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Music Training Examples for Improving Music Perception: Information for Audiologists

last modified on: Wed, 01/12/2022 - 20:35

See also: Articles on Music, Hearing Loss, and Hearing Devices Pages for audiologists


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  • People with hearing loss can differ in many ways.  

  • ​Some information may be more applicable.

  • Pick and choose the information most useful for you.


Music Training Examples for Improving Music Perception:

Information for Audiologists

Music Trainingmusical notes on a music sheetComputer-based Training

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Q: What are the examples of music-based training for adult CI recipients?

A: Different music-based training exercises are available for CI recipients. Because CI recipients perform similarly to normal hearing individuals on rhythm perception tasks, many music-based trainings focus on training pitch, melody, and timbre

Jump to the different kinds of tests:

  1. Pitch

  2. Melody

  3. Timbre



  • Pitch discrimination: requires attending to two (or three) tones, identifying the direction of the pitch change (up or down) (Jayakody et al., 2012).

    • Ascending in pitch: 

    • Descending in pitch: 

  • Odd-one-out: requires attending to a set of three pitches and identifying notes with a different pitch from the set. 

    • Examples of OOO: ​




  • Melodic contour identification: requires attending to five tones, identifying the contour (i.e., direction) of five notes as flat, rising, falling, flat-rising, flat-falling, rising-flat, falling-flat, or rising-flat (Galvin et al., 2007; 2009; Gfeller et al., 2000).

    • The perception of directional and interval pitch changes is crucial to the comprehension of a melody. 

    • "Falling" example:   

    • "Falling-Rising" example: 

  • Familiar melody recognition: requires attending to familiar melodies such as "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star" or "The Star-Spangled Banner," identifying if any notes are altered (Gfeller et al., 2002; Olszewski et al., 2005).

    • Perception of rhythm, lyrics, timbre, genre, or musical style must also be considered (Looi et al., 2012)

    • Prior listening experience and the use of contextual cues are important considerations for FMR (Looi et al., 2012)

    • "Happy Birthday" with pitch changes:  

  • Familiar melody recognition with and without rhythmic cues: requires attending to familiar songs with and without rhythmic cues and identifying the correct title of the song (Kong et al., 2004).

    • "Baa Baa Black Sheep" with rhythmic changes:

    • "Wedding March" with rhythmic changes: 





  • Timbre discrimination: requires attending to tones or melodies played by different musical instruments, identifying timbres (e.g., piano versus organ; violin versus flute)

    • Piano: 

    • ​Violin: 

    • Bb trumpet: 


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