposure of music teachers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 4, 243‐247. 

Breinbauer, H. A., Anabalón, J. L., Gutierrez, D., Cárcamo, R., Olivares, C., & Caro, J. (2012). Output capabilities of personal music players and assessment of preferred listening levels of test subjects: outlining recommendations for preventing music-induced hearing loss. The Laryngoscope, 122(11), 2549-2556. 

Brockmeier, S. J., Fitzgerald, D., Searle, O., Fitzgerald, H., Grasmeder, M., Hilbig, S., Vermiere, K., Peterreins, M., Heydner, S., & Arnold, W. (2011). The MuSIC perception test: A novel battery for testing music perception of cochlear implant users. Cochlear Implants International, 12(1), 10–20. 

Brockmeier, S. J., Peterreins, M., Lorens, A., Vermeire, K., Helbig, S., Anderson, I., Skarzynski, H., Van de Heyning, P., Gstoettner, W., & Kiefer, J. (2010). Music perception in electric acoustic stimulation users as assessed by the Mu.S.I.C. test. Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology, 67, 70–80. 

Buechner, A., Krueger, B., Klawitter, S., Zimmermann, D., Fredelake, S., & Holube, I. (2020). The perception of the stereo effect in bilateral and bimodal cochlear implant users and its contribution to music enjoyment. PLOS ONE, 15(7), e0235435. 

Boothroyd, A. (2010). Adapting to changed hearing: the potential role of formal training. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 21(9), 601-611.

Chasin, M. (2003). Music and hearing aids. The Hearing Journal, 56(7), 36.

Chasin, M. (2014). Hear the music: Hearing loss prevention for musicians. Toronto, Ontario: Musicians Clinics of Canada.

Chasin, M., & Hockley, N. S. (2014). Some characteristics of amplified music through hearing aids. Hearing Research, 308, 2–12.

Chasin, M., & Russo, F. A. (2004). Hearing aids and music. Trends in Amplification, 8(2), 35–47.

Cheng, M.-Y., Spitzer, J. B., Shafiro, V., Sheft, S., & Mancuso, D. (2013). Reliability measure of a clinical test: Appreciation of music in cochlear implantees (AMCI). Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 24(10), 969–979. 

Chermak, G. (2010). Music and auditory training. The Hearing Journal, 63(4), 57–58.

Chisolm, T. H., Noe, C. M., McArdle, R., & Abrams, H. (2007). Evidence for the use of hearing assistive technology by adults: The role of the FM system. Trends in Amplification, 11(2), 73–89. 

Cleveland Clinic (n.d.). Communicating with people with hearing loss. Retrieved June 24, 2020, from https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/4050-hearing-loss-tips-to...

Cochlear (n.d.). Cochlear wireless mini microphone 2 & 2+. Retrieved July 24, 2020, from https://www.cochlear.com/us/en/professionals/products/cochlear-wireless/...

Cochlear (n.d.). Cochlear wireless phone clip. Retrieved July 24, 2020, from https://www.cochlear.com/us/en/professionals/products/cochlear-wireless/....

Cohen-Mansfield, J., & Taylor, J. W. (2004). Hearing aid use in nursing homes. Part 1: Prevalence rates of hearing impairment and hearing aid use. The Journal of Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine, 5(5), 283–288.

Costa, P.T. & McCrae, R.R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NOE-FFI) manual. Odessa, Florida:  Psychological Assessment Resources. 

Cooper, W. B., Tobey, E., & Loizou, P. C. (2008). Music perception by cochlear implant and normal hearing listeners as measured by the montreal battery for evaluation of amusia. Ear and Hearing, 29(4), 618–626. 

Creech, A., Hallam, S., McQueen, H., & Varvarigou, M. (2013). The power of music in the lives of older adults. Research Studies in Music Education, 35, 87–102. doi:1 0.1177/1321103X13478862

Croghan, N. B. H., Arehart, K. H., & Kates, J. M. (2014). Music Preferences With Hearing Aids: Effects of Signal Properties, Compression Settings, and Listener Characteristics. Ear and Hearing, 35(5), 15. 

Cross, I. (2004). Music, cognition, culture, and evolution. In I. Peretz & R. Zatorre (Eds.), The cognitive neuroscience of music (pp. 42–56). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Dammeyer, J., Marschark, M., & Zettler, I. (2018). Personality traits, self-efficacy, and cochlear implant use among deaf young adults. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 23(4), 351-359.

Davis, A., McMahon, C. M., Pichora-Fuller, K. M., Russ, S., Lin, F., Olusanya, B. O., ... & Tremblay, K. L. (2016). Aging and hearing health: the life-course approach. The Gerontologist, 56(Suppl_2), S256-S267.

Di Stadio, A., Dipietro, L., Ricci, G., Della Volpe, A., Minni, A., Greco, A., ... & Ralli, M. (2018). Hearing loss, tinnitus, hyperacusis, and diplacusis in professional musicians: A systematic review. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(10), 2120.

Dorman, M. F., Gifford, R. H., Spahr, A. J., & McKarns, S. A. (2008). The benefits of combining acoustic and electric stimulation for the recognition of speech, voice, and melodies. Audiology and Neurotology, 13(2), 105–112.

Driscoll, V. (2012). The effects of training on recognition of musical instruments by adults with cochlear implants. Seminars in Hearing, 33(04), 410–418.

Driscoll, V., Oleson, J., Jiang, D., & Gfeller, K. (2009). Effects of training on recognition of musical instruments presented through cochlear implant simulations. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 20, 71–82.

Eastern Kentucky University Health and Safety - Hearing. (n.d.). Retrieved August 04, 2020, from https://music.eku.edu/sites/music.eku.edu/files/ekuhealthandsafety.pdf

Eberts, S. (2019). Understanding the patient in patient-centered care. American Academy of Audiology. https://www.audiology.org/audiology-today-novemberdecember-2019/understanding-patient-patient-centered-care

Eberts, S. (2020). How audiologists can help inspire self-advocacy in patients. Phonak Audiology Blog. https://audiologyblog.phonakpro.com/how-audiologists-can-help-inspire-self-advocacy-in-patients

Ekberg, K., Grenness, C., & Hickson, L. (2016). Application of the transtheoretical model of behaviour change for identifying older clients’ readiness for hearing rehabilitation during history-taking in audiology appointments. International Journal of Audiology, 55(sup3), S42-S51.

El Fata, F., James, C., Laborde, M., & Fraysse, B. (2009). How much residual hearing is ‘useful’ for music perception with cochlear implants? Audiology Neurotology, 14, 14–21.

Etymotic Research. (n.d.). Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Know the Risk. Retrieved August 04, 2020, from https://www.etymotic.com/downloads/dl/file/id/632/product/307/noise_indu...

Ferguson, M. A., Woolley, A., & Munro, K. J. (2016). The impact of self-efficacy, expectations, and readiness on hearing aid outcomes. International Journal of Audiology, 55(sup3), S34-S41.

Fetterman, B., & Domico, E. (2002). Speech recognition in background noise of cochlear implant patients. Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, 126(3), 257–263. doi:10.1067/mhn.2002.123044

Fligor, B. J., & Cox, C. L. (2004). Output level of commercially available portable compact disc players and the potential risk to hearing. Ear and Hearing, 25, 513–527. doi:10.1097/00003446-200412000-00001

Fligor, B. J., & Meinke, D. (2009). Safe-listening myths for personal music players. The ASHA Leader, 14(7), 5-6.

FM Hearing Systems (n.d.). What is a Phonak Roger Pen and how does it work? Retrieved July 24, 2020, from https://www.fmhearingsystems.co.uk/blog/what-is-a-roger-pen-and-how-does....

Fu, Q., & Galvin, J. (2007). Perceptual learning and auditory training in cochlear implant recipients. Trends in Amplification, 11(3), 193.

Fu, Q., Shannon, R. V., & Wang, X. (1998). Effects of noise and spectral resolution on vowel and consonant recognition: Acoustic and electric hearing. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 104, 3586–3596.

Fulford, R., Ginsborg, J., & Goldbart, J. (2011). Learning not to listen: the experiences of musicians with hearing impairments. Music Education Research, 13(4), 447-464.

Fulford, R., J. Ginsborg, & Greasley, A. (2015). “Hearing Aids and Music: The Experiences of D/Deaf Musicians.” Paper presented at the Ninth Triennial Conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music, Manchester, UK, August 17–22.

Fulford, R., Greasley, A., & Crook, H. (2016). Music amplification using hearing aids. Acoustics Bulletin Journal, 41(1), 49-51.

Galvin, J. J., Fu, Q.-J., & Nogaki, G. (2007). Melodic contour identification by cochlear implant listeners. Ear and Hearing, 28(3), 302–319. 

Galvin, J. J., Fu, Q.-J., & Shannon, R. V. (2009). Melodic contour identification and music perception by cochlear implant users. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169(1), 518–533. 

Gfeller, K. (2001). Aural rehabilitation of music perception and enjoyment of adult cochlear implant users. JARA, 17-27.

Gfeller, K. E. (2008). Music: A human phenomenon and therapeutic tool. In W. B. Davis, K. E. Gfeller, & M. H. Thaut (Eds.), An introduction to music therapy theory and practice (3rd ed., pp. 41–75). Silver Spring, MD: American Music Therapy Association.

Gfeller, K. (2012). Music perception of cochlear implant recipients and implications for counseling and (re) habilitation. SIG 6 Perspectives on Hearing and Hearing Disorders: Research and Diagnostics, 16(2), 64-73.

Gfeller, K. (2016). Music as communication and training for children with cochlear implants. In N.M. Young & K. Iler Kirk (Eds.), Pediatric cochlear implantation: Learning and the brain (pp. 313-326). Springer International Publishing.

Gfeller, K. (2016). Music-based training for pediatric CI recipients: A systematic analysis of published studies. European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases, 133, S50-S56.

Gfeller, K. E. (2016). Music therapy for children and adults who are deaf or hard of hearing. In J. Edwards (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of music therapy (pp. 225-248). Oxford University Press.

Gfeller, K. (2016, September). Sound play for preschoolers with cochlear implants. Imagine, 7(1), 68-70.

Gfeller, K. (2014). Musical enjoyment and cochlear implant recipients: Overcoming obstacles and harnessing capabilities. In AG Bell. http://www.listeningandspokenlanguage.org/MusicEnjoymentandCochlearImpla...

Gfeller, K. E., & Knutson, J. F. (2003). Music to the impaired or implanted ear: Psychosocial implications for aural rehabilitation. ASHA Leader, 8(8), 12–15.

Gfeller, K., Witt, S. A., Kim, K. H., Adamek, M., & Coffman, D. (1999). Preliminary report of a computerized music training program for adult cochlear implant recipients. Journal of the Academy of Rehabilitative Audiology, 32, 11-27.

Gfeller, K., Witt, S., Stordahl, J., Mehr, M., & Woodworth, G. (2000). The effects of training on melody recognition and appraisal by adult cochlear implant recipients. Journal of the Academy of Rehabilitative Audiology, 33, 115–138.

Gfeller, K., Christ, A., Knutson, J. F., Witt, S., Murray, K. T., & Tyler, R. S. (2000). Musical backgrounds, listening habits, and aesthetic enjoyment of adult cochlear implant recipients. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 11, 390–406.

Gfeller, K. E., Darrow, A., & Wilhelm, L. A. (2018). Music therapy for persons with sensory loss. In Knight, A. J., LaGasse, A. B., & Clair, A. A. (Eds.), Music therapy: An introduction to the profession (pp. 217-233). American Music Therapy Association.

Gfeller, K., Driscoll, V., Kenworthy, M., & Voorst Van, T. (2011). Music therapy for preschool cochlear implant recipients. Music Therapy Perspectives, 29(1), 39-49.

Gfeller, K., Driscoll, V., & Schwalje, A. (2019). Adult cochlear implant recipients’ perspectives on experiences with music in everyday life: A multifaceted and dynamic phenomenon. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13, 1229. 

Gfeller, K., Guthe, E., Driscoll, V., & Brown, C. J. (2015). A preliminary report of music-based training for adult cochlear implant users: Rationales and development. Cochlear Implants International, 16(sup3), S22-S31.

Gfeller, K., Jiang, D., Oleson, J., Driscoll, V., & Knutson, J. F. (2010). Temporal stability of music perception and appraisal scores of adult cochlear implant recipients. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 21(1), 28–34.

Gfeller, K., Jiang, D., Oleson, J. J., Driscoll, V., Olszewski, C., Knutson, J. F., Turner, C., & Gantz, B. (2012). The effects of musical and linguistic components in recognition of real-world musical excerpts by cochlear implant recipients and normal-hearing adults. Journal of Music Therapy, 49(1), 68–101. 

Gfeller, K., Knutson, J. F., Woodworth, G., Witt, S., & DeBus, B. (1998). Timbral recognition and appraisal by adult cochlear implant users and by normal-hearing adults. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 9(1), 1–19.

Gfeller, K., Mallalieu, R. M., Mansouri, AL., McCormick, G., O’Connell, R. B., Spinowitz, J., & Turner, B. G. (2019). Practices and attitudes that enhance music engagement of adult cochlear implant users. Front. Neurosci, 13, 1-11.

Gfeller, K., Mehr, M., & Witt, S. (2001). Aural rehabilitation of music perception and enjoyment of adult cochlear implant users. Journal of the Academy for Rehabilitative Audiology, 34(17), 27.

Gfeller, K., Oleson, J., Knutson, J. F., Breheny, P., Driscoll, V., & Olszewski, C. (2008). Multivariate predictors of music perception and appraisal by adult cochlear implant users. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 19(2), 120–134.

Gfeller, K., Olszewski, C., Rychener, M., Sena, K., Knutson, J. F., Witt, S., & Macpherson, B. (2005). Recognition of “real-world” musical excerpts by cochlear implant recipients and normal-hearing adults. Ear and Hearing, 26(3), 237–250. 

Gfeller, K., Olszewski, C., Turner, C., Gantz, B., & Oleson, J. (2006). Music perception with cochlear implants and residual hearing. Audiology & Neurotology, 11(Suppl. 1), 12–15.

Gfeller, K., Turner, C., Oleson, J., Kliethermes, S., & Driscoll, V. (2012). Accuracy of cochlear implant recipients on speech reception in background music. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology.

Gfeller, K., Turner, C., Oleson, J., Zhang, X., Gantz, B., Froman, R., & Olszewski, C. (2007). Accuracy of cochlear implant recipients on pitch perception, melody recognition, and speech reception in noise. Ear and Hearing, 28(3), 412-423.

Gfeller, K., Turner, C., Woodworth, G., Mehr, M., Fearn, R., Witt, S., & Stordahl, J. (2002). Recognition of familiar melodies by adult cochlear implant recipients and normal-hearing adults. Cochlear Implants International, 3, 31–55.

Gfeller, K., Veltman, J., Mandara, R., Napoli, M. B., Smith, S., Choi, Y., ... & Nastase, A. (2022). Technological and Rehabilitative Concerns: Perspectives of Cochlear Implant Recipients Who Are Musicians. Trends in Hearing, 26. 

Gfeller, K., Witt, S., Adamek, M., Mehr, M., Rogers, J., Stordahl, J., & Ringgenberg, S. (2002). Effects of training on timbre recognition and appraisal by postlingually deafened cochlear implant recipients. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 13, 132–145.

Gfeller, K., Witt, S. A., Kim, K. H., Adamek, M., & Coffman, D. (1999). Preliminary report of a computerized music training program for adult cochlear implant recipients. Journal of the Academy of Rehabilitative Audiology, 32, 11-27.

Gfeller, K., Witt, S. A., Spencer, L., Stordahl, J., & Tomblin, J. B. (1999). Musical involvement and enjoyment of children using cochlear implants. Volta Review, 100(4), 213–233.

Gfeller, K., Witt, S., Stordahl, J., Mehr, M., & Woodworth, G. (2000). The effects of training on melody recognition and appraisal by adult cochlear implant recipients. Journal of the Academy of Rehabilitative Audiology, 33, 115–138.

Gfeller, K., Witt, S., Woodworth, G., Mehr, M., & Knutson, J. F. (2002). Effects of frequency, instrumental family, and cochlear implant type on timbre recognition and appraisal. Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology, 111, 349–356.

Gfeller, K., Woodworth, G., Witt, S., Robin, D. A., & Knutson, J. F. (1997). Perception of rhythmic and sequential pitch patterns by normally hearing adults and adult cochlear implant users. Ear and Hearing, 18, 252–260.

Gopal, K., Chesky, K., Beschoner, E., Nelson, P., & Stewart, B. (2013). Auditory risk assessment of college music students in jazz band-based instructional activity. Noise and Health, 15(65), 246-252.

Gosselin, N., Peretz, I., Johnsen, E., & Adolphs, R. (2007). Amygdala damage impairs emotion recognition from music. Neuropsychologia, 45(2), 236–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.07.012

Greasley, A., Crook, H., & Fulford, F. (2020). Music listening and hearing aids: perspectives from audiologists and their patients. International Journal of Audiology, DOI: 10.1080/14992027.2020.1762126 

Greasley, A.E., Fulford, R.J., Pickard, M., & Hamilton, N. (2020). Help Musicians UK hearing survey: Musicians’ hearing and hearing protection. Psychology of Music, 48(4), 529-546.

Hagerman, B. (2013). Musicians' ability to judge the risk of acquiring noise induced hearing loss. Noise and Health, 15(64), 199-203. doi:http://dx.doi.org.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/10.4103/1463-1741.112376

Hamidi Pouyandeh M., & Hoseinabadi R. (2019). Factors Influencing the Hearing Aids Use and Satisfaction: A Review Study. Journal of Modern Rehabilitation 13(3), 137-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.32598/JMR.13.3.137 

Healthy Hearing (2020). FM systems for people with hearing loss. Retrieved August 17, 2020, from https://www.healthyhearing.com/help/assistive-listening-devices/fm-systems

Healthy Hearing. (2013, October 09). Which musicians are at high risk for hearing loss? Retrieved August 05, 2020, from https://www.healthyhearing.com/report/51549-Which-musicians-are-most-at-...

Hearing Link (n.d.). What is a hearing loop? Retrieved July 24, 2020, from https://www.hearinglink.org/living/loops-equipment/hearing-loops/what-is...

Hearing Loss Association of America (HLAA) (n.d.-a). Captioning and CART. Retrieved August 7, 2020, from https://www.hearingloss.org/hearing-help/technology/cartcaptioning/

Hearing Loss Association of America (HLAA) (n.d.-b). Hearing loop technology. Retrieved July 24, 2020, from https://www.hearingloss.org/hearing-help/technology/hat/hearing-loop-tec...

Herholz, S. C., & Zatorre, R. J. (2012). Musical training as a framework for brain plasticity: behavior, function, and structure. Neuron, 76(3), 486-502.

Hodges, D. (2009). Brains and Music, Whales and Apes, Hearing and Learning . . . and More. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 27(2), 62-75.

Holland, G. (2017). Hearing Aids and Music. Hearing Aids For Music Conference (University of Leeds).

Hoover, A., & Krishnamurti, S. (2010). Survey of college students’ MP3 listening: Habits, safety issues, attitudes, and education. American Journal of Audiology, 19(1), 73–83. doi:10.1044/1059-0889(2010/08-0036)

Hsiao, F. L., & Gfeller, K. (2011). How we do it: Adaptation of music instruction for pediatric cochlear implant recipients. Cochlear Implants International, 12(4), 205-208.

Hsiao, F., & Gfeller, K. (2012). Music perception of cochlear implant recipients with implications for music instruction: A review of literature. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 30, 5–10.

Huron, D. (2004). Is music and evolutionary adaptation? In I. Peretz & R. Zatorre (Eds.), The cognitive neuroscience of music (pp. 57–78). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Hussain, T., Chou, C., Zettner, E., Torre, P., Hans, S., Gauer, J., . . . Nguyen, Q. (2018). Early Indication of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Young Adult Users of Personal Listening Devices. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology, 127(10), 703-709. 

Hutter, E., Argstatter, H., Grapp, M., & Plinkert, P. K. (2015). Music therapy as specific and complementary training for adults after cochlear implantation: A pilot study. Cochlear implants international, 16(sup3), S13-S21.

Ingvalson, E. M., & Wong, P. (2013). Training to improve language outcomes in cochlear implant recipients. Frontiers in psychology, 4, 263.

Jayakody, D. M., Looi, V., Lin, E., & Robb, M. (2012, November). The development of a pitch training program for adult cochlear implant and hearing aid users. In Seminars in Hearing (Vol. 33, No. 04, pp. 381-398). Thieme Medical Publishers.

Juslin, P. N., & Vastfjall, D. (2008). Emotional responses to music: The need to consider underlying mechanisms. Behavioral and brain sciences, 31(5), 559.

Kahari, K.R., Zachau, G., Eklof, M., et al. (2003). Assessment of hearing and hearing disorders in rock/jazz musicians. International Journal of Audiology, 42, 279-288.

Kaland, M., & Salvatore, K. (2002). The psychology of hearing loss. The ASHA leader, 7(5), 4-15. https://doi.org/10.1044/leader.FTR1.07052002.4

Kang, R., Nimmons, G. L., Drennan, W., Longnion, J., Ruffin, C., Nie, K., Won, J. H., Worman, T., Yueh, B., & Rubinstein, J. (2009). Development and validation of the university of washington clinical assessment of music perception test. Ear and Hearing, 30(4), 411–418. 

Kim, J. S., & Kim, C. H. (2014). A review of assistive listening device and digital wireless technology for hearing instruments. Korean Journal of Audiology, 18(3), 105.

Kong, Y., Cruz, R., Jones, J. A., & Zeng, F. (2004). Music perception with temporal cues in acoustic and electric hearing. Ear and Hearing, 25(2), 173–185.

Kong, Y. Y., Stickney, G. S., & Zeng, F. G. (2005). Speech and melody recognition in binaurally combined acoustic and electric hearing. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 117(Pt. 1), 1351–1361.

Kraus, N., & Skoe, E. (2009). New directions: Cochlear implants. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169(1), 516–517. 

Kraus, N., Skoe, E., Parbery-Clark, A., & Ashley, R. (2009). Experience-induced malleability in neural encoding of pitch, timbre, and timing. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169, 543–557.

Kübler-Ross, E., & Kessler, D. (2005). On grief and grieving: Finding the meaning of grief through the five stages of loss. Simon and Schuster.

Kujawa, S. G., & Liberman, M. C. (2009). Adding insult to injury: Cochlear nerve degeneration after "temporary" noise-induced hearing loss. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29(45), 14077–14085. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2845-09.2009

Laukka, P. (2007). Uses of music and psychological well-being among the elderly. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8(2), 215-241.

Laplante-Lévesque, A., Hickson, L., & Worrall, L. (2013). Stages of change in adults with acquired hearing impairment seeking help for the first time: Application of the transtheoretical model in audiologic rehabilitation. Ear and Hearing, 34(4), 447-457.

Leal, M. C., Shin, Y. J., Laborde, M. L., Calmels, M. N., Verges, S., Lugardon, S., . . . Fraysse, B. (2003). Music perception in adult cochlear implant recipients. Acta Otolaryngologica, 123(7), 826–835.

Leek, M.R., Molis, M.R., Kubli, L.R., & Tufts, J.B. (2008). Enjoyment of music by elderly hearing-impaired listeners. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology 19(6), 519–526. doi:10.3766/jaaa.19.6.7.

Levey, S., Levey, T., & Fligor, B. J. (2011). Noise exposure estimates of urban MP3 player users. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 54(1), 263–277. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2010/09-0283)

Li, X., Rong, X., Wang, Z., & Lin, A. (2020). Association between smoking and noise-induced hearing loss: A meta-analysis of observational studies. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(4), 1201. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041201

Liberman, M.C., & Kujawa, S.G. (2017). Cochlear synaptopathy in acquired sensorineural hearing loss: Manifestations and mechanisms. Hearing Research, 349, 138-147.

Limb, C. J., & Roy, A. T. (2014). Technological, biological, and acoustical constraints to music perception in cochlear implant users. Hearing Research, 308, 13-26.

Looi, V. (2008). The effect of cochlear implantation on music perception: A review. Otorinolaryingology, 58, 169–190.

Looi, V., Gfeller, K, & Driscoll, (2012). Music appreciation and training for cochlear implant recipients: A review. Seminars in Hearing, 33(4), 307-334.   

Looi, V., & She, J. (2010). Music perception of cochlear implant users: A questionnaire, and its implications for a music training program. International Journal of Audiology, 49, 116–128.

Looi, V., Winter, P., Anderson, I., & Sucher, C. (2011). A music quality rating test battery for cochlear implant users to compare the FSP and HDCIS strategies for music appreciation. International Journal of Audiology, 50(8), 503–518. 

Looi, V., Wong, Y., & Loo, J. H. (2016). The effects of training on music perception and appreciation for cochlear implant recipients. Advances in Otolaryngology, 2016.

Loyola Marymount University - School of Film & Television. (n.d.). Perceptual attributes of acoustic waves: Pitch. Retrieved November 12, 2020, from http://acousticslab.org/RECA220/PMFiles/Module05.htm

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